Culinary

Culinary means “related to cooking“, are the arts of food preparation, cooking, and presentation of food, usually in the form of meals. People working in this field – especially in establishments such as restaurants – are commonly called “chefs” or “Cooks”, although, at its most general, the terms “culinary artist” and “culinarian” are also used. Table manners (“the table arts”) are sometimes referred to as culinary art.

fat foods, pastries, cheeses

Expert chefs are required to have knowledge of food science, nutrition, and diet and are responsible for preparing meals that are as pleasing to the eye as they are to the palate. After restaurants, their primary places of work include delicatessens and relatively large institutions such as hotels and hospitals.

Different cuts of fish

Fish come in all sorts of shapes and sizes. Because of this (delicious) diversity, it can, at times, be difficult to understand what part of a fish you should be using in different recipes or even which cut to pick up on your next grocery trip. Luckily, there are a number of common cuts of fish—no matter if you’re eating Tilapia, salmon or tuna—so once you’ve found your favorites, you should have no problem identifying them across the board.

Like beef or pork, there are many different cuts of fish. Some of these cuts go under different names or are specific to a certain species of fish. Because of this, it can be difficult to know which cuts of fish you should look for when eating in a restaurant or preparing a new seafood recipe at home. Here are the 6 most common cuts of fish with some tips on how prepare each.

Fillet

A fillet is the meat cut from the sides of the fish. There are three types of fillets: whole, v-cut and j-cut with the latter two being the most popular. With both cuts, the pin bone is removed. In a j-cut, the nape – a small, thin, fatty piece of meat on the lower side of the fillet – has also been removed. Fillets from larger fish can be cut further into portions. The parts of the fillet that are left over are called pieces or “off-cuts,” which are just as good as the loins, but slightly less uniform. Fillets are extremely versatile cuts that can be seasoned, marinated, baked, fried and sautéed, and depending on the species, can be found skin-on and skin-off.

Butterfly Fillet

This cut is achieved by removing the head and inside of the fish, including the rib bones. Essentially all that will be left are the fillets attached to the skin. When opened and placed flat, the two fillets will still be attached in the center and will take the shape of a butterfly with its wings spread. Recipes normally require you to pan-fry or bake this sort of cut whole in order to lock in moisture and flavor.

Commonly used for small freshwater fish, a butterfly fillet is essentially two fillets attached by skin that when spread out, take on the shape of a butterfly. This cut is ideal for pan frying or baking.

Loins

Located above the spine, loins are the prime cut of a fish. This thick, flavorful cut is best grilled, but can also be breaded, baked or sautéed for a delicious meal. Tilapia loins are the thickest part of the fillet and come in narrow strips that are rich in flavour and pack a punch if prepared just right. Season loins well and cook them to your desired texture, much like you would a steak.

There are two types of loins – “natural” fillet loins from small and medium-sized fish and “cut” loins taken lengthwise across the backs of large fish like tuna, swordfish and shark. Whether “natural” or “cut”, loins are prime cuts of thick and flavorful meat without the waste of skin or bones. Loins can be sold whole or cut into large pieces such as medallions, and are great grilled, baked, or sautéed.

 

 

Steaks

A fish steak,is a cut of fish which is cut perpendicular to the spine and may include the bones. Fish steaks are generally made from fish larger than 10 lbs so larger fish, such as tuna, swordfish,salmon, cod and mahi-mahi, are often cut into steaks.

Fish steaks can be grilled, pan-fried, broiled or baked.

Tail 

The backend of a large fish closest to the tail is normally cut and sold separately. This portion is large enough to serve several individuals and is best seasoned and roasted. The cut is bone-in, and while it’s not the most common cut around, it’s still very flavourful and is certain to please a crowd at a dinner party.

Whole Fish

While the whole fish may not exactly be a cut, it’s still quite a common way to cook a fish. Some cooks like to keep everything intact when they are working with the whole fish, while others prefer to gut it. To make things a little easier (unless you’re feeling especially brave), we recommend the latter. Regal Springs offers gutted, frozen whole fish that are delicious whether grilled, roasted or baked allowing you to whip up some very unique Tilapia dishes. Using the whole fish allows you to season or stuff your favorite variety, depending on how creative you want to get.

Cooking of fish

Fish is an excellent protein to serve because there are many ways that you can cook it, but not all methods of cooking will work for every type of fish. For example, some types of fish are too thick to cook under a broiler, and some types of fish are too delicate to deep fry. Here, we’ll break down different things to consider when deciding how to cook a fish, and we’ll show you the ideal of fish to use for each cooking method.

General prepreparation of fish before the actual cooking. 

  • Marinade the fish with salt ,lime juice and water for at least 20 minutes for reducing the strong smell of the fish..This is known as first marrination.
  • Wash the fish thoroughly under running water ,drain well and keep them dry.
  • Make the final marrination liqueur with salt.pepper powder,Dijon mustard,white oil,white wine or white viniger and marinade the fish for another 20 minutes.
  • Now process the fish as per the instructions given in the recipe.

Boiling 

This method is suitable for whole fish such as salmon, turbot, trout and certain cuts of the fish on the bone such as salmon, cod, turbot, halibut, brill etc. In either case the fish should be completely immersed in the cooking liquid that can be water, water and milk, fish stock (for white fish) or a court bouillon for oily fish. 

Whole fish are covered with a cold liquid and brought to boil; cut fish are usually placed in a simmering liquid. 

 

Poaching 

This gentle cooking method is perfect for all kinds of seafood. Poaching keeps fish moist and won’t mask the delicate flavor of the fish. To poach fish, use vegetable or chicken stock, or make a court-bouillon, a homemade broth of aromatic herbs and spices.

  • Use a pan big enough to lay each piece of fish down flat.
  • Pour in enough liquid to just barely cover the fish.
  • Bring the liquid to a simmer, and keep it there.
  • If you see any bubbles coming up from the bottom of the pan, it’s too hot–the liquid should “shimmer” rather than bubble. The ideal poaching temperature is between 165 and 180 degrees F (74 to 82 degrees C). Gently simmer until the fish flakes easily with a fork.

Steaming 

Steaming is another gentle cooking method. It produces a mild-tasting fish that is often paired with a flavorful sauce.

  • Rub the fish with spices, chopped herbs, ginger, garlic, and chile peppers to infuse flavor while it cooks.
  • Use a bamboo steamer or a folding steamer basket with enough room for each piece of fish to lie flat.
  • Pour about 1½ inches of water into the pan.
  • Place the steamer over the water, cover the pot, and bring the water to a boil.
  • Begin checking the fish for doneness after 10 minutes.

Grilling

When you’re grilling fish, keep a close watch. Fish only takes a few minutes per side to cook. If the fillets are an even thickness, sometimes they don’t even require flipping–they can be cooked through by grilling on one side only.

  • Brush the fish lightly with oil or spray with nonstick cooking spray.
  • Place fish near the edge of the grill, away from the hottest part of the fire. (Don’t try to lift up the fish right away; it will be stuck to the grill).
  • Start checking for color and doneness after a few minutes, once the fish starts to release some of its juices.
  • Flip the fish over when you see light grill marks forming.
 
 

Shallow frying 

This method is suitable for small whole fish, cuts and fillets. The fish is passed through seasoned flour, shallow fried on bit sides, and presentation side first in clarified fat in a frying pan. When the fish is placed on a serving dish or plate and is masked with nutbrown butter, lemon juice, slice of lemon and chopped parsley it is termed as meuniere. 

Deep frying 

Fish 1/2-inch thick is ideal for this method. Monitor oil temperature with a candy thermometer to ensure proper cooking: If oil is too cool during cooking, food will become soggy and greasy;  if oil is too hot, food will become too dark or burned on the outside before the inside reaches the proper temperature.

  • Heat enough vegetable or canola oil to 350 to 375°F to allow the fish to float once it’s done.
  • Cut thicker fish into smaller chunks so fish will cook in the time it takes to brown.
  • Sprinkle fillets lightly with flour. Dip in beaten egg. Coat with your favorite breading.
  • Cook 3 to 5 minutes until lightly browned.
  • Make sure pieces do not touch while frying. This could create steam, which causes a “soggy” coating.
  • Drain on paper towel before serving.

Baking 

Baking fish allows you to get the satisfying crunch of fried fish without all the fat. Just because it’s baked, though, doesn’t mean it’s healthy: watch the amount of butter, oil, mayonnaise, or cheese called for in the recipe.

Many fish, whole, portioned or filleted may be baked in a oven. In order to retain the maximum moisture it is necessary to protect the fish from direct heat. 

  • Whole fish
  • Completely cover in a thick coating of sea salt and bake.
  • Wrap in pastry and bake
  • Stuff with a duxelle based mixture of breadcrumbs, herbs, chopped onion, shallots or garlic.
  • Portions of fish
  • Place in a buttered or oiled dish and bake slowly, basting frequently. In all case a suitable sauce can be offered with the fish.
 

Roasting 

Thick cuts of firm fish such as salmon, turbot, monkfish are suitable for roasting. The fish is usually portioned, lightly covered with oil and roasted in an oven in the usual way. Finely sliced vegetables and springs of herbs can be put in the roasting tray and the fish when cooked can be removed from the tray and the pan deglazed with a suitable wine to form the base for an accompanying sauce. 

Smoking 

It is the process thought to have developed from the age old method of preserving fish by wind- drying.Anxious to hasten a process entirely at the mercy of the elements  , prehistoric man may have hung fish on poles over wood smoke or peat smoke , thus speeding up the dehydration process and preserving fish. 

There are two ways of smoking fish and each one produces a completely different result.’Hot smoking’ produces cooked  , ready to eat fish.’cold smoking’ takes place at a much lower temperature and it produces a smoky tasting fish which usually needs to be cooked before it is eaten. 

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Fish & Shellfish

Fish & Shellfish is readily available relatively cheap source of food which is high in proteins, vitamins and minerals. Its extremely  perishable, so  it must be cooked as quickly as possible after being caught and must be kept cold until it is cooked .There are hundred of species of fish & shellfish,  sea fish from the ocean and fresh water fish from lakes, rivers and streams.  

While much of the fish & shellfish consumed is still wild caught, there is distress in fish populations around the globe. It was once thought that the oceans were an inexhaustible source of fish and seafood but today we know that many fish species once in abundance like cod, herring, swordfish, sole, and tuna are in danger of being depleted to extinction. Increasing consumer demand and sophisticated fishing techniques have taken their toll on fish populations and the environment. Fish farming has helped alleviate some over-fishing, but has created environmental pollution problems from intensive farming techniques, and additional negative effects to wild fish because the meal fed to farm-raised fish is often derived wild sources. It will take a concerted global effort to devise ways to harvest fish in ecological and sustainable ways to preserve fish stocks for future generations.

FARMING TECHNIQUES

Aquaculture, mariculture, and aquaponics are names used for a variety of farming techniques for fish, seafood, and marine produce. The techniques are used for freshwater and salt water fish and are employed in above ground tanks, ocean pens, and in open waters. Fish farming produces a steady supply of fish that are raised in a carefully controlled environment   to uniform size and formation, much like breeding poultry or cattle. Farmed fish can be quickly processed and delivered fresh to market in a short time. They can also relieve the pressure on endangered fish species caused by over fishing.

 

Classification Of Fish
fish classification
click to enlarge
Whitefish

Whitefish is generally a mild-flavored, often slightly sweet fish, which can be interchangeable in recipes. These include wild Alaska pollock, bass, cod, grouper, haddock, and halibut. These are great for pan-frying, pan-searing, using soups and chowders, and baking. There are also some thinner fillets of white fish, which can be used in these recipes but keep in mind they cook much faster, including flounder, perch, plaice, and sole. 

john dory white fish
John Dory White Fish

Round fish:

These are the fish that have eyes on both sides of their body. They are found swimming near the surface of the water. E.g. cod, hake, haddock, whiting, eel, mackerel, salmon, trout. 

red mullet round fish
Red Mullet Round Fish

Flat fish:

These are the fish, which have eyes on the same side of their body. They are found at great depths at the bottom of the sea. E.g. Halibut, lemon sole, plaice, sole, turbot.

halibut flat fish
Halibut Flat Fish

Oily fish

Oily fish are those fish which have oils throughout the fillet and in the belly cavity around the gut, rather than only in the liver like white fish.

Oily fish generally swim in mid-waters or near the surface (the pelagic zone). Oily fish are a good source of Vitamins A and D as well as being rich in Omega 3 fatty acids.

For this reason the consumption of oily fish has been identified as more beneficial to humans than white fish. Amongst other benefits, studies suggest that the Omega 3 fatty acids in oily fish may help sufferers of depression, reduce the likelihood of heart disease and improve inflammatory conditions such as arthritis.

However, oily fish are predators, high up in the food chain, and thus more likely to contain toxic substances than white fish.

OILY-FISH
Oily Fish

Shellfish

Shellfish is a colloquial and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms. Although most kinds of shellfish are harvested from saltwater environments, some are found in freshwater.

SHELLFISH
Shellfish

Crustaceans

Crustaceans are cladocerans if they have 4–6 pairs of (thoracic) legs, lack any paired eyes, swim with their second pair of antennae, and have at least the head not covered by a carapace. Crustaceans are some of the most important marine life to humans—crabs, lobsters, and shrimp are widely fished and consumed around the world.

Crustaceans
Crustaceans

Mollusca

The molluscs (soft bodied animals) belong to the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which
includes a variety of familiar animals well-known as decorative shells or as seafood. These
range from tiny snails, clams, and abalone to larger organisms such as squid, cuttlefish and
the octopus.

Mollusca
Mollusca

Gastropoda

Gastropoda is the largest molluscan class with about 35,000 extant species.
The gastropods are torted asymmetrical molluscs and usually possess a coiled shell. The
soft body normally consists of head, foot, visceral mass and the mantle.

The shell in this subclass is typically coiled with an opening
at the ventral end known as aperture. The aperture is covered by operculum which closes
the opening of the shell.

Gastropoda
Gastropoda

Bivalvia

There are about 10,000 living bivalve species. The bivalve as the name implies, possesses two valves (shells) lying on the right and left sides of the body. Bilateral symmetry is a characteristic feature. The shell is mostly composed of calcium carbonate. Umbo is the first formed part of the valve and is above the hinge. The soft body of the bivalve is covered by the mantle comprising two lobes. The foot is muscular and is ventral.

Bivalvia
Bivalvia

Cephalopoda

Cephalopods are purely marine in habit, and there are about 600 living species. They are considered as the fastest marine invertebrates. Head is highly developed. The cuttlefishes come under the order Sepioidea and are characterised by the presence of a shell (chitinous or calcareous), 10 circum oral appendages and the tentacles are retractile into pockets. Suckers have chitinous rings. Posterior fin lobes are free and not connected at midline. The cuttlebone is internal and located dorsally underneath the skin.

Cephalopoda
Cephalopoda

Spoilage Of Fish  Reasons And Signs:   

  • Main bacterial spoilage is due to micrococcus, pseudomonas, corney bacteria, bacilli, achromo and flavo bactor. 
  • These bacteria grow at higher pH i.e. more than 7; around a temperature of 15-20 deg. C.
  • Parasitic infections also cause early spoilage.
  • The bacterial growth can be eliminated by proper control of pH and temperature. Spoilage also occurs in the fish when lactic acid content in the fish gets reduced due to struggle and stress before death. TMA (trimethilamin) oxide is an important compound of marine fish. After death of the fish this compound is broken down due to oxidation and causes bad smell. 

The other reasons for the spoilage are as follows: 

  • Enzymes in dead fish because of microbes and chemicals bring about changes. Faulty method of catching and handling Personal hygiene. 

Signs of spoilage  

  •   Such fish is liable to float in the water.
  • Eyes are seen shrunken and collapsed.
  • The gills are either gray or brown in color.

  • Emit unpleasant and offensive odor.

  • Scales are soft and easily rubbed off.

  • Flesh is slimy and pits on pressure.

  • Flesh is detached easily from bone structure. Unpleasant and offensive smell from abdominal cavity. 

  • A pink color line along the back bone is the sign of decomposition.

Assessment Of Period Of Freshness Of Fish  

  • Fish is fresh when the eyes are bright and bulging with red gills.
  • In case the eyes are sunk to the level of eye brim, it may be considered 24 to 48 hours old.
  • In case the eyes are sunk deep inside, it may be considered 48 hours or beyond.

Selection and judgment of fish   

 Fresh fish is ideal to procure. it depends upon the location, weather condition, high standards of hygienically maintained shops with proper infrastructure, and temperature control.  

Following is the receiving standards for the receiving of the fish 

In case of fish purchased whole: 

  • Eyes: Should be bright, full, and not sunken, no slime or cloudiness.
  • Gills: Should be bright red, no bacterial slime.
  • Flesh: Should be firm, translucent, and resilient so that when pressed the impression goes quickly. It should not be limp ¾ Scales: Should be flat, moist, and plentiful. 
  • Skin: Should be covered with fresh sea slime, be smooth and moist with sheen and no abrasions or bruising, and no discoloration.
  • Smell: Pleasant, no ammonia or sourness
  • Small fish when held horizontally on the palm, does not drop at the tail and remain rigid.

Purchasing points of prawns and lobster:

  • Purchase alive with both claws attached to ensure freshness ¾ They should be heavy in proportion to their size.
  • The coral of the hen lobster is necessary to give the required color for the soups and sauces.
  • Hen lobsters are distinguished from hen lobsters by a broader tail.

Purchasing points of crab:

  • Buy alive to ensure freshness
  • Ensure that both claws are attached
  • They should be heavy about their size

Purchasing points of mussels:

  • The shells must be tightly closed to indicate that they are alive
  • Mussels should be of good size
  • There should not be an excessive number of barnacles attached
  • Mussels should smell fresh

Structure of the meat  

All the fishes consist of nearly 75% of moisture and also the aluminous (egg whites) consistency varies little from fish to fish (18%).  In the consistency of fat the variation is much wider; about 26% for the conger- eel family; 12% for salmon and salmon –trout; 9% for trout; 8.2% for shad and 6% for herring. 

Fish flesh does not vary much from that of the land animals. Where the fish are at an advantage is in the contents of the phosphorated compounds and in the fact that fish especially the leaner ones, are much more easily digestible and so represent an excellent food for the sedentary and the sick. 

Fish lack the connective tissue like land animals as they have no limbs and so the meat is lighter and flakier. Medium-size fish are better than large fish, which may be coarse, small fish often lack flavor. 

Fish is a useful source of animal protein as meat. Oily fish such as sardines, mackerels, herrings, and salmon contain Vitamin A and Vitamin D in their flesh, white fish such as halibut and cod, these vitamins are present in the liver. 

The bones of sardines, whitebait, and tinned salmon when eaten provide the body with calcium and phosphorus. Fish is also a good source of magnesium, copper, iron, and iodine. Since all fish contain protein, it is good body-building food and oily fish is useful for energy and as a protective food because of its vitamins. 

Owing to its fat content oily fish are not so easily digestible as white fish and is not suitable for cooking for invalids 

FISH STORAGE

Store fresh fish covered with ice at 29-32°F /-2 0°C, in a self-draining perforated pan and replenish the ice as needed. Keeping the fish iced will provide a constant rinsing action that minimizes odors and maximizes shelf life up to a week. Fresh fish should always be gutted before storing and will have a longer shelf life if kept whole. Wrap fillets in plastic wrap to prevent the ice crystals from tearing the flesh of the fish. Fresh fish is best consumed within 2-3 days from delivery but whole fish can be held longer, from 1-2 weeks depending on the species and freshness and the holding method. Frozen fish should be thawed slowly under refrigeration or cold running water.

  • It is most important to maintain freshness and prevent staleness in the fish. In deep-sea fishing operations, the aim is to catch the maximum catch of edible fish in ideal conditions. 
  • Fish should not be subjected to more stress and stress after the catch.  
  • Freshness depends upon temperature control, weather control, and the quantum of fish. Immediately freezing at – 10 C is advisable while moving the seafood from deep-sea location to coast. 
  • It is advisable to store fish at temperatures ranging from –23 to –29 deg. C to conserve enzymes from destruction or keep fishes alive in tanks.  
  • While receiving fish it should be checked whether the fish is being marketed below 3 deg C or not.  
  • Fishes like tuna are stored at a temperature more than – 20 deg C 
  • Shellfish is normally stored in tanks alive after the catch, and then it is subjected to processing. 
  • Subjecting to a temperature less than – 3deg C can enhance the shelf life of certain fish It can be stored for more than three to six months. It is the case with shellfishes also.  

Preservation  

Fresh fish (caught less than 4 hours beforehand): The whole fish should be gut, scaled, then washed, dried with absorbent paper, wrap in foil or plastic film and freeze in a tray. 

Fish Slices: Freeze raw on a tray. 

Small fish: Gut, dry and freeze raw in a tray. 

All fish and shellfish should be stored on sealed plastic bags, preferably vacuum-packed. All frozen fish should be thawed in a refrigerator for several hours before use. Do not thaw in water as it tends to damage the structure of the fish and does not taste as good. The cooking tie for thawed fish will be a little longer than fresh fish. Once frozen fish has been thawed it should not be in any conditions be refrozen as this could prove as a major health hazard. 

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Beef

Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle. Humans have been eating beef since prehistoric times. Beef is a source of protein and nutrients Cattle are reared in the following ways:

  • Lot Fed.
  • Grass-Fed.
  • Grain-Fed.

Lot Fed: For a minimum of 100 days the animal is fed on corn, grass and millet and allow to move in a very limited area. Fat content in these cows are very high and they are the costliest too because of intense farming required.

Grass-Fed: In this method of farming the cows are allowed to move in a slightly larger area and are fed with only grass for 70 days.

Grain-Fed: The best quality beef is obtained from this kind of farming, where in the animals are allowed to move in a much larger area and hence there is a lot of marbling but not too much of it. The animal is fed only with grain and a little grass for 100 days. This is costlier than grass fed cows.

Grass fed

Grain Fed

Lot Fed

Quality determination of Beef.

When choosing Beef, the following points are to be borne in mind:

  1. It should bright red and shiny in appearance.
  2. Firm and springy to touch with a sweet light scent.
  3. It has a good network of white or slightly yellowish fat.
  4. In order to be tender, the beef must be matured after slaughtering.
  5. The meat should look fresh and moist, not watery.
  6. The lean or prime cuts should look smooth and velvety.

Composition of Beef

    Water

65% (maximum)

    Proteins

20%

    Fat 

31%

With some traces of phosphorus and iron. Beef produces 220-340 cal. from every 100 grms.

CUTS OF BEEF

A cattle is broken down into what are called primal cuts, the main areas of the animal which include the loin, rib, round, flank, chuck, sirloin, brisket, and more.

These primal cuts are then broken down into sub-primal cuts, including specific steaks and chops: flank steak, flat iron steak, filet mignon, rib eye. 

As you’ll see below, there are many different cuts of beef to learn. 

Loin, short loin, strip loin cuts

These are usually leaner cuts of beef, best grilled or fried, and work better with high heat. It’s the T-Bone and Porterhouse Steaks, the Tenderloins, cuts of meat that respond better to dry heat cooking. For a primordial recipe where nothing gets in the way of the flavour of the meat, learn how to cook beef tenderloin on a bed of salt in a searing hot pan.

Sirloin cuts

Filet mignon, bavette, tri-tips, strip steak and roasts – coming from the rear of the animal, these are also leaner cuts, and certainly not the best beef choice if you want to slow cook. The sirloin family is best for grilling, skillet and stir-fry, with high, dry heats. Follow Gordon Ramsay’s stovetop fillet mignon recipe to bite into a luscious steak enhanced by the fragrances of rosemary and thyme.

Rib cuts

Ribeye filet, ribeye cap, ribeye steak. These cuts are getting fattier, meaning some of them are better for slow cooking and roasting. Not all the cuts in the rib family work well with slow cooking methods: ribeye steak, for example, will always kick better grilled or fried in a skillet.

Chuck cuts

Blade, chuck eye, country-style ribs, this is where the slow goodness starts to come to play with some good cuts for pot roasts. Don’t get us wrong, you’ll also find lots of chuck cuts are good for grilling: top blade, ranch steak, shoulder steak. If you only understand one section, chuck is the one as there’s a cut for every style of cooking. 

Brisket cuts

You can’t really go wrong with brisket, whether you choose flat or point cut – they both want to be slow cooked. For us, brisket point works better than brisket flat, the flat cut is a bit leaner. Just be careful when slow cooking brisket, it’s a forgiving cut but the margin between delicious juicy and chewy dry is small.

Round cuts

Coming from the back legs of the cow, this is a part of the animal that usually provides leaner cuts of beef so you need to know your business at this end. Top, bottom and eye round will go well at high heats, the bottom, rump and eye roast are best for slow cooking and, you guessed it, oven roasted. 

Plate & flank cuts

Skirt, flank, short ribs: only the short ribs should be slow-cooked over here, the flank and skirt steak will do you best grilled or fried. There are endless rich variations on braised ribs, where this cut is immersed in a bath of rich flavours like red wine, beer, garlic, or tomato until the meat is falling off the bone.

Other cuts

Beef cuts come in all shapes, sizes, textures and tastes. ‘Other’ covers anything that doesn’t fall into the rest of the main families. You have stewing steak, burgers, corned beef, minced and ground beef in this category. Shanks, which come from the legs of the cow, are probably one of the most interesting beef cuts and perfect for slow cooking.

One of our favourite cuts of cow is the cheeks. Beef cheeks are an often overlooked piece of meat that many top chefs use in their restaurants. One of the most forgiving cuts when cooked slowly and a simple piece of meat that will change your pot roast game for the better. The recipe below shows you how. 

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Raising and Leavening Agent

Leavening or raising means to increase the surface area of any dough or batter by creating gas bubbles inside the dough or batter. This also makes a product light in weight. The expansion of gas bubbles during baking increase the volume of the product and gives a desirable porous structure. Raising agents that are used in kitchen can classified into following categories:

  • Biological (yeast)
  • Chemical (baking powder, baking soda, baking ammonia)
  • Mechanical (beating, whisking, creaming, sieving)
  • Lamination
  • Combination of all

Biological Raising Agent

Biological leavening agents are the ones that involve the use of some harmless micro-organisms in the process of leavening. Yeast or Saccharomyces Cerevisiae species is one such agent which produces carbon dioxide when added into food. 

It refers to the various yeast strains used in baking bread and other bakery products. The primary function of yeast is to convert fermentable sugars present in the dough into carbon dioxide and ethanol. Baker’s Yeast is activated by adding it to a warm sugar water solution. The water must be warm & not too hot (which could kill the yeast) or too cold (which would not help in activating the deactivated yeast) Yeast growth can be slowed down or stopped using salt or some fats.

Yeast can of two types:

  • Fresh or compressed yeast
  • Dry yeast The scientific name of yeast is Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Yeast is unicellular microscopic fungi.

The structure of yeast consist of:

  • Cell wall
  • Protoplasm
  • Vacoale

Food: Simple sugar like dextrose or fructose.

Suitable climate: 80 to 85 degrees F, at least 70% humidity can give the best result.

Fermentation activity: the protoplasm of yeast contains the following enzymes:

  • Invertase: it converts cane sugar or sucrose into a simpler form of sugar which is known as invert sugar, which is a combination of dextrose and fructose.
  • Maltase: it converts maltose sugar into dextrose which can be directly fermented by yeast.
  • Zymase: this is the most important fermenting agent which breaks invert sugar and dextrose to carbon dioxide, some amount of pure alcohol, and a very small amount of glycerine, acetic acid, and some amount of lactic acid. It also produces a flavorful aroma which gives a pleasant fermentation flavor.
  • Protease: it softens down the flour protein, thus giving a better stretchability for the bread (to be specific on gluten) to get a good volume and structure.

Storage of yeast: Stored at 45 degrees F. Yeast is killed by heat in a range of 127 degrees to 140 degrees F.

Symptom of damaged or rotten yeast:

  • Buttery consistency
  • Brownish in color
  • Crumbly in texture,
  • Very obnoxious smell.

 

Beer

The most popular drink in the world after water and tea is formed by the fermentation of starches mainly derived from cereal grains. Beer is also used as a leavening agent due to the presence of carbon dioxide in it.

 

Ginger Beer

It is a carbonated drink available as an alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverage. It is prepared by the natural fermentation of ginger, yeast, and sugar. It can be used in baking and other dishes involving leavening due to the presence of carbon dioxide in it.

 

Kefir

Kefir, also called Milk Kefir or Bulgaros is a fermented milk drink made using kefir “grains”. Mildly intoxicating, this sour, carbonated drink is similar in taste to thin yogurt. Due to the presence of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, Kefir can be used as a good leavening agent in cooking and baking.

 

Sourdough Starter

It is a form of bread made by the fermentation of dough using naturally occurring lactobacilli and yeast. It is mixed with flour to give the effect of leavening. The action of sourdough starters is slower than baker’s yeast and is generally not suitable for use in a bread machine.

Chemical Raising Agent

Chemical leaveners are made up with mixtures or compounds that release gases when they react with each other, with moisture or with heat. Most leavening agents are a combination of a salt of bicarbonate and an acid. The reaction of this acid and salt leaves behind a chemical salt. Chemical leaveners are used in cooking that requires a quick fermentation effect such as in breads and cakes. Most common chemical leavening agents are:

  • Baking Powder:

It is a leavening agent made up of a mixture of an acid reacting salt with bicarbonate of soda. We also add some starch to the mixture to keep it in a dried condition and also to act as a separator between sodium bicarbonate and acid reacting salt, until used.

On the presence of both heat and moisture, the acid reacting salt reacts with sodium bicarbonate and releases carbon dioxide. A part of the gas is entrapped into the gluten structure or small air cells of a batter which already has developed because of creaming action of fat, these structures now expand with the production of the gas and during baking also and the small part of the gas is absorbed by the media itself.

Cream of tarter is actually a forum of refined tartar which is a by product or precipitation from grape wine manufacturing process

 

  • Baking Soda

Also called as Bicarbonate of Soda or Sodium Bicarbonate, a fine white powder consisting of a mixture of alkaline salts. It is manufactured by adding carbon dioxide to huge vats of water containing sodium chloride and ammonia. When the resultant sodium bicarbonate settles at the bottom, it is filtered, washed in cold water, dried and ground to a fine powder. Baking Soda needs an acidic ingredient to activate it like molasses, honey, fruit/fruit juice, lemon juice, yoghurt etc.

Mechanical Raising Agent

It is incorporation of air by beating, creaming, whisking and sieving. Whisking of egg and sugar, creaming of fat and sugar, sieving of flour are the eg of mechanical raising. All these actions involve physical movement hence known as mechanical raising or leavening.

  • Creaming

Creaming is also a leavening process where the sugar crystals are beaten together with solid fat. The sugar crystals cut through the structure of the fat integrating tiny air bubbles into the mixture. This process of leavening is mainly done in cookies.

 

  • Whipping or Whisking

Whipping or Whisking is also a process of leavening where cream or egg whites are whisked vigorously to create a foaming action. This process is usually done in the making of sponge cakes.

Natural Leaving Agent: 

  • Steam:

Steam can be used as leavening agents for cooking that is done at very high temperatures. The batter must be capable of holding in the steam until it is set. Steam gives the effect of leavening as it expands upon heating. This way of cooking is generally applied in popovers and Yorkshire puddings.

  • Air:

Air is another leavening agent that can be incorporated by beating the batter thoroughly with Mechanical leavening agents. The trapped air expands upon heating.

Lamination acts as a raising procedure where the fat and dough is folded and rolled. The moisture incorporated in the fat and in the dough also will vaporise during baking and gives it the lift (or raising).

In indian cuisine , idlis and dhoklas are steamed where heat helps to puff up the final product by vapourising the steam. In popcorn, the corn pop because of the moisture present inside and ultimately its volume increase. In choux pastry water vapour acts as raising agent.

Combination Of All

Danish pastry is an example of combination raising where we use yeast in the dough and fat is used by lamination process. Some other eg are vanilla buns, fruit cake etc, where we use whisking, creaming and chemical raising agent.

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Role of Fat in Baking

Fats and oils are triglycerides with varying degrees of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

  • Fats – generally solid at room temperatures and high in saturated fatty acids.
  • Oils –generally liquid at room temperatures and low in saturated fatty acids.

Fats can be defined as a soft greasy substance found in organic tissue.

The function of fat is to protect the vital organs of the body, to provide heat and energy and certain fats provide vitamins. Fats can be divided into solid fats and oils.

  • Fats are a cooking medium.
  • Fats were traditionally of animal origin.
  • The quality of solidifying naturally distinguishes saturated fats and unsaturated fats like vegetable oils.
  • They are the chief source of energy.

TYPES OF FATS

  • MARGARINE
  • SUET
  • LARD
  • BACK FAT
  • DRIPPING AND GOOSE FAT
  • SHORTENING
  • GHEE

 

MARGARINE

  • Made from vegetable oils
  • contain milk or animal fats or fish oils, plus emulsifiers and coloring agents.
  • Oils are hydrogenated to form solids.
  • Its characteristics are similar to butter
  • it is not suitable for frying.
  • To soft to be rubbed into flour.

SUET

  • Comes from Latin word tallow.
  • Was used instead of wax for making candles.
  • It is stiff and melts slowly.
  • It is firm white fat and surrounds lamb or ox’s kidneys.
  • Used for sweet puddings such as Christmas pudding ,jam-roly poly.
  • Used in savory ones like steak and kidney and steaks and mushroom.
  • When mixed with flour it is one of the most satisfying winter foods

LARD

  • It is the pork fat
  • Light and clean tasting
  • Mainly used for frying
  • Also used in bakery because of its creaming properties.
  • Best lards are the ones rendered from the belly fat or the bacon big.
  • And from directly under the skin of back.
  • To overcome the porky taste add drops of rosemary .
  • Used throughout South America and North America.

BACK FAT

 

  • This is the fat that runs along back of the pig over the loin.
  • Used primarily for larding dry meats such as veal and game birds.
  • Cut into strips called lardoons, fat can be inserted into the flesh using needle to keep it soft while cooking.

DRIPPING AND GOOSE FAT

  • Acquired from straining and reserving the fat that has dripped off a roasting joint or bird.
  • Drippings from different kinds of meat should not be mixed.
  • Beef drippings can be used to fry the beef stews.
  • Drippings from goose or duck are used for bean dished, roast vegetables, fried potatoes
  • Lamb drippings smell unpleasant

SHORTENING

  • All hard fats are shortenings.
  • They are capable of producing a crumbly short crust.
  • The white cooking fats may be made of blended vegetable oils or a mixture of vegetable and animal fats or fish oils.
  • They are bland light in texture and fluffy.
  • Texture of white cooking fat makes creaming and rubbing easier
  • it is flavorless.

GHEE

  • A type of clarified butter made by heating ordinary butter to get rid of impurities. Very commonly used in Indian cuisine.

OIL

Oil is a fatty substance that is liquid at normal or room temperature. There are various kinds of oils like mineral oil, animal oil, vegetable oils etc.,The oils used in cooking are the vegetable oils, which are extracted from seeds, nuts, fruits or roots.

History: The Egyptians did the oldest use of oil and they used the sesame oil. In Greece the olive tree was a sacred tree and a symbol of the city Athens. Oil was not only for food but also used as a fuel to provide light and heat for many centuries.

Facts: Pure oils are taken from a single vegetable species.

Whereas the term vegetable oil indicates that they are a blend of two or more vegetable oils.

Most oils sold today are refined oils, which means that during processing, their original taste and flavour have been removed. However there are still a few oils, which are processed by cold pressing, and are termed as virgin or natural oils as they still retain the taste of their vegetable origins. (E.g. Olive oil)

Usage

  • Used in marinades for vegetables, meats, seafood, kebabs etc.,
  • Preservatives: Used in preserving Indian pickles, also to preserve goats’ cheese, meats, fish and herbs.
  • Used to make sauce: Mayonnaise, aioli, pesto etc.,
  • Used as an ingredient in cold dressings: Vinaigrette.
  • Used directly in most of the basic principles of cookery like deep frying, shallow frying, sautéing, braising, searing etc.,

The most commonly used oils:

Groundnut oil, coconut oil, Mustard oil, Soya-bean oil, Sunflower oil, Olive oil, Corn oil, Walnut oil etc.,

Oil varieties are available in different grades and qualities. For example olive oil which is rich and easy to digested is sold under various grades such as:

Virgin olive oil: Mixed with other oils and from the second or third press.

Pure: Mixed virgin and refined oils.

Extra virgin: The purest oil obtained only from the first pressing.

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Use of Sugar Baking

The scientific name for sugar is sucrose-or ‘saccharosewhich consists of a molecule of glucose combined with a molecule of fructose. A few thousand years ago sugar was already being used in Asia in the form of cane syrup, whereas in Europe honey and fruit were the only forms of sweetening. Sugar is/known as saccharose to the Greeks, Saccharum to the Romans, sukkah to the Arabs, Zucchero in Venice, sucre in France, araucaria in Spain, Zucker in Germany, and sugar in England. Sugar was instrumental in the development of confectionery and patisserie but is also used to season meats and savory dishes. France was the first sugar producer in Europe and it remains the largest producer among the Eastern European Countries, second in the world for beet sugar after Russia.

Manufacturing

Sugar is mainly refined from beet or cane and consists of extracting the sucrose by successively eliminating the other constituent parts of the plant. The root of the beet is sliced and soaked in warm water to remove the juice. The juice is then treated with milk of lime and carbon dioxide. It is
then filtered off to give a clear juice. Sugarcane is shredded, crushed and sprayed with hot water. The juice is then heated, treated with lime and then filtered.

Both clarified cane and beet juices are then concentrated by evaporation under reduced pressure until crystallization is induced. The concentrated crystallized mass is then transferred into mixers where crystal growth continues. The crystalline raw sugar is then separated from the remaining
syrup by centrifugation. Not all of the sugar may have been extracted from the juice at this stage so the remaining liquor may be recycled. When it is no longer economically practical to extract any more sugar the remaining liquor is called molasses.

Syrups

Simple syrup is a solution of equal weights of sugar and water. Dessert syrup is flavored simple syrup used to moisten and flavor some cakes. Flavorings may be extracts such as vanilla or liqueurs such as kirsch or rum. Add flavorings after the syrup has cooled because flavors may be
lost if added to the hot syrup. Syrups may also be flavored by boiling them with lemon or orange rind.

Some syrups such as maple syrup and palm syrup occur naturally, but golden syrup is a by-product of sugar refining which undergoes its own refining process. It is used. in making cookies, brandy snaps, and flapjacks and is used in the brewing industry. Corn syrup is produced from sweet
corn and can be light or dark. Molasses and black treacle are dark and viscous with a strong distinctive flavor. Molasses is natural syrup drained from sugar cane. Black treacle is a refined molasses like sugar syrup. They are used in making gingerbread, rich fruit cakes, etc.

Types of Sugars

Refined Sugar or Refined Extra White Sugar: It is made from beet or cane, containing at least 99.7 % sucrose, less than 0.06% moisture and less than 0.04% invert sugar. It has the highest . purity and may be sold as granulated, castor (superfine), grain or lump sugars.

White Sugar: It contains at least 99.7% sucrose. It is sold in the same forms as refined sugar.

Brown Sugar: It is unrefined or raw cane sugar’ containing 85-99.5% sucrose and other impurities. Marketed in granulated, lump or cube form, it possesses a distinctive flavor. There are various types – the very dark moist soft molasses sugar and muscovado. Some commercial brown sugars however, are refined white sugar with caramel or molasses added to color and flavor them.

Various Types of Commercial Sugars

  • Granulated Sugar: Produced directly from crystallization of the syrup, it forms fairly coarse crystals. It is the most common variety for general use.
  • Caster (Superfine) Sugar: This can be made from crushed and sieved granulated sugar, but can be also boiled to a small crystal size. It is used in desserts, pastries, cakes, ices and sweet dishes as well as sweetening dairy products, drinks, pancakes, etc.
  • Lump Sugar: This is obtained by molding moistened granulated sugar when hot, then drying it in order to fuse the crystals together.
  • Sugar Loaf: Sugar molded into a cone shape, with the base wrapped in blue paper. It is mainly manufactures to export to Arab countries.
  • Icing (Confectioner’s) Sugar: Granulated sugar milled very finely to a powder, mixed with 3% starch to prevent it from caking. It is used for dusting decorating or icing cakes and buns and is included in many types of confectionery.
  • Liquid Sugar (Sugar Syrup): It is a sugar solution prepared by dissolving white sugar in water. It is a colorless or golden solution of cane sugar containing at least 62% dissolved solids of which not more than 3% consists of invert sugar.
  • Invert Sugar: Sugar obtained by the action of acids and an enzyme (invertase) on sucrose. It is used by professional pastry cooks and industries (brewing, confectionery) in the form invert sugar solution. Invert sugar stays smooth and resists crystallizing.
  • Preserving Sugar: These are large crystals designed for jam making because of its solubility without scum.
  • Special Jam Sugar:  This is special gelling sugar containing castor sugar, natural pectin and
    citric or tartaric acid.
  • Vanilla Sugar: It is nothing but castor sugar to which at least 10% natural extract or essence of vanilla has been added.

Cooking with Temperatures

The cooking of sugar should be carried out progressively, in a heavy-based pan made of un-tinned copper or stainless steel that must be absolutely clean and without traces of grease. Cooking begins over low heat until the sugar is dissolved. The heat is then increased and the sugar is constantly
watched as the different stages of cooking, which correspond to specialized uses, follow very closely to each other. When a cooking stage is reached, the pan must be removed quickly from the heat. A few drops of cold water can be added to lower the temperature of the syrup. The degree of cooking is measured manually with a sugar (candy) thermometer which can read temperatures upto 20QoC (4000P)

The Different Stages of Cooking Sugar

Coated (100°C, 212°F)

Absolutely translucent syrup about to come to boil. When a skimmer is dipped in it and withdrawn, the syrup coats its surface. It is used for fruits in syrup.

Small Thread or Small Gloss (101°C, 214 OF)

Professional chefs test the consistency of this sugar by plunging the fingers first in cold water and then quickly in the syrup. On parting the fingers carefully, short threads will form about 2-3mm wide, which break easily. It is used for almond paste.

Large Thread or Large Gloss (102-103’oC, 215-217°F)

The thread obtained between the fingers is now stronger and about O.5cm wide. This syrup is used in recipes requiring sugar syrup and for butter creams, icings and frostings.

Small Pearl (103-105 DC, 217-221 OF)

A few minutes after the large thread stage round bubbles form on the surface of the syrup. When a little is collected on a spoon and taken between the fingers, it forms a wide solid thread. It is used in jams and torrone (a type of nougat).

Large Pearl or Souffle (107-109 °C, 224-228 OF)

The thread of sugar between the fingers may reach a width of 2cm. When one blows on the skimmer after plunging it in the syrup, bubbles are formed on the other side. It is used in jams, sugar coated fruits, g laces and icings.

Small or Soft Ball (116-118 DC, 241-214 OF)

When a little syrup is removed with a spoon and plunged into a bowl of colds water, it will roll into a soft ball. If one blows on the skimmer dipped into the syrup, bubbles break loose and blow away. It is used in jams and jellies, soft caramels, nougats and Italian meringue.

Large or Hard Ball (121-124°C, 250-255 OF)

After several boiling, the previous operation is repeated and a harder ball is obtained. If one blows through the skimmer, snowy flakes are formed. It is used in jams, sugar decorations, Italian meringue, fondant and caramels.

Light, Small or Soft Crack (129-135 DC, 265-275 OF)

A drop of syrup in cold water hardens immediately and will crack and stick to the teeth when chewed. It is used mainly for toffee.

Hard Crack (149-150 DC, 295-300 OF)

The drops of syrup in cold water become hard and brittle (like glass), but not sticky. The sugar acquires a pale straw-yellow color at the edges of the saucepan. It must be watched carefully to avoid turning it into caramel. It is used for boiled sweets and candies, spun sugar decorations, icings, sugar flowers and candy floss.

Light Caramel (151-160°C, 302-325 OF)

The syrup, which now contains hardly any water, begins to change in barley sugar, then into caramel. Yellow at first, it becomes golden then brown. It is used in the caramelization of crème caramel, sweets, and nougatine and for flavoring sweet dishes, puddings, cakes and biscuits
(cookies) and icings.

Brown or Dark Caramel (blackjack) (161-170 °C, 326-338 OF)

When it turns brown, sugar .Loses its sweetening power. Extra sugar is added to preparations with a basis of dark caramel. As the last stage of cooked sugar before carbonization (sugar burns and smokes at 190°C, 375°P), brown caramel is mainly used for coloring sauces, cakes and stocks.

Fashioning Sugar

In addition, there are several methods of fashioning sugar for making confectionery and decorating pastries and cakes. These types of sugar are – used to construct center/display pieces or pieces mentee s. Flowers, ribbons, shells, baskets, etc. can all be fashioned out of sugar.

Spun Sugar (sucre file or angels’ hair)

Sugar is cooked to nearly 155°C, the pan is taken off the heat and left to cool for 1-2 minutes. Two forks are dipped into the syrup and then flicked quickly back and forth above a greased rolling pin. The threads
obtained are then collected and used to decorate cakes or make a veil or nest. The strands should be used within an hour or they will melt.

Poured Sugar (sucre coulee)

Sugar is cooked to cracking point, possibly cultured and then molded into cups, pompoms, little bells and other decorative shapes.

Fashioned, Drawn or Pulled Sugar

Sugar is cooked so that it loses its transparency. Coloring’s are added at 140°C and the syrup is heated to 155°C. It is then cooled, poured onto a greased marble slab or other cold surface and kneaded, pulled or molded into flowers, candies, etc. with a satin finish. These should be
stored in an airtight container.

Rock Sugar (sucre Rocher)

It is cooked to nearly 125°C, emulsified with royal icing and then used to give a rocky effect. It keeps well when exposed to air.

Brown Sugar

Sugar is cooked to nearly 145-150°C, which may be colored and blown like glass.

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Methods Of Cooking

The transference of warmth is of great importance to the culinarian. it’s this movement of warmth from one surface, product, etc., to a different that’s a determining consider the standard of any product produced. to know a way to gain positive effects from the transfer, you would like an understanding of what heat is.

Heat

Simply put, heat may be a sort of energy. When a substance gets hot and absorbs energy, the molecules have more energy than when cold. The molecules then vibrate and bounce off of 1 another and expand in volume.

farmers market griddle, eggs, griddle

Methods Of Transfering Heat

The process of cooking requires the transfer of heat energy throughout the food by a mixture of conduction, convection, and radiation.

  • Conduction

Heat is transferred through solids by conduction. This takes place within the heating of

  1. Solid food
  2. Cooking equipment Solid materials like metals that permit heat to spread easily through them are termed, good conductors.
  • Convection 

Heat is transferred through liquids and air by convection.

 This takes place within the heating of

  1. The cooking medium
  2. The air inside ovens.
  • Radiation

Heat will be transferred by radiation. Radiation involves the transfer of warmth by electromagnetic waves like infra-red waves and microwaves. The waves pass from their source and are absorbed into the food. 

Cooking Methods

Dry Heat Methods

  • Grilling
  • Roasting
  • Spit roasting
  • Baking
  • Deep frying
  • Shallow frying
  • Barbecuing
  • Microwave

Moist -heat cooking method

  • Boiling
  • Blanching
  • Parboiling
  • Poaching
  • Steaming
  • Pressure cooking
  • En Papillote
  • Sous vide

Combination cooking method

  • Braising
  • Stewing
  • Pot roasting

ROASTING

The term roasting is given to 3 different techniques of cooking. altogether cases the term refers to a dry method of cooking involving either the addition of fat/oil or the employment of foods with high-fat content.

The three techniques are:

  1. Spit-roasting
  2. Pot-Roasting
  3. Oven Roasting

Spit Roasting:

This is the standard use of the term roasting and is only applicable to cooking meats. It could be more accurately described as slow grilling that involves cooking by radiated heat, on a spit, over an awfully fierce glowing fire. The meat is prevented from drying out by the constant rotation of the spit which allows the meat to baste itself with hot fat which oozes from the surface.

Pot Roasting (Poêle):

Pot roasting uses cookware with a tight-fitting lid. it’s not a real roast because it uses moist heat. i.e., steam trapped under the lid of the closed utensil. The food is cooked with vegetables called Matignon and butter (the only type of fat suitable) or mirepoix. Just before it’s fully cooked the lid is removed to permit the steam to flee and therefore the dry heat to color the food. The juices and veg and accustomed make the accompanying sauce. Pot roasting is suitable for duck, poultry, game. Note: Matignon: An edible mirepoix that is often used in Poele’ed dish. Typically, Matignon includes two parts of carrot, one part celery, one part leeks. One part onion, one part mushroom, and one part ham and bacon.

fried, chicken, roast METHODS OF COOKING

Oven Roasting:

Food is cooked in an oven by dry heat at quite high temperatures. a little amount of fat or oil is employed to prevent the food from drying out. Heat transfer Radiation, Convection, Conduction.

 Advantages

  1. Minimal fire risk.
  2. Meat juices from the meat will be used for gravy which enhances the flavor.
  3. Gives a spread to the menu.

Disadvantages

  1. Constant attention is required.
  2. Losses of nutrients like amino acids.

Safety Rules

  1. the right degree of cooking of meats must be accurately measured to safeguard the patron from parasitic worms and pathogenic bacteria.
  2. Care should be taken when handling oven trays to prevent spillages of hot fat.
  3. Safe practices should be observed in operational procedures, clothing, and footwear.

Baking

This is a dry method of cooking in an oven. The texture, surface, volume of food are modified by steam. This is produced by the food because it cooks or is injected into the oven if required.

Heat transfer

The heat source within the oven radiates infrared heat energy and also heats the air within the oven cavity directly and also heats the air within the oven cavity directly by producing convection currents. The surface of the food will absorb heat from both sources and also from the new trays and racks by conduction.

Suitable foods and cooking procedures

The process of baking is sometimes related to flour products; egg and milk dishes; fruit; vegetables and fish. The baking of meat usually involves fat and is therefore classified as roasting illustrates the appliance of the three methods to different foods and shows the cooking procedures for most groups of baked foods.

Advantages:

  1. Flavour and texture are improved.
  2. type of dishes may be made
  3. Uniform and bulk cooking may be achieved e.g. bun and bread.

Disadvantages:

Special equipment and skill are required.

Safety Rules

  1. Care is required in moving heavily loaded trays, into and out of ovens to forestall burns and scalds from the new and steamy oven atmosphere.
  2. The food-handler should be sure when removing baked items from trays/bins/molds.
  3. Safe practice should be observed in operational procedures, clothing, and footwear.
steak, beef, meat METHODS OF COOKING

GRILLING AND BARBECUING:

Grilling is a fast, dry method of cooking that uses the intense heat radiated by an electrical element, gas flame, or glowing charcoal. 

BARBECUE:

When the process takes place. 

Out of doors, it is usually referred to as ‘Barbecuing’. The heat source in this situation is usually glowing charcoal, a gas flame, or an open wood fire, positioned below the food.

  1. Grilling over the heats: This is cooking on greased grill bars with the help of fat over direct heat only first-class cuts of meat are used to grill in this method.
  2. Grilling under the heat: In this method, food is put in a tray as a dish and kept under heat pans. 

Advantages

  1. Grilling is a quick, easy method of cooking.
  2. There is little loss of nutrients and less fat is used.
  3. Grilled food is tasty and easy to digest.

Disadvantages

  1. Grilled foods cannot be successfully reheated and are difficult to keep warm without drying and toughening. They need to be served straight away.
  2. Only tender cuts of meat, which are generally more expensive, can be used. However other foods such as vegetables, kebabs are suitable for grilling.

Safety Rules

  1. Do not leave food unattended whilst cooking. It will quickly overcook and burn.
  2. Keep floor areas free from spilled grease as this can lead to slippery and dangerous floors.
  3. Exercise great care when adjusting grill bars or salamander racks. They a heavy and contain
  4. hot food and oil.
  5. Exercise great care when adjusting grill bears or salamander racks. 
  6. Safe practice should be observed in operational procedures clothing and footwear.
fryer, kitchen, equipment

FRYING

Frying is a quick method of cooking food in hot oil or fat but requires care and attention to produce satisfactory results. Frying gives food a good flavor and color.

Methods of Frying

  1. Shallow Frying: This is a dry method of cooking. Foods to be shallowly fried are cooked in a small amount of fat or oil the level of fat can be anywhere from halfway up the side of food.

Heat Transfer

The food cooks by direct heat conduction from the metal surface. 

  1. Deep Frying: Deep frying involves the complete immersion of food in hot fat or oil. It is not in contact with any surface of the frying vessel.


Heat transfer conduction and convection.

  1. Sauteing: Sauteing is tossing the food in the pan during cooking so that it cooks and browns on all sides. The name comes from the French for ‘to jump’. So that it is browned all over.
  2. Stir-fry: A traditional method of Chinese cookery used for fast frying vegetables and thin strips of meat in a specially designed utensil termed a wok. The base of the wok is rounded with high sides so that only a small amount of food is in contact with the heat and therefore, stirring is the only action needed to control browning.
  3. Meunier’s: Literally this term means ‘in the style of a miller’s wife’. It describes a method of cooking that applies mainly to fish. Fish cooked in this way is seasoned, lightly floured (Presumably the connection with the miller) and shallow fried in butter or oil. The fish is sprinkled with lemon juice, garnished with a slice of lemon, and finished with beurre noisette and chopped parsley.

Advantages

  1. The taste is improved, along with the texture.
  2. Increases the calorific value.
  3. The fastest method of cooking.
  4. In shallow fat frying, the amount of foil consumption can be controlled.

Disadvantages

  1. Sometimes the food may become oily or soggy with too much absorption of oil.
  2. More attention is required while cooking and care should be taken to avoid accidents.
  3. The food becomes very expensive.
  4. Fried food takes a long time to digest.
  5. Repeated use of heated oils may produce harmful substances and reduce the smoking point.

Safety Rules

  1. All operators must be trained not only to use the equipment but also in fire drill procedures.
  2. The correct level of frying medium should be used.
  3. The fryer must not be overloaded as this may cause hot oil/fat overflow.
  4. Drain wet foods and then dry with absorbent paper. This prevents splatters of hot fat from reaching the skin of the food handler.
  5. Pans must be moved carefully on the stovetop to prevent splattering and burns.
METHODS OF COOKING butter, poached egg, ukraine

Moist Methods Of Cooking

Poaching

This is a moist method of cooking during which food is placed in liquid which is dropped at and maintained at, a temperature just below boiling point (650 to 900 C). The cooking liquid could also be water, milk, stock, wine, or court bouillon.

Heat Transfer: Conduction and Convection

Depth Liquid

  1. Shallow – Poaching: Most foods are poached by this method. A minimum amount of liquid is added and this can be later accustomed to make an accompanying sauce. Greased paper or a lid will be wont to trap moisture and forestall drying out.
  2. Deep – Poaching: When poaching some items, more liquid is employed than in shallow – poaching. within the case of fruits, this can be because they need to be completely covered to stop discoloration. In other cases with eggs, a depth of water is required to forestall food from sticking to the cooking dish (or) other pieces of food during cooking.

Method of Poaching

  1. Heat the liquid to the boiling point, then reduce the temperature that there’s no movement.
  2. Gently lower the food into the cooking liquid (The exception is when cooking whole large fish because it is placed within the cold liquid and drought up to temperature)
  3. Allow the food to stay within the liquid until cooked.
  4. Remove the food and reserve the liquid if it’s used for a sauce.

Advantages

  1. the appliance of warmth is gentle, so foods with delicate texture could also be cooked without ending.
  2. Poached foods are easily digested
  3. No fat must be added to cook the food advantage for those that want to scale back the number of fat in their diet.

Disadvantages

  1. Poaching isn’t particularly suitable for giant pieces of food
  2. There are some flavor and nutrient loss from the food the cooking liquid.
  3. there’s little development in color and flavor.

Safety Rules

    1. Equipment should be matched to the amount of food to forestall spillages.
    2. Care should be taken in handling dishes which a dropped at the temperature on the highest of the stove so transferred to the oven.

MICROWAVE OVENS

The basic microwave oven:

All microwave ovens consist of the same basic unit. This may incorporate some of the additional facilities. When the machine is turned on, the microwaves are produced by the magnetron. They travel along the waveguide and enter the oven, as shown here. The stirrer fan distributes them evenly throughout the metal cooking cavity. The specially designed safety door prevents any microwave leakage while the oven is in operation. The air vent allows any steam to escape during cooking.

How Microwave Ovens Work

The mechanics of a kitchen appliance are really very simple. The machine is plugged into the regular domestic electricity supply but converts the voltage emitted to electromagnetic waves by passing it through a magnetron thermionic tube.

  1. Reflection Microwaves are reflected by metal; they can’t labor under it. Microwaves bounce off the metal surfaces (walls, ceiling, and floor) of the oven cavity in an exceedingly regular pattern.
  2. Transmission Microwaves are transmitted by other materials, like glass, ceramics, paper, and a few plastics. Microwaves can go through these substances without heating them up.
  3. Absorption Microwaves are absorbed by the moisture molecules in foods. The microwaves can only penetrate to about 5 cm (2 in) but the food then heats through by conduction.

Advantages

  1. They cook many foods in about 1/4th of the time necessary on a gas jet. there’s no wastage of energy.
  2. It saves time in heating frozen foods. Thawing is drained minutes or seconds
  3. Only the food is heated during cooking. The oven or the utensil doesn’t get heated except under prolonged heating periods.
  4. Flavour and texture don’t change when reheated in a very kitchen appliance.
  5. Loss of nutrients is minimized.
  6. After cooking during a microwave washing dishes is far easier as food doesn’t persist with the edges of the vessels.
  7. Food gets cooked uniformly.
  8. Preserves the natural color of vegetables and fruits.

Disadvantages

  1. thanks to a brief period of cooking, food doesn’t become brown unless the microwave contains a browning unit.
  2. it’s impossible to form Chapati or Tandoori Roti’s in it. It cannot cook soft or hard-boiled eggs. Deep frying necessary for Puri’s, Jalebis, Pakora, Vadas can not be exhausted.
  3. The short cooking time might not provide a chance of blending flavors as in conventional methods.
  4. The operator should use caution in operating the microwave since any exposure to the microwave causes physiological abnormalities.
  5. If the food is larger than 80 mm the central portion is out of range of the microwave radiation will only heat by the normally slow process of conduction. it’ll be relatively uncooked while the outside access to the microwave is cooked in minutes or seconds.
pan, water, kitchen METHODS OF COOKING

Boiling

This is a moist method of cooking within which foods are immersed in a very liquid that’s either at or dropped at boiling point. This liquid is also water stock, milk, or court bouillon.

Heat Transfer

Heat is conducted through the equipment surfaces to the liquid in grips with them. The liquid transfers this heat to the food by convection currents. Heat is absorbed by the surface of the food and passes through it by conduction and therefore the food cooks. 

Techniques related to boiling

  1. Simmering This is a mild heat treatment that causes small bubbles to rise slowly from the liquid. The food remains whole, with a better texture and more and flavor. The water doesn’t evaporate so quickly and fewer vigilance is required to keep up the proper level of the liquid.
  2. Parboiling Parboiling is that the boiling of food until it’s only partially cooked. The food is placed in boiling water for a short time from 1 to 5 minutes, or until the skin becomes soft. The cooking process is then completed using another method.Potatoes for instance is also parboiled to cut back roasting time and to assist brown them and provides a crisper texture.
  3. Blanching Blanching does involve placing food in boiling water. Food is plunged into boiling water for 1 to 2 minutes looking on the dimensions of the food and so removed. it’s then immediately refreshed in cold water.

MICROWAVE OVENS

The basic microwave oven:

All microwave ovens consist of the same basic unit. This may incorporate some of the additional facilities. When the machine is turned on, the microwaves are produced by the magnetron. They travel along the waveguide and enter the oven, as shown here. The stirrer fan distributes them evenly throughout the metal cooking cavity. The specially designed safety door prevents any microwave leakage while the oven is in operation. The air vent allows any steam to escape during cooking.

How Microwave Ovens Work

The mechanics of a kitchen appliance are really very simple. The machine is plugged into the regular domestic electricity supply but converts the voltage emitted to electromagnetic waves by passing it through a magnetron thermionic tube.

  1. Reflection Microwaves are reflected by metal; they can’t labor under it. Microwaves bounce off the metal surfaces (walls, ceiling, and floor) of the oven cavity in an exceedingly regular pattern.
  2. Transmission Microwaves are transmitted by other materials, like glass, ceramics, paper, and a few plastics. Microwaves can go through these substances without heating them up.
  3. Absorption Microwaves are absorbed by the moisture molecules in foods. The microwaves can only penetrate to about 5 cm (2 in) but the food then heats through by conduction.

Advantages

  1. They cook many foods in about 1/4th of the time necessary on a gas jet. there’s no wastage of energy.
  2. It saves time in heating frozen foods. Thawing is drained minutes or seconds
  3. Only the food is heated during cooking. The oven or the utensil doesn’t get heated except under prolonged heating periods.
  4. Flavour and texture don’t change when reheated in a very kitchen appliance.
  5. Loss of nutrients is minimized.
  6. After cooking during a microwave washing dishes is far easier as food doesn’t persist with the edges of the vessels.
  7. Food gets cooked uniformly.
  8. Preserves the natural color of vegetables and fruits.

Disadvantages

  1. thanks to a brief period of cooking, food doesn’t become brown unless the microwave contains a browning unit.
  2. it’s impossible to form Chapati or Tandoori Roti’s in it. It cannot cook soft or hard-boiled eggs. Deep frying necessary for Puri’s, Jalebis, Pakora, Vadas can not be exhausted.
  3. The short cooking time might not provide a chance of blending flavors as in conventional methods.
  4. The operator should use caution in operating the microwave since any exposure to the microwave causes physiological abnormalities.
  5. If the food is larger than 80 mm the central portion is out of range of the microwave radiation will only heat by the normally slow process of conduction. it’ll be relatively uncooked while the outside access to the microwave is cooked in minutes or seconds.

Moist Methods Of Cooking

Poaching

This is a moist method of cooking during which food is placed in liquid which is dropped at and maintained at, a temperature just below boiling point (650 to 900 C). The cooking liquid could also be water, milk, stock, wine, or court bouillon.

Heat Transfer: Conduction and Convection

Depth Liquid

  1. Shallow – Poaching: Most foods are poached by this method. A minimum amount of liquid is added and this can be later accustomed to make an accompanying sauce. Greased paper or a lid will be wont to trap moisture and forestall drying out.
  2. Deep – Poaching: When poaching some items, more liquid is employed than in shallow – poaching. within the case of fruits, this can be because they need to be completely covered to stop discoloration. In other cases with eggs, a depth of water is required to forestall food from sticking to the cooking dish (or) other pieces of food during cooking.

Method of Poaching

  1. Heat the liquid to the boiling point, then reduce the temperature that there’s no movement.
  2. Gently lower the food into the cooking liquid (The exception is when cooking whole large fish because it is placed within the cold liquid and drought up to temperature)
  3. Allow the food to stay within the liquid until cooked.
  4. Remove the food and reserve the liquid if it’s used for a sauce.

Advantages

  1. the appliance of warmth is gentle, so foods with delicate texture could also be cooked without ending.
  2. Poached foods are easily digested
  3. No fat must be added to cook the food advantage for those that want to scale back the number of fat in their diet.

Disadvantages

  1. Poaching isn’t particularly suitable for giant pieces of food
  2. There are some flavor and nutrient loss from the food the cooking liquid.
  3. there’s little development in color and flavor.

Safety Rules

  1. Equipment should be matched to the amount of food to forestall spillages.
  2. Care should be taken in handling dishes which a dropped at the temperature on the highest of the stove so transferred to the oven.

In addition to the preparation techniques for steaming, there’s an optional commencement. Sear thicker meat cuts earlier to confirm that they’ll be adequately cooked during the relatively short cooking times related to his technique as wells to produce additional color and flavor.

Vegetables will be included to produce moisture for steam. They also add color, flavor, and texture. Cut the vegetables into a fine julienne or dice. Sweat or blanch the vegetables, if necessary, to confirm that they’re going to cook within the same amount of your time because of the main item.

Prepare herbs and spices in step with type. Some herbs are also left in springs; others are digging a chiffonade or minced. Have a prepared sauce, reduced cream, wine, or citrus juices readily available if your recipe concerns them.

Assemble all equipment necessary for cooking and serving;

Parchment paper
Sizzler platters or baking sheets
Serving pieces

Method

  • Assemble the packages
  • The method for cutting the parchment and making the individual packages. Cut the parchment into a heart shape large enough to permit the food and any additional ingredients to suit comfortably without overcrowding. The paper must have enough “give” to expand during cooking. Oil or butter the paper on either side to stop it from burning.
  • Place a bed of aromatics, vegetables, or sauce on one 1/2 the center and top it with the most item.
  • Fold the empty 1/2 the guts over the most item and fold and crimp the sides of the paper to make a decent seal.
  • Place the bag on a preheated sizzler platter and put it in a very highly regarded oven.
  • The hot oven temperature might have to be carefully monitored since delicate foods like fish fillets will be overcooked quickly at a warmth. A thicker cut could also be best if cooked slowly at a moderate temperature and “puffed” in an exceedingly extremely popular oven.
  • Foods prepared en papillote should be cooked until they’re just done. this can be difficult to measure without experience since you can’t apply the senses of sight and touch in determining doneness. If the item has been moving the right size or if it’s been partially cooked before being placed en papillote, it should be done when the bag is extremely puffy and also the paper is brown.

METHODS OF COOKING japanese, stew, my database

COMBINATION METHODS OF COOKING

BRAISING

Description of the method

This is a moist method of cooking employing a tightly lidded cooking dish. The commodity is typically placed on a bed of root vegetables and herbs with an appropriate quantity of liquid or sauce.

Braising represents a mixture of the subsequent processes

Stewing – Less liquid involved
Pot-roasting – Water, not fat, the most ingredient in cooking liquid.
Steaming – vapor trapped under the lid.

Heat Transfer: Conduction and convection

Method of Braising

  • Braised dishes are classed as either white or brown. Brown braising involves the coloring of meat in hot fat (searing) before cooking.
  • For brown braising Espagnole is diluted with an equal quantity of stock and used on the cooking liquor (e.g. braised beef)
  • White braising involves white stock and Natural Ingredients.

Marinating:

Some meats are soaked in flavored alcohol or acid to tenderize and improve flavor and color, before cooking.

Glazing:

Some meat dishes are glazed towards the tip of the cooking period. The lid is come into being the braising pot and also the cooking liquor is spooned over the commodity at regular internals. The procedure called “MASKING”. The water present within the liquid evaporates from the surface of the food forsaking a gelatinous satiny glaze.


Advantages

  • Tougher, Cheaper cuts of meat could also be used.
  • Less amount of fat is employed within the cooking.
  • There is little loss of nutrients.

Disadvantages

  • Cooking time is long and slow.
  • Overcooking will produce discoloration and disintegration of the merchandise.
    Safety.
  • Hot liquids and utensils will be the explanation for serious burns.
  • Equipment should be matched to the number of food to stop spillage.
  • Care should be taken when removing the lid of braising pans to avoid scalds from escaping steam.
  • Safety practice should be observed in operational procedures, clothing, and footwear.

STEWING

This is a protracted, slow, moist method of cooking during which small pieces of food are simmered in an exceedingly minimum amount of liquid. The liquid which can be water, stock, or prepared sauce, is often served with the food. The stew is cooked in an exceedingly dish with a tightly fitted lid, either on top of the stove or inside the oven.

Heat Transfer: Heat is conducted through the cookware and to the surfaces of the food in grips with it. it’s carried to any or all areas of the cooking liquid by convection currents, heat reaching the surface of the food then passes through it by conduction the food then cooks.

Types of Stew

Blanquette:

A stew cooked in stocks from which the sauce is created.


Fricassee:

A stew during which the meat, poultry, or firm is cooked within the sauce.

Navarin:

Refers to the rich dark lamb stew.

Ragout:

Stew brown stew.

Bouillabaisse: 

A significant fish are a shellfish with saffron. a standard especially of France

Advantages

  • Stewing is economical as cheaper cuts of meat is also used.
  • There is little loss of nutrients or moisture as any juices that get away the meat or vegetable become a part of the sauce.

Disadvantages

  • Stews must be cooked for an extended period to confirm tenderness and full flavor.
  • Some stews lack ‘bite’ and contrast in texture.
    Safety Rules

Equipment should be matched to the number of food and liquid to forestall spillages.
It is important to avoid scalds from steam when removing lids to test the consistency.
Safe practice should be observed in operational procedures, clothing, and footwear.

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Safety Procedure In Handling Equipment

Thorough knowledge of apparatus is important for fulfillment within the kitchen. Few foodservice operations rely upon nothing quite a variety and an oven, an assortment of pots and pans, and knives, and other hand tools. Modern technology continues to develop more and more specialized and technically advanced tools to scale back kitchen labor. Other items, especially hand tools, are simple and with no explanation but require much practice to develop good manual skills. This could sound sort of a harsh thanks to beginning a chapter, but the intent isn’t to intimidate you or scare you but to inspire a healthy respect for the importance of proper safety and operating procedures

farmers market griddle, eggs, griddle

POINTS TO BE KEPT IN MIND.

  • Do not use any equipment unless you understand its operation.
  • Do not touch or remove food from any reasonably equipment while it’s running, not even with a spoon or spatula.
  • Use all guards and safety devices on equipment. Set slicing machines at zero (blade closed) when not in use.
  • Unplug electric equipment before disassembling or cleaning. 
  • Make sure the switch is off before plugging in equipment.
  • Wear properly fitting clothing and eat up apron strings to avoid getting them caught in machinery.
  • Use equipment just for the aim intended.
  • Stack pots and other equipment properly on pot racks so that they are stable and not going to fall.

RANGE TOPS

The range remains the foremost important piece of cooking equipment within the kitchen, although many of its functions are condemned by other tools like steamers, steam kettles, tilting skillets, and ovens.

OVENS

The oven and also the range top are the 2 workhorses of the standard kitchen, which is why they’re so often found within the same unit. Ovens are enclosed spaces within which food is heated, usually by hot air or, in some newer forms of ovens, by microwaves or infrared emission.

CONVENTIONAL OVENS

Conventional ovens operate just by heating air in an interior space. the foremost common ovens are a part of the range unit, although separate oven units or ovens as a part of a boiler unit are available. Stack ovens are units that incorporate individual shelves or decks arranged one above the opposite. Pans are placed directly on the oven deck instead of on wire shelves. Temperatures are adjustable for every deck.

CONVECTION OVENS

Convection ovens contain fans that circulate the air and distribute the warmth rapidly throughout the inside. due to the forced air, foods cook more quickly at lower temperatures. Also, shelves may be placed closer together than in conventional ovens without blocking the warmth flow.

steak, beef, meat METHODS OF COOKING

BROILERS AND SALAMANDERS 

Broilers are sometimes called overhead broilers to avoid confusing them with grills.

 Overhead broilers generate heat from above, and food items are placed on a grate beneath the warmth source. Broiling may be a favorite way of preparing steaks, chops, chicken, and plenty of other items. Some broilers are said to travel as high as 2,000°F (1,100°C) at the burner. Foods must be watched closely to avoid burning. Cooking temperature is adjusted\ by raising or lowering the grate that holds the food. Salamanders are small broilers used primarily for browning or glazing the tops of some items. they will even be used for broiling small quantities during off-peak hours. Salamanders are usually mounted above the range.

GRILLS

Grills are used for identical cooking operations as broilers, except the warmth source is below the grid that holds the food instead of above it. many of us like grilled foods thanks to their charcoal taste, which is formed by the smoke from meat fats that drip into the warmth source. Although smoke from meat fats creates the taste people escort grilled foods, actual wood-smoke flavors like hickory or mesquite are added to foods if those woods are burned within the grill under the food. so as to try and do this, you want to use a grill designed to burn such fuels.

GRIDDLES
Griddles are flat, smooth, heated surfaces on which food is cooked directly. Pancakes, French toast, hamburgers, and other meats, eggs, and potato items are the foods most often cooked on a griddle. Griddles are available as separate units or as a part of a variety tops. Clean griddle surfaces after every use in order that they will cook at peak efficiency.  Condition griddles after each cleaning or before each use to make a non-stick surface and to stop rusting. Procedure: Spread a skinny film of oil over the surface and warmth to 400°F (200°C). Wipe clean and repeat until the griddle features a smooth, non-stick finish.

DEEP FRYERS
A deep fryer has just one use: to cook foods in hot fat. Yet due to the recognition of fried foods, this function is a crucial one. 

TILTING SKILLET

The tilting skillet also referred to as the tilting brazier and tilting fry pan may be a versatile and efficient piece of kit. They are often used as a griddle, fry pan, brazier, stew pot, stockpot, steamer, and bain-marie or steam table. The tilting skillet may be a large, shallow, flat-bottomed pot. To look at it differently, it’s a griddle with 6-inch-high sides and a canopy. It has a tilting mechanism that permits liquids to be poured out of it. Power may be gas or electric. Add water, activate the skillet to heat it, and scrub thoroughly.

MIXERS
Vertical mixers are important and versatile tools for several sorts of food mixing and processing jobs, both within the bakeshop and within the kitchen.

FOOD CUTTER
The food cutter or food chopper familiarly referred to as the buffalo chopper, maybe a common piece of kit used for general food chopping. A variety of attachments (described within the next section) makes it a flexible tool.

SLICER
A slicer may be a valuable machine because it slices foods more evenly and uniformly than are often done by hand. Thus it’s valuable for portion control and for reducing cutting loss.
Most modern slicers have blades set at an angle. Slices fall far away from these blades with less breaking and folding than from vertical blades. With manual machines, the operator must move the carriage back and forth to slice the food. Automatic machines move the carriage with an electrical motor.

fryer, kitchen, equipment

VERTICAL CUTTER/MIXER
The vertical cutter/mixer (VCM) is sort of a large, powerful, high-speed blender. It is wont to chop and blend large quantities of foods rapidly. It also can be used for puréeing (soups, for example) and for mixing liquids.
VCMs home in size from 15 to 80 quarts (litters). Larger machines have automatic baffles.

HOT FOOD HOLDING EQUIPMENT
Several sorts of equipment are wont to keep food hot for service. This equipment is meant to carry foods above 135°F (57°C) so as to stop the expansion of bacteria which will cause disease. Because food continues to cook at these temperatures, it should be held for as short a time as possible

  1. Steam tables are standard holding equipment for serving lines. Standard-size counter pans or hotel pans are used as inserts to hold the foods. Flat or domed covers could also be wont to cover the foods. Check water levels in steam tables periodically to form sure they don’t go dry
  2. A bain-marie is a hot-water bath. Containers of foods have assailed a rack during a shallow container of water, which is heated by electricity, gas, or steam. The bain-marie is employed more within the production area, while the steam table is employed within the topographic point.
  3.  Overhead infrared lamps are utilized in service areas to stay plated food warm before it’s picked up by the maintenance staff. They are also used for keeping large roasts warm. Foods dry out quickly under holding lamps. This is an obstacle for nearly all foods except french-fried potatoes and other deep-fried foods, which lose their crispness if they’re kept moist.

COLD FOOD STORAGE EQUIPMENT
The quality of the food you serve depends to an excellent degree on refrigeration equipment. By keeping foods cold, usually below 41°F (5°C), the refrigerator (known within the trade because the cooler or the box) guards against spoilage and bacterial growth.
Freezers are used to hold foods for longer times or to store foods purchased in frozen form. There are numerous sizes, models, and styles of refrigeration equipment that it might be futile to undertake to explain all of them here. To enable refrigerators and freezers to figure at top efficiency, observe the subsequent rules:
1. Place items far enough apart and far away from the walls of refrigerators so cold air can circulate. Freezers, on the opposite hand, work most efficiently once they are full.
2. Keep the door closed the maximum amount possible. When storing or removing an item, roll in the hay quickly and shut the door.
3. Keep stored foods well wrapped or covered to prevent drying and transfer of odors. Meats are an exception to this rule.
4. Keep refrigerators spotlessly clean.

hands, stir, dough stir
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Uniforms & Protective Clothing

CHEF’S UNIFORM:
Most people take the chefs’ uniform without any consideration, but there are good reasons for every piece of clothing.


CHEF’S JACKET:
The typical chef’s jacket is formed of heavy white cotton. This fabric is vital because it acts as insulation against the extreme heat from stoves and ovens. The cloth is thick enough to stop the chef from being scalded by hot liquids or spattering hot oil and thermal shocks because the chefs constantly shuttle between the cold storage areas and the hot kitchen areas. Since there are two rows of buttons, the chef can re-button the jacket to various sides whenever a side gets soiled during the course of labor during a shift.


CHEF’S TROUSER:
Chefs wear either black pants or black and white checked pants.

kitchen, chef, food

SCARF/ NECKERCHIEF:
Chefs wear white neckerchiefs, knotted in the front. These were originally designed to absorb perspiration. Nowadays, chefs wear neckerchiefs to keep the tradition and finish the look of their uniforms.


APRON:
Usually made from thick cotton fabric and is worn around the waist with the assistance of an extended string reaching below the knees to guard the chefs from any spilling hot liquids. The string of the apron helps to carry the chefs’ kitchen towel in situ.


KITCHEN TOWEL/ DUSTER:
They help in holding and devour hot pots and pans and also to wipe hands so as to stay them dry.


CHEF’S HAT/CAP:
The most interesting part of the uniform is that the tall white hat; called a “toque.” alongside the opposite conveniences disposable paper hats were invented to seem like cloth so that they might be thrown away once they are soiled.

chef, chicken, cooking

SHOES:
The shoes should be black and well polished. To prevent slipping the only should be made from rubber. Black socks a typical in our kitchens (preferably the sweat-absorbing cotton variety).

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Attitude and Behavior In The Kitchen

What does it fancy to be an honest food service worker? The emphasis of a food service education is on learning a group of skills. But in some ways, attitudes are more important than skills because an honest attitude will assist you not only learn skills but also persevere and overcome the various difficulties you will face. Let’s check out a number of the qualities knowledgeable must-have.

chef, kitchen, man

POSITIVE ATTITUDE TOWARD THE JOB

In order to be an honest professional cook, you’ve got to love cooking and need to try to do it well. Being serious about your work doesn’t mean you can’t enjoy it. But the enjoyment comes from the satisfaction of doing all of your jobs well and making everything run smoothly. Every experienced chef knows the stimulation of the push. When it’s the busiest time of the evening, the orders are coming in so fast you can hardly keep track of them, and every split second count—then, when everyone digs in and works together and everything clicks, there’s real excitement within the air. But this excitement comes only you’re employed for it. A cook with a positive attitude works quickly, efficiently, neatly, and safely. Professionals have pride in their work and need to form sure it’s something to be pleased with. Pride in your work and in your profession is vital, but humility is vital too, especially once you are starting out. Sometimes new culinary school graduates arrive at work thinking they know everything. Remember that learning to cook and learning to manage a kitchen may be a lifelong process in which you’re not yet qualified to be an executive chef. The importance of a knowledgeable attitude begins even before you begin your first job. The standard advice for a successful employment interview applies to cooks also on office professionals: Dress and behave not for the group you belong to except for the group you want to join. Arrive neat, clean, appropriately dressed, and on time. Get noticed for the right reasons. Carry this attitude through a day on the work.

STAYING POWER

Food service requires physical and mental stamina, healthiness, and a willingness to figure hard. It is hard work. The pressure is often intense and therefore the hours long and grueling. You may be working evenings and weekends when everyone else is playing. And the work can be monotonous. You might think it’s drudgery to hand-shape two or three dozen dinner rolls for your baking class, but wait until you get that great job within the big hotel and are told to form 3,000 canapés for a celebration. Overcoming these difficulties requires a way of responsibility and a dedication to your profession, to your co-workers, and to your customers or clients. Dedication also means staying with employment and not hopping from kitchen to kitchen every few months. Sticking with employment a minimum of a year or two shows prospective employers you’re serious about your work and maybe relied on.

kitchen, chef, food

ABILITY TO WORK WITH PEOPLE

Few of you’ll add an institution so small that you simply are the sole person on the staff. Foodservice work is teamwork, and it’s essential to be able to work well on a team and to cooperate together with your fellow workers. You can’t afford to let ego problems, petty jealousy, departmental rivalries, or feelings about people get within the way of doing the work well. In the old days, many chefs were famous for his or her temper tantrums. Fortunately, self-control is more valued today.

EAGERNESS TO LEARN

There is more to find out about cooking than you’ll learn during a lifetime. The greatest chefs within the world are the primary to admit they need more to find out, and that they keep working, experimenting, and studying. The foodservice industry is changing so rapidly that it is vital to be open to new ideas. No matter how good your techniques are, you would possibly learn a good better way. Continue to study and read. Seek extra work that gives you the opportunity to learn from people with more experience. For example, if you’re performing on the recent line during a restaurant, ask the pastry chef if you’ll are available early, on your own time, to help out and, within the process, gain new knowledge and knowledge. Many culinary schools and programs have continuing education schemes that will assist you to add new skills. Professional associations like the American Culinary Federation (ACF) and therefore the International Association of Culinary Professionals (IACP) provide opportunities for learning also for creating contacts with other professionals.

school, teacher, education

A FULL RANGE OF SKILLS

Most people who become professional cooks do so because they wish to cook. This is a crucial motivation, but it’s also important to develop and maintain other skills that are necessary for the profession. To achieve success, a cook must understand and manage food costs and other financial matters, manage and maintain proper inventories, affect purveyors, and understand personnel management.


EXPERIENCE
One of our most respected chefs said,“ You don’t really skill to cook a dish until you’ve got done it thousand times.” there’s no substitute for years of experience. Studying cooking principles in books and in schools can get your career off to a running start. You may learn more about basic cooking theories from your chef instructors than you’ll in several years of working your high from washing vegetables. But if you would like to become an accomplished cook, you would like practice, practice, and more practice. A diploma does not make you a chef.

DEDICATION TO QUALITY

Many people think only a special category of food is often called gourmet food. It’s hard to say exactly what that is. Apparently, the sole thing so-called gourmet foods have in common is a high price. There is good roast duckling à la orange and there’s bad roast duckling à la orange. There are good hamburgers and french-fried potatoes, and there are bad hamburgers and french-fried potatoes. Whether you’re employed during a top restaurant, a fast-food restaurant, a university cafeteria, or a catering house, you’ll do your job well, or not. The choice is yours. High quality doesn’t necessarily mean a high price. It costs no more to cook green beans properly than to overcook them. But so as to supply high-quality food, you want to want to. It is not enough to simply know-how.

restaurant, cooking, chef

GOOD UNDERSTANDING OF THE BASICS

Experimentation and innovation in cooking are the order of the day.  There seems to be no limit to what is often tried.  In order to innovate, you’ve got to understand where to start. For the beginner, knowing the fundamentals will assist you to take better advantage of your experience. When you watch a practiced cook at work, you’ll understand better what you’re seeing and can know what inquiries to ask. In order to play great music on the piano, you initially need to learn to play scales and exercises. That’s what this book is about. It’s not a course in French cooking or American cooking or gourmet cooking or cafe cooking. It’s a course in the basics. When you finish the book, you’ll not know everything. But you ought to be able to take good advantage of the various rewarding years of foodservice experience before you.

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