Culinary means “related to cooking“, are the arts of food preparation, cooking, and presentation of food, usually in the form of meals. People working in this field – especially in establishments such as restaurants – are commonly called “chefs” or “Cooks”, although, at its most general, the terms “culinary artist” and “culinarian” are also used. Table manners (“the table arts”) are sometimes referred to as culinary art.

fat foods, pastries, cheeses

Expert chefs are required to have knowledge of food science, nutrition, and diet and are responsible for preparing meals that are as pleasing to the eye as they are to the palate. After restaurants, their primary places of work include delicatessens and relatively large institutions such as hotels and hospitals.

What is a culinary department?

Culinary is an art, in which culinary/food preparation means “related to cook or preparation of food”, food preparation, presentation of food, usually in terms of meals. People working in this field commonly called “Chefs” or “Cooks”.

chef, kitchen, man


The preceding discussion is necessarily general because there are numerous sorts of kitchen organizations. Titles vary also. The responsibilities of the worker called the second cook, for instance, aren’t necessarily equivalent in every establishment. Escoffier’s standardized system has evolved in many directions. One title that’s often misunderstood and far abused is a chef. The general public tends to ask anyone with a white hat as a chef, and other people who wish to cook for guests in their homes ask themselves as amateur chefs. Strictly speaking, the term chef is reserved for one who is responsible for a kitchen or a neighborhood of a kitchen. The word chef is French for “chief” or “head.”Studying this book won’t cause you to a chef. The title must be earned by experience not only in preparing food but also in managing staff and in planning production. New cooks who want to advance in their careers know they need to always use the word chef with respect. Skills required of food production personnel vary not only with the work level but also with the establishment and therefore the quiet food prepared. The director of a hospital kitchen and therefore the head chef during a luxury restaurant need different skills. The skills needed by a short-order cook during a cafe aren’t precisely the same as those needed by a production worker during a school cafeteria. Nevertheless, we will group skills into three general categories.


The head of a food service kitchen, whether called executive chef, head chef, working chef, or dietary director, must have management and supervisory skills also as a radical knowledge of food production. Leadership positions require a private who understands organizing and motivating people, planning menus and\ production procedures, controlling costs and managing budgets, and buying food supplies and equipment. Even if he or she does no cooking within the least, the chef must be an experienced cook so on-schedule production, instruct workers, and control quality. Above all, the chef must be ready to work well with people, even under extreme pressure.

kitchen, chef, food


While the chef is that the head of an institution, the cooks are the backbone. These workers carry out the actual food production. Thus, they need to have knowledge of and knowledge in cooking techniques, a minimum of for the dishes made in their own department. In addition, they need to be ready to function well with their fellow workers and to coordinate with other departments. Food production is a team activity.


Entry-level jobs in food service usually require no particular skills or experience. Workers in these jobs are assigned such work as washing vegetables and preparing salad greens. As their knowledge and knowledge increase, they’ll tend to more complex tasks and eventually become skilled cooks. Many executive chefs began their careers as pot washers who got an opportunity to peel potatoes when the pot sink was empty. Beginning during an entry-level position and dealing one’s high with experience is that the traditional method of advancing in a food service career. Today, however, many cooks are graduates of culinary schools and programs. But even with such an education, many new graduates begin at entry-level positions. This is because it should be and positively shouldn’t be seen as discouragement. Schools teach general cooking knowledge, while every foodservice establishment requires specific skills, consistent with its own menu and its own procedures. Experience also as theoretical knowledge is required to be ready to adapt to real-life working situations. However, students who have studied and learned well should be ready to work their high sooner than the beginners with no knowledge in the least

Spread the love

Personal Hygiene

Rules of private hygiene and sanitary food handling weren’t invented just to form your life difficult. There are good reasons for all of them. the knowledge presented here is practical further as theoretical. It mustn’t merely be learned but should be used systematically. One effective system foodservice establishment can use to make sure food safety is that the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system. This practical program identifies possible danger points and sets up procedures for corrective action. Preventing food-borne illness is one of the foremost important challenges facing every food service worker. so as to forestall illness, a food worker must understand the sources of food-borne disease. Most food-borne illness is that the results of eating food that has been contaminated. to mention that a food is contaminated means it contains harmful substances that weren’t present originally within the food. In other words, contaminated food is food that’s not pure.

dentist, dental, tooth

Any substance in food that may cause illness or injury is named a hazard. Food hazards are of three types:

  • Biological hazards
  • Chemical hazards
  • Physical hazards

Note: It had been said that almost all foodborne illness is caused by eating food that has been contaminated with foreign substances. Some illness is caused not by contaminants but by substances that occur naturally in foods. These include plant toxins (toxin means “poison”) that occur naturally in some foods, like the chemicals in poisonous mushrooms, and also certain natural food components to which some people are allergic.


Earlier, we said that almost all food-borne disease is caused by bacteria. Now we modify that statement slightly to mention that almost all food-borne disease is caused by bacteria spread by food workers. At the start of this chapter, we defined contamination as harmful substances that don’t present originally within the food. Some contamination occurs before we receive the food, which suggests that proper purchasing and receiving procedures are important parts of a sanitation program. But most food contamination occurs as a result of cross-contamination, which can be defined because the transferring of hazardous substances, mainly microorganisms, to food from another food or another surface, like equipment, worktables, or hands. Some samples of situations within which cross-contamination can occur include the following:

  • Mixing contaminated leftovers with a freshly cooked batch of food.
  • Handling ready-to-eat foods with unclean hands.
  • Handling several styles of foods without washing hands in between.
  • Cutting raw chicken, then using the identical board, unsensitized, to chop vegetables. 
  • Placing ready-to-eat foods on a lower refrigerator shelf and allowing juices from raw fish or meat to drip onto them from an upper shelf.
  • Wiping down work surfaces with a soiled cloth. For the food worker, the primary step in preventing food-borne disease is sweet personal hygiene. Even after we are healthy, we’ve bacteria everywhere on our skin and in our nose and mouth. a number of these bacteria, if given the prospect to grow in food, will make people ill.
cleanliness, maid, maintains


  • Do not work with food if you’ve got any disease or infection.
  • Bathe or shower daily. Wear clean uniforms and aprons.
  • Keep hair neat and clean.
  • Always wear a hat or hairnet.
  • Keep mustaches and beards trimmed and clean.
  • Better yet, be clean-shaven. Wash hands and exposed parts of arms before work and as often as necessary during work, including:
  1.  After eating, drinking, or smoking.
  2.  After using the restroom.
  3. After touching or handling anything that will be contaminated with bacteria.
  • Cover coughs and sneezes, then wash hands.
  • Keep your hands removed from your face, eyes, hair, and arms.
  • Keep fingernails clean and short. don’t wear enamel. 
  • Do not smoke or chew gum while on duty.
  • Keep moustaCover cuts or sores with clean bandages. aches and beards trimmed and clean. Better yet, be clean-shaven.
  • Do not sit on work tables.
pots, pans, cooking


Staphylococcus aureus is usually found On the hands (10%), within the nose (40%), mouth, Spots, cuts, and grazes. Cross-contamination if hands aren’t washed correctly


 One of the foremost common routes by which illness bacteria gain access to food they must be washed Frequently, After WC, On entering the food room, and after an occasion. Before handling food or food equipment. After handling raw food, After combing or touching hair, After eating, smoking, coughing, or blowing nose, After handling waste or refuse, After handling cleaning chemicals or cleaning.


  • Bacteria from lips to food Cigarette ends may contaminate work surfaces.
  • It encourages coughing.
  • Unpleasant for others.
  • Ash, matches, cigarette ends may contaminate food.
  • Presents a poor image


  • Exclude food handlers with open boils and septic lesions from the food area.
  • Staphylococcus aureus is that the main problem.
  • Waterproof dressings (preferably blue) must cover cuts etc.
  • Loose dressings replaced immediately.
  • Consider waterproof finger stalls and gloves.


Suitable and sufficient supply of aid materials.


  • Worn primarily to guard food against the wearer’s clothing.
  • Clean and washable.
  • Light Coloured and in good repair.
  • No external pockets.
  • No buttons.
  • Press studs or Velcro fastenings preferred.
  • Laundered in-house Cover ordinary clothing likely to contact food.
  • Wear a garment and/or hairnet where appropriate.
  • It should protect food from the chance of contamination.
  • Not done in of the food room or complex.
  • Better if removed before entering canteen or toilet.
  • Colour coding is suggested to assist distinction between “Raw” stuff and “Cooked” stuff


Correct procedures when putting on or commencing i.e.:


  1. Put on hairnet/hat
  2. Put on overall
  3. Put on boots


  1. Remove overall
  2. Remove hat/hairnet
  3. Take off boots
ehospitalitystudy, hotel management, hotel study, PERSONAL HYGIENE
Spread the love


Eggs are one of the most nutritious and versatile foods in the kitchen, they can be served on their own or used as an ingredient in many dishes starting from soup to desserts. It provides texture, structure, flavour and moisture as well as the nutrition. Eggs can be brown or white; colour has no effect on quality or flavour but depends on the breed of the hen.


The nutritional value of eggs varies with their size; it is not an important factor in judging their quality. Larger eggs, of course, have more food value than small ones. A single large egg provides

6.5gm of protein or about 13% of the recommended daily intake for adults, as well as 80 calories and a good amount of iron, phosphorus, thiamine, and vitamins like A, D, E, and K. The disadvantage of the egg as a staple diet is their high cholesterol content. The yolk of an egg is about 50% water,34%lipids, fats, and related substances, and 16% protein with traces of glucose and minerals. The egg is made up of approximately 11% shell and 89% interior. The composition of the shell is important from the viewpoint of food safety, sanitation, and aesthetics. It contains calcium, carbonate (94%), magnesium carbonate (1%), calcium phosphate (1%), and 4% organic matter. It is important to recognize that there has been considerable information that the hen’s diet can impact the composition of the egg.


Structure of an Egg

The egg is composed of shell, white, and yolk. The egg white forms 2/3rd of the whole egg and the yolk forms 1/3rd.

  1. Shell: It is the outer hard covering of the egg and is made up of Calcium, Magnesium carbonate, and Calcium phosphate. The shell gives shape to the egg and holds the inner contents. The shell contains thousands of pores that allow CO2 and moisture to escape, as well as air to enter. The shell is covered by a cuticle membrane or Bloom and should not be washed. The bloom acts as a protective covering blocking the pores and prevents moisture loss and bacterial contamination. When eggs are washed before going to the market, the cuticle is removed. To protect the egg, the washed eggs are coated with a thin film of edible oil.
  2. Membrane: Beneath the shell, there are two semi permeable membranes – the outer and the inner. These membranes act as a protective layer in case the shell cracks.
  3. Aircell: One side of the egg is broader than the other, the reason being both these membranes separate to form an air cell. This is formed by the contraction of the contents as soon as the egg is laid, due to the difference in the outside temperature.
  4. Egg white: It has 1/8th part of the protein, which is called albumin; the remaining being water. The egg white consists of three parts – the outer thin albumen, the middle thick albumin, and the inner thin albumin.
  5. Egg yolk: The yolk is separated from the white by a membrane called the vitelline membrane. This membrane prevents the mix of both yolk and white. 1/6th of parts of the egg yolk contains proteins, 1/3rd fat and the rest water, Vitamins and minerals like Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, etc.
  6. Chalaza: The egg is kept in position at the center of the egg with the help of the chalaza. It has a thick-cord like an appearance and is composed of proteins. This chord-like structure may have to be strained while making custards.

Composition of hen’s egg.

Parts of Egg

Total weight(%)

Water (%)




Whole egg
















The grading of quality, which is not mandatory by law, is independent of the different sizes available.



Shell: clean; unbroken, practically normal

Air cell: 1/8 inch or less in depth; practically regular

White: clear, firm, “upright”

Yolk: well centered; outline slightly defined; free from defects


Shell: clean; unbroken, practically normal

Air cell: 2/8 inch or less in-depth; practically regular

White: clear, maybe reasonably firm

Yolk: may be fairly well centered; outline fairly well defined; practically free   from defects


Shell: clean to slightly stained; unbroken, maybe slightly abnormal

Air cell: 3/8 inch or less in-depth, maybe free but not bubbly

White: clear, maybe slightly weak

Yolk: may be off-center, outline well defined, maybe slightly enlarged and fattened, and may show definite but not serious defects


Shell: Clean to moderately stained, unbroken, may be abnormal.

Air cell: maybe over 3/8 inch in depth, maybe free or bubbly

White: may be weak and watery, small blood clots or spots may be present

Yolk: may be off center, enlarged and flattened, may show clearly the germ development but no blood; may show other serious defects; outline may be plainly visible.

In any case, slow deterioration in quality goes as long as eggs are stored, SO PROMT USE IS THE BEST USE.

The best grade (AA) has a firm yolk and white that stand up high when broken onto a flat surface and do not spread over a large area. In the shell, the yolk is well centered, and the air sac is small. As eggs age, they lose density. The thin part of the white becomes larger, and the egg spreads over a larger area when broken. Also, the air sac becomes larger as the egg loses moisture through the shell.






70 gm


63 gm


56 gm


49 gm


42 gm


35 gm

  • Most used eggs in commercial and home cookery are Large Eggs.
  • Jumbo and Extra-Large eggs are sometimes used as Breakfast eggs for poaching and frying
  • Medium, Small, and Pee Wee eggs are rarely used.

Storage of eggs

Eggs should be stored in the refrigerator in their cartoon to maintain maximum freshness and to avoid absorbing other food odors through their porous shells.

  • Cool place 0-5 C (32-41 F)
  • Away from possible contaminants such as raw meat.
  • First in first out
  • Hands should be washed before and after handling

Types of Eggs used

 Hen, Turkey, Guinea fowls, Ducks, Geese

Market forms Of Eggs

  • Fresh eggs: – Often used for Breakfast cookery
  • Frozen Eggs: – Includes whole egg, whites, yolks, whole egg with extra yolk, etc. It should be pasteurized before freezing. It is used for scrambled eggs, omelets, French toasts, and baking.
  • Dried eggs: – Should be pasteurized before drying. Includes whole egg whites & yolks. Moisture is removed through evaporation. They are primarily used for baking.


The most important rule of egg cookery is simple: Avoid high temperatures and long cooking times. In other words, do not overcook. This should be a familiar rule by now. Overcooking produces tough eggs, causes discoloration, and affects flavour.


Eggs are largely protein, so the principle of coagulation is important to consider.

Eggs coagulate at the following temperatures:

Whole eggs, beaten about                             156°F (69°C)

Whites                                                                       140° to 149°F (60° to 65°C)

Yolks                                                                          144° to 158°F (62° to 70°C)

Custard (whole eggs plus liquid)             175° to 185°F (79° to 85°C)

Note: That whites coagulate or cook before yolks do. Therefore it is possible to cook eggs with firm whites but soft yolks. Note also that when eggs are mixed with a liquid, they become firm at a higher temperature. However, 185°F (85°C) is still much lower than the temperature of a sauté pan or skillet over high heat. As the temperature of coagulation is reached, the eggs change from semiliquid to solid, and they become opaque. If their temperature continues to rise, they become even firmer. An overcooked egg is tough and rubbery. Low temperatures produce the best-cooked eggs. If egg-liquid mixtures such as custards and scrambled eggs are overcooked, the egg solids separate from the liquids or curdle (Syneresis). This is often seen as tough, watery scrambled eggs.

Sulphur: The familiar green ring you often see in hard-cooked eggs is caused by cooking at high temperatures or cooking too long. The same green colour appears in scrambled eggs that are overcooked or held too long on the steam table. This ring results when the sulphur in the egg whites reacts with the iron in the yolk to form iron sulphide, a compound that has a green colour and a strong odour and flavour. The best way to avoid green eggs is to use low temperatures and short cooking and holding times.

Foams: Beaten egg whites are used to give lightness and rising power to soufflés, puffy omelettes, cakes, some pancakes and waffles, and other products. The following guidelines will help you handle beaten egg whites properly.

  1. Fat inhibits foaming: When separating eggs, be careful not to get any yolk in the whites. Yolks contain fats. Use very clean equipment when beating whites.
  1. Mild acids help to foam: A small amount of lemon juice or cream of tartar gives more volume and stability to beaten egg whites. Use about 2 teaspoons cream of tartar per pound of egg whites (20 mL per kg).
  1. Egg whites foam better at room temperature: Remove them from the cooler 1 hour before beating.
  1. Do not overbeat: Beaten egg whites should look moist and shiny. Overbeaten eggs look dry and curdled and have lost much of their ability to raise soufflés and cakes.
  1. Sugar makes foams more stable: When making sweet, puffed omelettes and dessert soufflés, add some of the sugar to the partially beaten whites and continue to beat to proper stiffness. (This will take longer than when no sugar is added.) The soufflé will be more stable before and after baking.



Egg used in such food mixtures as meatloaf or croquettes is distributed through the mixture. Upon heating, the proteins coagulate, binding the food into a cohesive mass of the desired form. Therefore croquettes, for example, retain their shape during the cooking process. Frequently an outer coating of flour, breadcrumbs, cereal, or butter is added to food to enhance its appearance, texture, or flavour. An egg batter provides a binder for added coatings.


Foam is created when the egg white is beaten. The foam is made of bubbles surrounded by a thin, elastic film of egg white. When the foam is incorporated into a mixture, it provides leavening for such products as omelettes, soufflés, sponge cakes, and meringues. When these products are heated the air bubbles expand and the egg white film hardens. The volume of egg yolks makes its foaming power considerably lower than that of the egg white.


Egg white foams are used in many foods to make them light and porous. Egg white foam is a colloid of bubbles of air surrounded by part of the albumen that has been denatured by the beating of egg white. The denatured albumen is stiff and gives stability to the foam. An egg white is beaten, it loses its elasticity but some elasticity is necessary for an egg white foam used in such dishes as soufflés and cakes so that the air cells can expand without breaking down the cell walls. This expansion occurs in the heated oven before the albumen becomes rigid.


Soft meringues are made with 2 tbsp of sugar for each egg white. Topping the fillings while they are still hot and baking the pie at 375 F (190 C) until the meringues reach a light colour yield a stable meringue and reduce the amount of liquid (called leakage) collecting under the meringue and the tendency to the meringue to slip from the surface of the pie. Hard meringues have a much higher proportion of sugar to the egg white. As much as 1/4 cup of sugar per egg white may be used. Since sugar retards the denaturalization of the egg proteins, a longer whipping time is necessary. Hard meringue can be shaped into such subjects such as baskets, hearts, pie, shells, or animal figures. The baking temperature is very long (1 1/2 hrs) and very low (275 F or 135 C).


Eggs are used to form stable emulsions, mayonnaise for example Oil and Vinegar separate out unless the oil droplets are coated with the substance that keeps them from running together. Egg yolk is often effective in accomplishing this. Eggs are used as emulsifiers (Lecithin) in ice cream, cakes, and cream puffs.


Beaten egg whites will act as an interfering substance in mixtures to be frozen, such as “sherbet “. Tiny bubbles of air trapped in air prevent ice crystals from coming together and creating large masses of icy material. Egg whites and at times, egg yolk perform a similar service in the making of candy, an egg white added to certain candies interferes with the formation of large sugar crystals.


Raw eggs may be added to hot broths and coffee. When the proteins in the egg coagulate, they trap the loose particles in the liquid and clarify it. Custard, Puddings, and Pie Fillings: custard may be cooked over hot water and stirred as it is cooked (soft custard) or maybe cooked without stirring (baked custard). The coagulation of soft custard takes place at about 160 F (70 C). If in making a soft custard the mixture is held at the coagulation point for too long or if the temperature exceeds this level the protein is over-cooked, the mixture thickens unevenly, and the finished product will be curdled. Baked custard is cooked without stirring in an oven at 350 F (176 C).

How to separate eggs?

The best way to separate the white and yolk is by using the eggshell. Avoid breaking the egg into one hand and allow the white to run through the finger. The white can absorb grease and odours which will inhibit its beating qualities.

  • Have two bowls ready. Crack the egg as close to its center as possible by hitting the shell firmly against the edge of a bowl or the sharp edge of a counter. Using your thumbs, pull shells apart, allowing some of the white to fall into the bowl.
  • Pour yolk from the shell to shell, allowing white to dribble into the bowl. Use one side of the shell to detach the remaining white from the yolk. Use a shell half to remove. Any bits of yolk which might slip into the bowl.
  • Place yolk gently into the second bowl.

Whisking egg white

Whisking egg whites are the basis of making meringues and are used to lighten the soufflés and mousses.

  • Utensils should be large enough to allow for a full increase in the volume of foam. However, it should not be too large that the beater has no contact with egg whites.
  • A rotary beater or wire whip should be used. The thinner the blade or finer the whip, the smaller are the air cells and the finer is the foam.
  • Egg white whips rapidly at room temperature.
  • The whites must be free from any traces of yolks, oil from hands or bowl, and even water.
  • Use a copper or stainless-steel bowl as glass and ceramic bowl seems to repel the whites and separate them.
  • Rinse the bowl with vinegar or lemon juice to remove any impurities.
  • Salt and cream of tartar are used in egg white. Salt is used for flavor. Lemon juice or cream of tartar makes the foam more stable.
  • Sugar stabilizes the foam and prevents them from becoming grainy but must be added after the whites are stiff.
  • The addition of water up to 40% of the volume of egg increases the volume of foam. It is incorporated towards the end of beating.

Whisking egg yolk

Egg yolks are often whisked separately with or without sugar, sometimes over the heat. The whisking increases the volume and lightens sauces as Hollandaise or adds air for cakes and batter.

Folding egg whites

It is a method of combining a light mixture and a heavier one without deflating the lighter one. To lighten the heavier or base mixture, add about a quarter of the beaten whites and stir them in thoroughly through the cut and fold method. Then spoon in the remaining whites and gently folds in by using a rubber spatula.


Boiling and shelling hard and medium boiled egg (Oeufs Bouillis):

To make a boiled egg there are only two things to be kept in mind—one is the cooking time, which will be determined by the consistency of the white and yolk. The second is the water temperature. The egg should be plunged into the simmering liquid, boil and simmer for the required time. Commence timing once the water has reboiled.

The stages of boiling are:

  • Soft Boiled (in the shell): Oeuf a la Coque – boiling time 3 to 4 minutes.
  • Soft Boiled (without shell): Oeuf Mollet – boiling time 5 minutes.
  • Hard-Boiled: Oeuf Dur – boiling time 8 to 10 minutes served with or without the shell.

Key points

  • The occasional difficulty encountered when peeling the egg, which is because of the PH of egg white and so by the egg’s freshness. If the PH is below 8.9 – in a fresh egg it is closer to 8.0- then the inner membrane tends to adhere to the albumen, whereas when the PH is 9.2 after three days of refrigeration, the problem no longer exists.
  • The other odd things about the hardboiled egg are the occasional appearance of a greenish-gray discoloration on the surface of the yolk. The color is caused by a harmless compound of iron and sulphur called ferrous sulphide, which is formed only when it’s heated.
  • For shelling, crack the egg around its center, as for separation of the egg. Gently roll the egg on a work surface until the eggshell is cracked all around the center. Remove the shells away from the white.
  • Store peeled egg in salted water.

SCRAMBLED EGGS (Ouefs Broilles)

In France, good, scrambled eggs are considered an art; gently stirred over low heat to a thick creamy puree which is elegantly garnished with truffles, smoked salmon, or chopped chives. These are prepared by thoroughly mixing the eggs, seasoning with salt and pepper, adding them to a little butter melted in a thick bottomed pan, then cooking slowly stirring with a wooden spoon until set. They may be finished with butter or cream. To hold scrambled eggs on a buffet, add one tablespoon of water, milk, or cream to one egg (one cup of 16 eggs). They are then cooked to a soft stage and then hold between 54 and 60 C ( 130- 140 F). 54 C (130 f) is the lowest temperature one can use without encouraging bacteria growth. Slightly overheating will cause the liquid to squeeze out and forms a separate puddle. It can be recognized when the liquid collects around the edge of; for example, custard or a mold of gelatine products and is termed as SYNERESIS (weeping).

POACHED EGGS (Oeufs Poches)

To poach eggs, fill a deep pan with about two and a half inches of water. Add one tablespoon of salt and one tablespoon of vinegar per gallon of water. The vinegar, an acid, helps to set the egg white and prevents it from spreading. Acid also makes the eggs more tender, whites whiter. The poached egg must be fresh, or it will spread even though vinegar is used. Both salt and vinegar help to coagulate the egg as soon as it enters the poaching liquid so that it retains a better shape.

Poaching egg in Bain-Marie (Oeufs Moules )

A cooking vessel with a lid is half-filled with water to form a bain-marie. Bring the water to boiling point. Prepare the egg molds with seasonings and a knob of butter to flavour and to prevent eggs from sticking to molds. Break the egg in individual molds and place in the bain-marie with the lid on for gentle cooking. Cook for 3-5 minutes so that white sets and the yolk remains soft. Turn out and serve hot.


Eggs are coddled in the shell. They are cooked by pouring boiling water over the edges, one pint of boiling water over an egg. The eggs are then covered and held in a warm place until cooked (six to ten minutes) for firm yokes and pleasantly soft whites.

EN COCOTTE (Oeufs en Cocotte)

 Like poaching except that eggs are poached in porcelain dishes(cocotte). The dishes are buttered, the eggs placed in them and both placed in Bain Marie for about 2 to 3 min. This dish is served for lunch or dinner and is presented in and eaten from the cocotte dish in which it is cooked.

FRIED EGG (Oeufs Frits)

Indicates eggs gently cooked with oil/bacon fat/lard in a shallow frying vessel until white is firm while yolk remains soft. Fried eggs are often served with crispy fried bacon or sausages. The fried egg is the centrepiece of the great British breakfast, surrounded by bacon, sausage, tomatoes, mushrooms, baked beans, black pudding, and toasted bread. The ideal temperature range for fried egg is 255 0c to 2800f. Eggs done or cooked only on one side is known as SUNNY SIDE UP. For OVER EASY use a palate knife to flip each egg carefully.

OMELETTES(Les Omelette)

Making omelettes is a very simple operation but to achieve great success a high degree of skill is required. Usually, 2-3 eggs are used per portion with proper garnishes or flavourings, which may be added in the following ways:

  • Combined with egg before cooking.
  • Placed into center of omelette before it is folded.
  • Placed on top of the omelette, in a cavity after folding is complete.

Types of Omelets

  1. Plain Omelette: is prepared plain only with seasonings.
  2. Flat Omelette: Add garnish to the egg before making the omelette, turn out without folding, coloured side uppermost. Spanish TORTILLAS and Italian FRITTATAS are examples of this open-faced pancake-style omelette.
  3. Stuffed and folded Omelette: Place fillings in the center of omelette before folding.
  4. Folded and stuffed: Slit the turned out omelette along the centre of top surface,place in the fillings.
  5. Folded Omelette: Add garnish to the egg before cooking and then folded after making it.


  • A well-seasoned heavy bottom iron or a steel pan is required. For seasoning pan to get a non-stick effect, add plenty of salt and heat it over moderate heat. Remove salt and wipe it with a dry cloth. Pour oil into the pan and heat steadily over a period until the pan is smooth. Remove excess oil and use it for making omelets.
  • Never wash the pan, always wipe it with a dry kitchen cloth. Apply a film of oil and store.
  • The texture of the omelette should be soft, with a firm exterior and a moist center. This is termed as BAVEUSE Omelets are generally cooked to order. Making Omelettes are like scrambled eggs except that they form a solid sheet or coagulated eggs, which are molded and often filled with herbs, jams, mushrooms, ham, cheese, and many other ingredients. French omelets with a sweet filling may be dusted with icing sugar and burnt lightly with a hot metal rod. Marks are left like grid marks on broiled steak. When new, omelette pans, like new pans and griddles, are seasoned in the manner described for pans, then never washed again (see fried eggs ) . Beating the yolks and the whites separately to stiff foam makes a puffy or soufflé omelette. It is started as a regular but finished in the oven at 163 C (325 F).


Soufflés are like puffy or foamy omelettes except that they have been thickened with flour, butter, and milk. The proportion of an egg is lower than in an omelette. To make a soufflé the eggs are separated and added to the white sauce or starch thickened mixture. The whites are beaten to soft foam before being folded into the rest of the materials. Soufflés are baked at 149 C (300 F) and they should be Served soon after they are cooked.


True custards contain only milk, eggs, sugar, and flavouring. No starch agent is added. Baked custards must contain enough eggs to produce a firm mass. Custards should be cooked in a container of water to prevent overheating. For firm custard heat the milk to about 66 C (150 F) then adds this to the mixture of sugar, eggs, and flavouring. An oven temperature of about 177 C (350 F) is used for baking custards, but if the temperature of the custard itself exceeds 85 C (185 F) the custard is likely to contain holes, be watery, and have a concave top. Once the custard is cooked it should be placed in a cool spot for setting in a pan of cold water. At a very high temperature synergetic occurs this is a separation of liquid from the gel, caused by contraction of the proteins.


A thickened mixture of cornflour, milk, sugar, and flavouring is called a blancmange or cornflour pudding. If eggs are added to this mixture, the pudding is called a cream pudding. Bavarian Creams (Bavarois): Are cornflour or cream puddings made by light gelatine, whipped cream, beaten eggs, and other ingredients for Bavarian creams.1/4 tsp creams of tartar is added for each 5 egg whites. Zabaglione or Sabayon: is a dessert of Italian origin made with egg yolks, sugar, and wine (Marsala).


Are custards baked in a pastry case. It contains eggs, milk, cheese, bacon, and onions.

Spread the love


Stock is a liquid containing some of the soluble nutrients and flavours of food which are extracted by prolonged and gentle simmering (with the exception of fish stock, which requires only 20 minutes). Such liquid is the foundation of soup’s sauces and gravies. Stocks are the foundation of many important kitchen prep therefore greatest possible care should be taken in their production.

A stock is a flavorful liquid prepared by simmering meaty bones from meat and poultry, seafood, or and vegetables in water with aromatics until their flavor, aroma, colour, body, and nutritive value is extracted. The liquid is then used for the preparation of soup, sauce, stew, and as braising and simmering cooking medium for vegetables and grains.

The word “fond” comes from the word “foundation”.  Just as a foundation is a base for a house, fond is the base for much of cooking.  Almost every culinary preparation requires a fond.  For all practical purposes, “stock” and “fond” have the same meaning.

Types of Stock

There are four basic kinds of stock/fond:

  • White stock (Fond Blanc)
  • Brown stock (Fond Brun)
  • Vegetable or neutral stock (Fond Maigre) 
  • Fish Stock (Fume de Poisson).

 Note: The classifications refer to the contents and method used to prepare the stock, not necessarily to color.

White stock: is made with white meat or beef, veal bones, chicken carcasses, and aromatic vegetables.  The bones or meat are put in cold liquid and slowly brought to a simmer.  The mirepoix (a flavoring base of diced vegetables is sweated in suitable fat and then added to the liquid before it develops any color.  The mixture is reduced to a simmer to finish cooking.  This stock is used for white sauce, blanquettes, fricassee, and poached dishes. 

Brown stock: is made with beef, veal, and poultry meat and bones.  The bones are roasted until golden in color, not burnt.  (Burnt bones and mirepoix will damage the stock’s flavor and color).  The mirepoix is added when the bones are three-quarters roasted; tomato product may also be added.  When the bones and mirepoix are golden in color, cold liquid is added and the mixture is slowly brought to a boil, then reduced to a simmer to finish cooking.  This stock is used for brown sauces and gravies, braised dishes, and meat glazes.

Vegetable stock: is a neutral stock composed of vegetables and aromatic herbs sauteed gently in butter, then cooked in liquid.  This relatively new type of stock is gaining in popularity.

Fish stock (Fume de Poisson):  is categorized separately from the other basic stocks because of its limited usage. The basis of fish preparation is the fumet or fond. It has been said that all fish that produce a fumet are equal. Some fish produce better quality stock than others. The result from some fish are stocks that are too gelatinous and fishy tasting. Fish that are oily yield stock that has a bitter taste or that is milky.

Classical preparation calls for the bones of specific fish for fumet. Dover sole, turbot, brill, and whiting are recommended for their superior flavour. However, the important thing is that the fish is fresh and that its flesh is white.

A few guidelines are listed below.

  • Do not use trimmings from oily fish, such as salmon, mackerel, bluefish, etc.
  • Flounder or lemon sole will work for sole fumet. Halibut for turbot and striped bass for brill.
  • The freshest local whitefish by any name is what you want.
  • Sometimes the complementary juices of oyster, mussel, or clam are added to fish fumet. This liquid should not be reduced. It is used as an additive only.
chicken stock hospitality study


Stocks appear to be a simple item to prepare. Although the ingredients are simple and the cooking method simplistic, you must use great care.  This is a base from which you will create a wide variety of other dishes, so the stock must be right.  As with any other preparation, you should start with quality ingredients.

Composition of Stock:

  • Selected bones and trimmings.
  • Mirepoix of vegetables.
  • Bouquet Garni.
  • Mushrooms and tomato trimmings(optional).
  • Moisture / Water.

The four principal steps in producing a quality stock are:

  • Start with cold liquid
  • Allow natural clarification to occur
  • Skim carefully
  • Simmer, do not boil

Beginning with a cold liquid prevents the sealing of the items.  This makes it possible to release the flavors of the meat, bones, poultry, etc. into the liquid surrounding them.  This interchange occurs whether the bones and vegetables are browned or not.

However, when they have browned a richness of flavor and color is added that is not achieved otherwise.

A high-quality stock has a clear, clean appearance.  This requires that it be clarified.  Pouring the cooked stock through a fine sieve is not the kind of clarification that we mean here.  Clarification is the removal of the many minute particles that form in the cooking process.

Albumin is a complex protein found in muscles, blood, milk, egg white, and many vegetable tissues.  It is soluble only in cold water.  Albumin is valued for its property of clarification by coagulation (forming a mass) when exposed to heat.  The slower the application of heat, the better the removal of cloudiness from the liquid.  Bringing stock slowly to a boil gives the albumin time to pass into the solution.  As its proteins coagulate, they attract particles in the liquid.  The action is similar to that of a magnet.  However, as with magnets, when disturbed the albumin will drop the particles.


A good white stock has rich, full flavor, good body, clarity, and little or no color.  Chicken stocks may have a light yellow color.

  • Cut the bones into 3 to 4 inch (8-10 cm) pieces
  •  Rinse the bones in cold water, (if desired, chicken, veal, or beef bones may be blanched)
  • Place bones in a stockpot and cold water to cover
  • Bring water to a boil, then reduce to a simmer, skim the scum that comes to the surface
  • Add the chopped mirepoix and the herbs and spices
  •  Do not let the stock boil.  Keep it at a low simmer
  • Skim the surface as often as necessary during cooking
  •  Keep the water level above the bones, add more water if the stock reduces below this level.

Simmer for the recommended length of times:

Beef and veal bones                6 to 8 hours

Chicken bones                          3-4 hours

Fishbones                                20 minutes

Note: Most modern chefs do not simmer stocks as long as earlier generations of chefs did.  It is true that longer cooking will extract more gelatin, but gelatin isn’t the only factor in good stock.  Flavors begin to break down or degenerate after a period of time.  The above times are felt to be the best for full flavor, while still getting a good portion of gelatin into the stock as well.

  • Skim the surface and strain off the stock through a strainer
  • Cool the stock as quickly as possible, as follows


Browning Bones and Mirepoix Brown stocks are made by first browning bones and mirepoix and if required by the recipe, tomato paste or puree.  This step starts the process of developing the stock’s flavor.  Allow sufficient time for ingredients to roast properly for the best end product.

  • Rinse the bones if necessary and dry them well to remove any excess moisture.

Taking the time to do this will shorten the time required to properly brown the bones.  If bones go into the oven when they are wet or still frozen, they will steam before the browning process begins.  No one can say for sure that there is a distinct and measurable loss of flavor, but certainly, it will increase the time the bones need to spend in the oven, as well as increasing the amount of energy required to cook them.

  • Roast the bones until they are a rich brown color

The amount of time required will vary, depending on whether the bones had time to defrost and dry, how many bones are packed into the pan, and the heat of the oven. 

For small quantities, it may be a good idea to heat some oil in a large rondeau over direct heat, and the bones and cook them on the top of the range.  This is not recommended for large quantities, but it is a good way to quickly prepare smaller amounts.

  • Add the mirepoix and tomato product to the pan.

Although some chefs feel that the best-quality stocks are achieved by first removing the bones and beginning the stock-making process, then browning the vegetables later on in the same roasting pan, others consider the time-saving technique of adding the mirepoix and tomato directly to the bones as they roast to be a fair tradeoff.

  • Simmer the stock long enough to fully develop flavor, body, clarity, color, and aroma.
  • Brown stock normally requires 6 to 8 hours of simmering time.


Brown Veal Stock

Veal bones, including knuckles and trim                     3.6 kilograms

Oil, as needed                                                                             115 milliliters

Cold water or Remouillage                                                5.75 liters

Mirepoix                                                                                       450 grams

Tomato Paste                                                                             180 milliliters

Bouquet garni                                                                           1 each


  • Rinse the bones and dry them well.
  • Cut the bones into 3 to 4 inches.
  • Brown the mirepoix and tomato puree.
  • Combine the bones and mirepoix, water.
  • Bring the stock to a boil over low heat.
  • Simmer for a total of about 6 to 8 hours, skimming. the surface as necessary.
  • Strain the stock.

White Veal Stock

Veal bones                                           3.6 kilograms (cut into 3-inch lengths )

Cold water or Remouillage       5.75 liters

Mirepoix                                               450 grams

Bouquet garni                                   1 each


  • Rinse the bones.
  • Combine the bones and water.
  • Bring the stock to a boil over low heat.
  • Skim the surface, as necessary.
  • Simmer the stock for a total of 6 hours.
  • Add mirepoix and sachet d’epices (salt, if used) in the last hour of simmering.
  • Strain the stock.


Fish bones                                            5 kilograms

Mirepoix                                              450 grams

Cold water                                           4.75 liters

Bouquet garni                                     1 each

White wine                                           750 ml

Mushroom trimmings                  250 gm


  • Prepare mirepoix.
  • Blanch the fish bones
  • In a stockpot add mirepoix, blanched fish bones, white wine, mushroom trimmings, bouquet garni.
  • Simmer for 10 minutes and strain the stock
  • Cover the stockpot with a lid.


Bones, reserved from preparing stock            3.6 kilograms

Cold water                                                                         5.75 liters

Mirepoix                                                                             450 grams

Bouquet Garni (Sachet d’ Epices)                      1 each


  • Combine all ingredients, and simmer for approximately 6 hours.
  • Strain the stock.


A “short broth” is often prepared as the cooking liquid for fish or vegetables.  The basic components of a court bouillon include aromatic vegetables and herbs, an acid such as vinegar, wine, or lemon juice, and water.  A court bouillon may be prepared as part of the cooking process, or it may be prepared in large batches and used as required, in much the same manner as stocks.

Fish Stock                                             2.4 liters

Carrots, sliced                                     340 grams

Onions, sliced                                      450 grams

Thyme leaves, dried                            pinch

Bay leaves                                               3 each

Parsley stems                                      1 bunch

Peppercorns                                        15 grams

White wine                                          75 ml

Vinegar (or) Lemon juice


  • Combine all ingredients and simmer for about 10 minutes.

Preparations From Stock


Broth and stock are similar in technique and cooking time. Meat, Fish, Poultry, Trimmings of vegetables can be roasted or seared are slowly simmered along with aromatic vegetables, spices, and herbs to produce a clear flavorful liquid with some body. The major distinction between Broth and Bouillon (Stock) is that Broth can be served as is, whereas Bouillon is used in the production of other dishes.


Meat glace is the reduced stock containing higher percentages of gelatin. Meat glace takes eight to twelve hours. It can be prepared from any kind of stock but the technique works best for the stocks that are rich in gelatin. For this reason, meat glace is prepared from the knucklebones which are rich in gelatin. Stocks containing too little gelatin needs too long to reduce and by the time it reduces the flavor of the stock is compromised.


Fish glace is prepared in the same way as meat glace except that the fish stock is used instead of meat stock. Fish glace has a strong fishy taste and flavour , which it can impart to sauces if used in more than a tiny amount. It is better to use reduced court bouillon. If the concentrated fish stock is required then a double fish stock is preferable.


The term jus traditionally describes the light, natural liquid derived from the drippings of the roasts. Because the natural juices are the most satisfying of all the sauces, chefs often use a variety of technique s to stimulate the flavour of the natural juices.

Long and slow cooking is not the only stock or jus with the flavour of specific meat. Although slow-simmering will extract much of the gelatin and nutritive element from meats and bones, much of the character, freshness, and individuality of the meat is lost. Many chefs mistakenly assume that the best way of extracting and intensifying the character of the meat is by long cooking and subsequently reduction. Actually, the best method for extracting the best flavour from the meats is to brown them in a heavy bottom pan with a small amount of mirepoix until their juices are released.

Juices obtained by this method are often termed as “jus”.


Essences are the extracts made from the vegetables and used as a last-minute flavoring for sauces; an essence is to vegetable what jus is to meats. In classic sauce making essences are used for final flavoring. The most common essences are mushroom essence, truffle essence, and vegetable essence. Any essence is made from its cooking liquid. Simmering the ingredient in water for 15 minutes makes cooking liquid. When the cooking liquid is reduced to 1/4th then it is termed as essence.


The word translates as a “rewetting”, which is a good way to think of the way that remouillage is made.  Bones used to prepare a “primary stock” are reserved after the first stock is strained away from the bones.  The bones are then covered with water, and a “secondary stock” is prepared.


The classic formula for estouffade set down by Escoffier is virtually identical to what was then known as a brown stock.  There are differences to note, however, Estouffade is prepared by simmering together browned meaty veal bones, a piece of fresh or cured pork, and the requisite vegetables and other aromatic.


Meat juice thickened lightly with starch (Potato flour).


A culinary buzzword usually indicates a Bouillon with white wine, shallots, and herbs. Flvouring used in stocks.

BOUQUET GARNI ( Sachet d’ Epices)

A small bundle of herbs tied with the string used to flavor stocks, braises, and other preparation usually contains bay leaf, parsley, thyme, and possibly other aromatics such as leek and celery salt.


Roughly chopped aromatic vegetables e.g onion, carrots, leek, celery in the proportion of 2:1:1:1 used for flavoring stocks, soups, sauces, and stews.


1. Use good raw bones – bones that are pleasant smelling and fresh.  They should be cracked or cut out crosswise to expose the marrow.  Shank and knucklebones are preferred. 

2.  Use fat-free bones.  Fat will produce grease in the stock, spoiling its flavour and appearance.

3.  Do not wash the bones or you will wash many water-soluble flavor-producing substances.  Some Chefs prefer to wash or blanch the bones, but this should not be necessary if they are fresh.

4.  Start with cold liquid.  Some proteins in the bones are soluble only in cold water.  And a cold-water start will produce a clear stock, whereas starting with hot water will produce a cloudy one.

5.  Use a tall, narrow pot to minimize evaporation.  A certain amount of flavour is lost in evaporation and the rate of evaporation depends on the surface area of the liquid.


Thickening agents give body, consistency, and palatability when used. They also improve the nutritive value of the sauce. Flavored liquids are thickened and converted into soups, sauces, gravies, and curries, etc. In other words, binding agents are used to transforming the stocks into sauces.

There are various types of thickening agents, which are used in modern-day cookery. They are as follows:

  • Starches
  • Flour
  • Roux
  • Beurre Manie
  • Fruit and Vegetable Puree
  • Egg yolk
  • Cream
  • Butter
  • Blood
  • Liaison
  • Panada

Starches: Starches derived from roots and vegetables are among the oldest and the most versatile thickener for sauces. They are efficient and inexpensive and can be used without imparting flavour of their own.

Cornstarch: Of the purified starches, cornstarch is the most familiar. They should be used at the last minute for the thickening of the sauces and the cooking liquid that is being served. When it is cooked for a long time then it loses its thickening power. Cornstarch is first mixed in water and then used to thicken the sauces and soups. It is also known as SLURRY.

Arrowroot: Arrowroot is the best of the purified starches because it remains stable even after prolonged cooking. It is used the same way as cornstarch.

Potato starch: (Fecule ) Although potato starch is one of the first starches to be used in French cooking, it has never been popular as a sauce thickener. It is used the same way as cornstarch and like cornstarch, it tends to break down after prolonged exposure to heat.

Flour: In western cooking, flour has long been the most popular thickener for sauces. It can be used in several ways. Although flour has largely been replaced in recent years by other thickeners. It is still the appropriate choice for many country style and regional dishes. The liquid in which flour is to be added must be degreased before the flour is incorporated. Flour binds with lamb and holds it in suspension throughout the liquid, making it difficult to skim. The result is a greasy, indigestible sauce with a muddy texture and flavor.

Roux:  The most common method of thickening liquids with flour is to prepare a roux, by cooking the flour with an equal weight of butter. This enhances the flavour of the flour and eliminates the lumps. Because flour contains proteins and other compounds that impart flavor, sauces thickened with roux are usually skimmed for thirty minutes once they have been brought to simmer to eliminate the impurities. Although the stock is skimmed before the roux is added, further the sauce is skimmed to eliminate the butter, impurities in the flour.

There are three types of roux:

  • White roux
  • Blonde roux
  • Brown roux

White Roux: it is prepared by cooking flour and clarified butter for approx. 5 minutes over slow heat and stirring constantly with a wooden spoon. It is used for Béchamel sauce and thick soups.

Blond Roux: Is made from fresh butter and flour. The preparation of butter and flour is the same as for white roux. It is made more rapidly and should be made at the last before using. Its color should be pale gold. It is used for volute sauce and for some soups.

Brown Roux: cooking flour in bouillon fat in the oven, gently and for a long time, removing from time to time to stir, makes it. This roux should be of light brown color. It is used for brown sauce and demiglace.


When you have a hot roux, combining it with a liquid is a two-step process. In step 1, you add part of your liquid, cold to the hot roux, blending it in with a whisk. In step 2 you blend in the rest of the liquid hot.

When you have cold roux, you can combine it with hot liquid, overheat, by blending it in with a whisk a little at a time.

Do not try to combine hot roux with hot liquid and cold roux with a cold roux.

BEURRE MANIE (Manipulated Butter ): Like roux, beurre manie contains equal part by weight of butter and flour. It differs from roux because it is not cooked and is usually added at the end of the sauce’s cooking rather than at the beginning. It is most often used to thicken stews at the end of the cooking when the braising liquid is too thin.

The beurre manie should be added little by little in boiling stock whisking continuously so that lumps do not form.  Unlike roux, the beurre manie should not be cooked once the sauce is thickened otherwise the sauce will a floury taste. One of the peculiarities of flour is that develops a strong floury taste after two minutes of cooking that begins to disappear as the cooking progresses. 

FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PUREE:  Sometimes fruit and vegetable puree are used in thickening sauces and soups. The puree soups are the best example of the same

Egg Yolk: Because they thicken sauces in several ways, egg yolks are versatile liaison. They provide a base for emulsified sauces, such as mayonnaise and hollandaise, and are used in conjunction with cream to finish the cooking liquid of poached meats and fish.  Not only form an emulsion of fat and liquid but also combines with air so that they be used for sabayon sauce. Sauces containing should not be boiled unless they contain flour, which stabilizes them. When combining egg yolk with liquids, be sure to combine some of the liquid separately before returning the mixture to the saucepan. If the egg yolks are added directly into the hot liquid then they are liable to coagulate as soon as they get in contact with the heat.

Cream: In recent years thickened cream has replaced roux as the thickener, becoming the base for white sauces.  Precaution should be taken in reducing cream. A quick whisk should be given to the cream otherwise they become granular and may break. Always use a large saucepan, three times the volume of the cream otherwise flames from the sides can discolor the cream. Whenever cream is used, as a thickener in a wine-based sauce, is sure to reduce the wine otherwise they giving an unpleasant flavor.   The cream used in conjunction with egg yolk, butter, and flour gives a better result.

Butter: When butter is whisked into a hot liquid, it forms an emulsion, similar to the action of egg yolk. The milk solids and proteins contained in the butter act as emulsifiers and give butter sauce their sheen and consistency. Because the milk solids in the butter are what maintain the emulsion, sauces and cooking liquids cannot be thickened with clarified butter. In fact, cold butter is proffered to hot butter in the thickening of the sauces.

Blood: Blood has long been used in cooking to finish sauces for the braised or roasted game, poultry, or rabbit. Blood not only deepens the flavour of the sauce but also acts as a thickener. The blood must be mixed with a little amount of vinegar to avoid coagulation.

Liaison: It is the mixture of egg yolk and cream mixed in the proportion of 1: 3 ratio and added to the sauce and soup at the last moment just prior to service. After adding to the food, the food should not be heated. The word is derived from the French means ‘to bind”.

Panada (Panade): It is a cooked mixture of equal proportions of flour and butter with some liquid being mixed in the ratio of 1: 1: 5. They play a prominent part in Larder preparations of various products. Their main function in recipes is to act as binding. Types of panadas are Bread, flour, frangipane, potato, and rice panadas. Sometimes to get a coating consistency the ratio will be 1:1:10 and for a basic pouring consistency, this will change 1:1:20.

Spread the love



Soups are a common feature offered on many types of menus in a wide variety of catering establishments.  Such units range from fast food operations to the more traditionally based luxury catering systems.

What is Soup?

A liquid food served at the beginning of a meal or for lunch, a snack, etc. made up of fish, poultry, games, shellfish, meat, vegetables by the addition of stock of any variety and with or without any thickening agent.


The domesticated birds are reared in a farmhouse especially for meat or eggs mainly chicken, ducks, and geese.


The birds which are generally hunted for their meat mainly Squale,Partridge, Quail, etc.

Composition of soups.

From the above explanation, it is evident that for making any kind of soup the following group of ingredients are obvious.

Stock – of any variety.

Main body ingredients – the soup will get its name.

Herbs – to match the flavour.

Butter – as cooking medium.

Seasonings – for the taste.

Thickening agent – for binding solids and liquids.

Garnish – for presentation and eye appeal.

The function of soup on the menu is to stimulate the customer’s appetite rather than act as a complete meal.  For this reason, many soups are of alight and delicate nature.  Hot soups are a welcome feature on winter menus; conversely, cold soups are ideal in the summertime. As the soup preparation needs a very less amount butter or fat and not very spicy, it can be easily an ideal food for invalids.

The Soup may be classified in the following manner:

pumpkin soup, hokkaido soup, potato soup

Clear Soups

Consommés are refined clear soups prepared from good quality stocks, which are flavored and clarified, by a combination of ingredients.

Clarification Process

During cooking the protein content, derived mainly from the egg white and minced beef, coagulates, flocculates, and rises to the surface of the consommé as rafts.  This action results in a clarified liquid being produced.  Once cooking is complete the clear liquid lies beneath the mass of coagulated protein and other ingredients.

Points for Consideration

  • In order to allow the egg white to disperse thoroughly, mix all the ingredients and allow it to stand for a period prior to cooking.
  • Use fat-free stock in order to prevent excess fat from causing a greasy product.
  • Mix only just warm stock to the ingredients.
  • Slowly bring it to the boiling point and stir continuously so that the egg white disperse thoroughly.
  • Once the consommé has been brought to the boil it is important to ensure that it simmers gently, without stirring for the remainder of the cooking period as rapid boiling or stirring will result in a clouded consommé. 
  • For the same reason do not cover the soup with a lid as this would disturb and inhibit the formation of congealed protein.
  • A tall, deep, thick bottomed cooking vessel is ideally suited for consommé production, this type of vessel is designed to prevent excessive evaporation during cooking and helps to maintain an even temperature throughout.
  • When most of the grease has been skimmed away from the completed consommé, any remaining grease is removed by passing pieces of absorbent paper across the surface of the consommé.
  • On completion, strain the consommé with a wet muslin cloth carefully.
  • The desired colour of consommé is amber.

Basic reasons for cloudy consommé

  • The base stock is poor in quality.
  • The base stock is greasy and not scummed well.
  • The stock was not strained well.
  • The raft is not very compact due to poor coagulation.
  • Stirring after boiling, will prevent clarification by remixing the impurities back into the liquid.
  • Simmering followed by boiling will allow the raft to settle down before straining.
  • The container in which the consommé has been made was dirty

Double Consommé ( consommé double)

The basic consommé which is prepared by using double the quantity of lean meat and a richer mirepoix is termed as Double Consommé.

Cold consommé (consommé froid )

The fat is carefully skimmed off from a double consommé and seasoned with Maderia, port wine, and cayenne pepper. It is then portioned and allowed to cool in the refrigerator. May be served with or without any garnish accompanied with cheese straws (paillettes de Fromage). A cold consommé always strong and spicy and should gel slightly.

BASIC CONSOMME                                                    

Yield: 4 portions

Cooking time: 1  ½ hr.



Cold stock (white or brown)

1 1

Beef shin (minced)

200 g

Mirepoix (scorched)

200 g

Egg white

Bouquet garni

Salt and pepper

50 g

Note: The type of stock used is determined by the flavour required in the consommé. In addition, browned game, poultry carcasses, etc, may be added to appropriate consommé to enhance the flavour.


  • Thoroughly mix all ingredients in the cooking vessel and allow to stand approximately 30 minutes prior to cooking.
  • Commence cooking by bringing slowly to simmering point, stirring occasionally. Once boiling point is reached allow simmering gently without any further stirring or undue agitation.
  • On completion strain carefully through wet muslin, degrease, and correct seasoning. Reheat and garnish for service.

Menu Term


Consommé en Tasse

(Consommé served in a cup)


Consommé Brunoise

(Consommé with vegetables)

Cooked brunoise of vegetables

Carrot, Turnip, Leek, Celery

Consommé Celestine

(Consommé with savoury pancake)

Julienne of savoury pancake


Consommé Madrilène (C OLD)

(Consommé with celery and tomato)

Celery (add to consommé throughout the cooking period)

Tomato puree (add to consommé throughout the cooking period)


Tomato concasse, Small celery batons (cooked), Diced pimento (cooked), Shredded sorrel (seated in butter), Vermicelli (cooked), Flavoured with Madiera, Brandy, and Cayenne Pepper.

Consommé Alphabetique

(Consommé with shaped pasta)

Cooked alphabet pasta

Consommé au Porto (COLD)

(Consommé with port wine)

Port wine

Consommé au Xeres

(Consommé with sherry)


Consommé Tortue

(Consommé with turtle flavour)

1 sachet of turtle herbs

*Diced cooked turtle meat


Add turtle herbs to prepare consommé and infuse for 20 minutes before removing the sachet

Consommé Royal

(Consommé with savoury egg custard)

Cooked egg custard


The broth is comprised of savory stock liquor, flavoured and garnished with a combination of vegetables, vegetables, and meat, or vegetables and seafood. In most cases, the broth contains a cereal ingredient, usually rice or barley.  Herbs, seasonings, and occasionally spices enhance the flavour.  Often broth has the appearance of a thickened soup, a result of the starch content extracted from the cereal ingredient during cooking.  However, because the soup remains unpassed, full thickening is not affected.

Broths are sub-divided into three types according to the method of preparation.

  • When the vegetables are added directly to the stock base which contains a meat ingredient, e.g. stewing mutton as for mutton broth;
  • When the vegetables are sweated in fact without colour in the initial stages of preparation just prior to the addition of stock;
  • Fish flavoured broths e.g. chowders

English Term

Meat Content


French Term

Beef broth

Stewing beef

Chopped parsley

Bouillon de Boeuf

Chicken broth


Chopped parsley

Bouillon de Volaille

Game broth

Assorted stewing game

Chopped parsley

Bouillon dep Gibier

Scotch mutton broth

Stewing mutton

Chopped parsley

Potage Eccossais

Menu Term

Main Vegetables


Potage Bonne

Femme (leek and potato soup)

Equal quantities of leek and potato cut into paysanne


Chopped parsley

Cocky-Leeky soup

Julienne of leek

Julienne cooked chicken

Julienne cooked prunes

Chopped parsley

Potage Paysanne

Paysanne of: carrot, leek, onion, potato, swede, turnip, green

Cabbage, celery

Green peace

Diced French beans

Chopped parsley

Minestrone (minestrone)

As for Potage Paysanne

Tomato concasse

Raw spaghetti

Tomato Puree (to colour)

8 Garlic pellets

Grated parmesan cheese to accompany


This type of soup is produced from one of the following:

  • Vegetables containing a high percentage of starch e.g. – pulse vegetables.
  • Aqueous Vegetables i.e., watery vegetables e.g., celery, leeks onions, etc.

Puree soups produced from starchy vegetables need no other thickening, agent as starch-based vegetables act as self-thickeners. Alternatively, puree soups produced from aqueous vegetables need the assistance of starchy food to affect cohesion.  The ingredients most used for this purpose are rice or potatoes.

All the puree soups are passed through the food processer for liquidizing and finally strained through a conical strainer (chinois). It’s then reheated for correcting the seasonings and consistency. Puree soup is always garnished with croutons.

English Term-main ingredient

Ingredient for


French Term




Puree of haricot bean soup

Chopped parsley

Potage Soissonnaise

Puree of red bean soup

Finish with dry red wine

Potage Conde

Puree of lentil soup

Chopped parsley

Potage de Lentilles

Puree of lentil soup

Diced cooked bacon Pinch of chopped chervil

Portage Conti

Puree of lentil soup

Boiled rice


Potage Esati

Puree of green split pea soup


Potage St. Germain

Puree of yellow split pea soup

Chopped parsley

Potage Egyptienne


With only a few exceptions, the principal thickening element used in the production of cream soup is that of sauce béchamel.  The recipe balance determines the predominant flavour of the soup.

The classes of vegetables best suited to cream soup production are the aqueous type.  Starchy vegetables, in general act as self-thickeners and need no other thickening element.

It is worth mentioning at this stage that there are many soups appearing on the menu as creams, which are basically velouté or puree soups to which cream has been added prior to service.  The work `cream’ in these instances refers to the addition of cream rather than the underlying principle of cream soup production.

English Term main ingredient

Ingredient for


French Term


Cream of asparagus soup

Cooked asparagus tips

Crème d’Asperges

Cream of carrot soup

Chopped parsley

Crème de Carrottes

Cream of carrot soup

As above plus boiled rice

Cream Crecy

Cream of cauliflower soup

Small cooked sprigs of cauliflower

Crème de Chou-fleur/Dubarry

Cream of celery soup

Cooked julienne of celery

Crème de Celeri

Cream of cucumber soup

Small cucumber balls

Crème Concombre/Doria

Cream of leek soup


Crème Poireaux

Cream of lettuce soup

Shredded lettuce lightly sweated

Crème de Laitue/Judic

English Term main ingredient

Ingredient for


French Term


Cream of mushroom soup (1/5 main unit may be used 160 g (6 oz)

Julienne of cooked mushrooms

Crème de Champignons

Cream of onion soup


Crème d’Oignon

Cream of spinach soup


Crème d’Epinards/Florentine

Cream of sweet corn soup

Cooked corn kernels

Crème de Mais/Washington

Cream of vegetable soup


Crème de legumes

Cream of watercress soup

Blanched watercress leaves

Crème Cressonniere

Velouté Soups

The French word velouté translated into English means velvety.  This describes the finished texture and appearance of the soup.  The principal thickening element is a blond roux or a velouté sauce, which may be flavoured using different stock bases according to requirements.  When preparing meat, poultry, or fish veloute the predominant flavour is determined by the stock used.  Alternatively, when producing aqueous vegetable velouté soups the flavour of the main vegetable predominates.

To achieve the velvety finish required, the liaison of egg yolks and cream is added just before serving.  Once this has been added the soup must not be allowed to re-boil otherwise it will take on a curdled appearance, a result of egg yolk coagulation.

Menu term

Main stock


Veloute de Volaille (Chicken Veloute)


Julienne of cooked chicken

Veloute de Poisson (fish veloute)


Chopped parsley

Veloute Dieppoise (mussel veloute)

Fish and mussel cooking liquor

Budded mussels


Chopped parsley

Veloute aux Huitres

(oyster veloute)

Fish and oyster cooking liquor

8 poached oysters

Chopped parsley

Shellfish Soups (Bisques)

Bisques may be defined as thickened, passed, classical seafood soups prepared from a base of a fish stock flavoured with selected shellfish and mirepoix.  They are enhanced with wine, brandy, and thickened with starch usually in the form of rice.  Due to the delicacy of their flavour and the high cost of production bisques are best suited to service at dinner.

Menu Term

Main Shellfish and preparation


Bisque de Crab

(crab bisque)

Crab Claws


White crab meat

Bisque de Homard (lobster bisque)

Lobster, split (sack removed from the head), claws cracked, remainder cut into pieces

Diced, cooked lobster meat, flavoured with branch)

Bisque de Crevettes (prawn or shrimp bisque)

Whole prawns or shrimps

Cooked prawns or shrimps


Its a thick variety soup generally made with sea food. The name is the corruption of the French word ‘CHAUDIERE’ means a heavy pot used by farmers and fishermen to cook soups and stews. The best known French Chowder is ‘Bouillabaisse’.It is more like a stew which is an American specialty made with meat, fish, vegetables along with milk, pork belly, tomato concasse, and seasonings. Prior to the service crushed cracker biscuits or a thickener. Alternatively, Chowder may be thickened with Beurre Manie.

English Term

Main Shellfish


Clam chowder


Chopped parsley

Mussel chowder


Chopped parsley

Oyster chowder


Chopped parsley

Scallop chowder


Chopped parsley

Seafood chowder

Assorted shellfish

Chopped parsley

Special & National Soups

Special soups are those made with unusual ingredients and are prepared by a distinctive method. Also, their names should appear on the menu in the language of the country of its origins. So they are termed as National Soups. The examples are as follows.

  • Boillabaisse a la Provencale (assorted fish soup) – France.
  • Busecca (onion,leek,beans,pesto & cheese – Italy.
  • Chicken Broth – English.
  • Gazpacho ( cold vegetable uncooked soup – Spain.
  • Minestrone – Italy.
  • Mock Turtle Soup – U S A.
  • Mulligatawny – India.
  • Scotch Broth – Scotland.
  • Olla Porida – Spain.
  • Oxtail Soup – English.
  • Vichyssoise (cold – U S A
  • Zuppa Pavese- Italy.


Spread the love


A good sauce is that which makes excellent food still better. To make it, or as it is often a work of art, let us say, create it, calls for precision and knowledge gained from experience exercised with patience and disciplined attention.  A keen sense of smell, a delicate sense of taste, a light, strong hand for the blending all must contribute to the perfect sauce.


Sauces are liquid or semi-liquid mixtures that are added to meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, and desserts to give moisture or richness, to garnish, or to otherwise enhance the appearance and in some cases the nutritional value, but more importantly to better the flavor.  The principal purpose of a sauce then is to add or enhance the flavor of food.


Sauces may be classified in several ways.  Here is one system.

  1. By serving temperature warm or cold
  2. By flavor: blandness or piquancy
  3. By acidity
  4. By sweetness
  5. By color
  6. By base: neutral or meat.

In general, Sauce can be classified under two major heads as follows:

Proprietary Sauces hospitality study

Proprietary Sauces

Of the owner, or Held in private ownership, or Manufacture and sale of which is restricted by patent.

Proprietary Sauces Denotes:

Sauces that are not made in the kitchen but can be purchased from the market.

They are imported or procured locally.

They have a unique taste that cannot be reproduced by anybody.

It has a secret recipe, guarded by patents.

They are multipurpose in their use.

The examples are Tomato Ketchup, HP Sauce, Tabasco Sauce, Worcestershire sauce, English Mustard sauce, French Mustard sauce, Chili sauce, etc.

Preparatory Sauce

Very much made in the kitchen by following standard recipes and traditional guidelines. Depending upon the style of making they are classified as follows:

Preparatory Sauce hospitality satudy

Long ago Grimaude de la Royere, philosopher and gastronome, wrote, “The sauce is to culinary art what grammar is to language”.  Let us coin a phrase today and say – “What poetry is to prose, the sauce is to food”.

The function of the Sauce in Culinary work

  • Sometimes sauces are used to add a contrast in taste to another food. Apple sauce with fresh roast pork serves the same purpose. Broadly speaking any condiment or mixture of food, which serves to contrast with or compliment another food, can be termed a sauce.  In this broad sense, a peanut butter and jelly mixture would be a sauce to a piece of bread if they were served together.
  • Some sauces are used to add sharpness or tanginess to a portion of bland food. A remoulade sauce served with shrimp is an example of a piquant sauce.
  • Sauces may add to the appearance of food, sometimes as a coating that is poured or brushed over the food to give a pleasing appearance to an otherwise uninteresting item. the chaud-froid sauce made with cream or mayonnaise and gelatin is used to coat various food items.
  • Sauces such as barbeque sauce are used to modify the original flavor of food, blending the sauce flavor with the flavor of the food.
  • Some sauces are used to disguise or mask the original flavor of the food. As the French use the word `mask’ in regard to sauces, masking a food with jelly or sauce is to completely cover it physically hiding its appearance. Masking does not change the true flavor of the food.
  • Sauces should never be used to change the flavor of food material, only to enhance or to compliment the flavor of the food.
  • Salad dressings such as French dressing and mayonnaise could also in this sense be considered sauces. However, sauces are usually considered those mixtures served with meats, entrees, desserts, and other major foods as a compliment or contrast to their flavor.

General faults in sauce production

  1. Lumpiness: This may be caused by the following ……
    • Roux is too dry when liquid is added.
    • Adding liquid too quickly and not stirring continuously.
    • Incorrect temperature of roux and liquid. One should be hot and the other should be cold.
    • Formation of the skin when the sauce comes in contact with air and becomes dry. This can be prevented by putting a film of melted butter on the surface of the sauce or by using a greased paper.
    • By allowing the sauce to congeal on the sides of the cooking vessel which later could be stirred into the sauce.
  2. Poor gloss: This is caused by insufficient cooking of the sauce or using a sauce that has not been passed, tammied, or liquidized. High gloss is achieved by preparing the sauce correctly and aided by the addition of butter just prior to service, called ‘mounting with butter’ or ‘monster au beurre’
  3. Incorrect consistency: This is the result of incorrect formula balance. Over and undercooking is ultimately lead to an incorrect consistency.
  4. Greasiness: Too much fat in roux or failure to skim off surface grease as it rises. The use of greasy stock may cause this fault.
  5. Poor colour: Incorrect cooking of the roux in the early stage, using dirty cooking vessels or utensils may cause poor colour.
  6. Raw starch flavour: This causes due to the insufficient cooking of starch. Starch needs to reach a boiling point and simmer for a further period to avoid a raw starch flavour.
  7. Bitterness: This is caused by over-browning or burning of the roux.

White Sauce: Bechamel Sauce.

White sauce or Bechamel sauce is more versatile for its neutral base. It is used to bind soufflés, croquettes, soups, egg dishes and gratins and to coat many foods. The texture should be smooth and rich and the consistency of double cream. The taste should be milky with no hint of raw flavour.

A plain Bechamel Sauce is made with flour .butter and milk in ratio of 1:1:20.Its flavoured with a clove studded onion(cloute /pique) which is infused in milk before making the sauce. Sometimes a amount of finely chopped onion, which is sweated in butter added to milk before adding the roux.

For thickening soup or sauce use only 15 grams. Of butter, 15 grams of flour with 225ml of milk and for a very thick Bechamel sauce, use only 25 grams of butter, 25 grams of flour with 225 ml of milk.

Thickening milk with a white  roux  and  simmering  it with  aromatics makes  this white sauce. It should be creamy, smooth, and lustrous. 


Butter     30 GM

Flour      30 GM

Milk       300 ml

Onion     1 studded with cloves.


  • Boil the milk.
  • Melt the butter in a heavy-bottomed pan and the flour and cook do not allow it to color.
  • Whisk in the warm milk and bring to the boil whisking constantly to avoid lumps.
  • And the onion.
  • Reduce the heat and let it simmer for 10 mins, whisking constantly and scraping the base and sides to prevent the sides from sticking

Note: when cooking a large amount its advisable to cover and cook in a moderate oven.

(300 degree f)  for  30  –  40  minutes,  stirring  from  time  to  time.  Nutmeg is often,

classically added as a flavoring). If the sauce is not to be used immediately, DOT it with butter. This butter will melt over the surface and will prevent the sauce from skin formation. Alternatively, directly press the cling film against the surface to prevent the skin formation.


  • Cream sauce: Chopped onions are reduced with white wine and then cream is reduced in the same pan. Now some béchamel sauce is added & whisked in. More cream is added till correct consistency is obtained and the sauce is then strained.
  • Sauce Mornay: Grated Cheddar cheese is added to the cream sauce and it is strained.
  • Sauce Fine herbs: To the cream sauce, some chopped tarragon, parsley, and chervil are added. In place of chervil, we often use thyme.
  • Chilly mornay: Some bell peppers are lightly sautéed in olive oil,  &  paprika powder is added to it.  Mornay sauce is poured over this till the flavor is obtained & it is then strained out.   
  • Sauce Nantua: To the cream sauce, add very fine crayfish butter and small cooked crayfish tails.


A Velouté sauce is often made from the liquid used in cooking the main ingredient, such as that used in poaching fish and chicken or for veal, as in a Blanquette. The additional liquid is added to the blond roux at the beginning to make a very thin sauce. Simmering for 15 minutes to 1 hour thickens the sauce and intensifies the flavour. The long slow process of cooking gives it a velvety texture and consistency, hence the name Velouté or Velvety. Stir the sauce frequently to prevent scorching and skim from time to time.


White Stock (Veal, chicken, fish) – 350 ml.

Butter –  40 grams.

Refined flour – 40 grams.

Double Cream / Cream Fraiche – 20 ml.

Lime juice – ½ tsp.

Seasonings – to taste.


  1. In a small saucepan, over medium heat, bring the stock to boil.
  2. Melt butter in a pan, add flour, and cook gently off and on the flame the blond roux to a golden straw colour by stirring constantly. Remove the pan from the heat and cool slightly.
  3. Whisk in the stock slowly and return the pan to the heat. Bring to boil slowly and stir continuously till the right consistency is achieved.
  4. Simmer the sauce gently by stirring from time to time.
  5. Add seasonings and finish with egg yolk and cream liaison.


  • Sauce Allemande: Quite simply, this is a velouté thickened with egg yolks and flavored with mushroom liquor, lemon juice, pepper, and nutmeg. (This sauce is also known as sauce Parisienne).
  • Sauce Supreme: This is a  chicken velouté enriched with cream.  It should be very white in color and delicate in flavor. 
  • Sauce Ivoire: To one-liter sauce supreme,  add three-tbs. Melted light-colored meat glaze,  just sufficient to give the acquired ivory tint to the sauce. Suitable for serving with poultry.
  • Sauce Normande: To fish velouté-add mushroom liquor and cooking liquor from mussels and fish stock, all in equal proportions,  a few drops of lemon juice and thickening of egg yolks with cream. Reduce this to 1/3 of its volume.  Pass through a  fine strainer and finish with some more cream butter. This can be used for large numbers. of fish dishes.
  • Sauce Joinville: Prepare  Sauce  Normande and finish with equal parts of crayfish butter and shrimp butter instead of cream and butter.

Points to be remembered

Whenever the above sauces are served with chicken, veal, fish, or shellfishes, they are seasoned to taste with salt and pepper and adjusted for consistency to suit the requirements. Again the above sauces are used for a glazed dish, egg yolk or a sabayon should be added to the sauce just prior to glazing. One egg yolk has been added do not reboil, otherwise, the sauce will separate.


Mix the yolk of an egg with a few drops of water and whisk over a bain-marie to ribbon stage. Used to enrich sauce and assist when a glazed appearance is required.


The most famous brown sauce, Espagnole, is made with a rich brown stock and a gently cooked brown roux. Although the rich sauce is robust, yet fine and well flavoured. It is time-consuming and requires skills. A brown roux is tricky to make without scorching or separating. The sauce is intensified by adding fine original Spanish ham and tomato puree, which add to the glossy brown colour. Although it can be served by itself. It is also the base of many rich, dark French sauce as ‘Demi glaze’, Sauce Robert and sauce Madira.

Nowadays many chefs use the last-moment thickener like arrowroot or potato starch, which produces a lighter sauce.


Mix 11/4kg of brown roux into 20 liters of brown stock, add mirepoix and tomato puree and then cook for 3-4 hours until it reduces by three. quarters, strain, and use.


Cook equal quantities of Espagnole and brown stock until reduced by half, finished with a little fortified wine, skim and strain.


  • Sauce Chasseur: Melt. butter in a small pan, add. chopped shallots and sliced mushrooms and sauté. Add white wine, reduced by ½, then add equal parts of tomato sauce and sauce demi-glaze. Add meat glaze, simmer gently and finish with chopped parsley (In some methods of preparing Sauce Chasseur some brandy is also added).
  • Sauce Bordelaise: Reduce red wine in a small pan. Finely chopped shallots, a  little pepper, bay leaf, and a  sprig of thyme to ¾.Add  Sauce  Espagnole and allow it to simmer gently, skimming as necessary. Pass through a fine strainer and finish with. Melted meat glaze, the juice of ¼  lemon and 50  gm.  Bone marrow cut into small slices or dices and poached. This sauce is especially suitable for serving with grilled red meats. (Originally this sauce was made with white wine but nowadays-red wine is always used)
  • Sauce Bourguignonne: Reduce red wine in a  pan with sliced shallots,  a  few parsley stalks,  a  bay leaf, a small sprig of thyme, and mushroom trimming ½. . Pass through a fine strainer (u may thicken by adding beurre manie.  Finish at the last moment with frozen butter and a  little cayenne. This sauce is especially suitable for serving with egg and dishes designated a’ la bourguignon.
  • Sauce Diable: Place white wine in a pan. Add chopped shallots and reduce by 2/3. Add sauce demi-glaze and allow to simmer slightly for a few minutes then season the sauce strongly with cayenne pepper. This sauce is especially suitable for serving with grilled chicken.

NOTE:  Vinegar may be used instead of wine and chopped fine herbs and maybe included in the reduction.

  •   Sauce Piquante: Place white wine and the same amt of vinegar in a pan with chopped shallot, reduce by ½., Add sauce Espagnole, bring to the boil and simmer gently, skimming as necessary for 10 min. Remove from the heat and finish with 2 tbsp. of chopped gherkins, tarragon, chervil, and parsley. This sauce is usually served with boiled, roasted, or grilled pork.
  • Sauce Poivrade: Heat oil in a pan, add a mirepoix comprising of. Carrots, onion,  little parsley stalks, a pinch of thyme, and a  crushed bay leaf and cook until lightly colored.  Moisten with vinegar, & marinade and reduce by  2/3.  Add.  sauce Espagnole and allow to simmer gently for 45 min.  A little before passing the sauce add crushed peppercorns and pass through a  sieve then add some of the marinades again.  Bring to the boil,  skim and carefully simmer for approx.  35 min.  So as to reduce the sauce to the required quantity. Pass and finish with. butter.
  • Sauce Madeira: Reduce sauce demi-glaze until slightly thickened.  Remove from the heat and add Madeira wine Pass through a fine strainer and do not reboil.
  • Sauce au Porto: This is prepared in the same way as Madeira replacing the Madeira wines with  Port wine.
  • Sauce Robert: Heat butter in a pan, add finely chopped onion, and cook without coloring. Moisten with white wine and reduce by 2/3. Add sauce demi-glaze and simmer gently for 10-min. Pass the sauce through a fine strainer and finish away from the heat with a pinch of sugar and some English mustard diluted with a little water. This sauce is usually served to accompany grilled pork.
  • Sauce Vin rouge: Heat butter, add the finely cut mirepoix and cook to a light brown color; moisten with good quality red wine and reduce by ½. Add some crushed garlic and Espagnole;  skim   &simmer carefully for 12-15 mins. Pass through a fine strainer and finish with butter, a little anchovy essence, and a little cayenne pepper. This sauce is especially suitable for serving with fish.
  • Sauce Matelote: Place red wine court  –  bouillon in a pan with mushroom trimmings.  Reduce by two-thirds and then add Espagnole. Simmer gently for a  few min and pass through a  fine strainer. Finish the sauce with of and lightly season with cayenne pepper.


An emulsion is a colloidal dispersion of tiny droplets of one liquid suspended in another to form a homogeneous mixture.

The emulsified sauce includes ingredients most often egg or egg yolk and a fat such as butter or oil which normally do not form a stable suspension of the mixture. By vigorous beating or shaking, the ingredients can be emulsified to form a smooth sauce in stable suspension. The most important emulsified sauce is Hollandaise, a warm sauce, and Mayonnaise a cold sauce. Bearnaise is made in the same way as Hollandaise but is flavoured with a reduction of vinegar, shallots, and tarragon which gives its characteristic sweet tangy flavour. The quality of all these sauces depends on using the best egg and butter or oil. The emulsified sauce is famous for being difficult because they separate or curdle so easily.


Clarified butter is a way of separating the milky fat solids ( whey)from the pure butter fat. Once clarified it can be served as a simple sauce, used for frying or to help to stabilize sauce like Hollandaise and Bearnaise.

Put the butter in a small pan and melt over low heat; do not allow the butter to boil.

Remove the pan from the heat and tilt the pan slightly Using a flat spoon .skim off any foam from the surface. Pour into a small bowl. leaving the milky solids behind. Cool,if recipe directs.


Hollandaise and its variations are opaque, but the sauce should have a  luster and

not appear oily. They should have a smooth texture. A grainy texture indicates overcooking of the egg yolks.  It should have light consistency and at times almost

appears frothy.

1 tablespoon of cold water, a few  milled peppercorns, Pinch of cayenne, Pinch of salt to season

2 egg yolks

5 ml Vinegar/lemon juice

120 ml of clarified butter.

How to make it?

  • Prepare a reduction with vinegar/lemon juice and peppercorns in a pan, reduce to half. Swill the pan with cold water and allow it to cool.
  • Place egg yolk and strained reduction into a mixing bowl and whisk to a ribbon stage over a bain-marie.
  • Gradually whisk in the melted butter until the reduction is formed.
  • Add salt, cayenne, and lime juice.


This sauce is made in much the same way as Hollandaise sauce, but a pungent reduction is made before adding the egg yolks and butter. The reduction should be reduced to about 1 tablespoon.

BÉARNAISE SAUCE  (This is not a mother sauce)

Wine vinegar                        120 ml               

White wine                           120 ml                     

Shallots,  finely chopped         6 med       

Tarragon finely chopped        1 tbs    

Parsley finely chopped           1 tbs         

Chervil finely chopped           3 tbs         

Crushed pepper                    1 tbs                    


Egg yolks                           6-8 nos.

Clarified butter                   500 gm

  • Make a reduction of all things n A till 2/3.
  • Separate egg yolks, add reduction and a little water and beat slightly to a froth.
  • Put on a double boiler and beat till it thickens, over alow heat.
  • Remove from heat and beat the clarified butter into it very gradually till it thickens.
  • Season. 

    Points to be remembered


The scrambled appearance of sauce due to coagulation, shrinking and hardening of egg protein at around 550C (1580F), so care must be taken to :

  • Ensure that egg yolk does not become too hot when whisking to the ribbon stage over the double boiler.
  • Prevent the melted butter from overheating before adding to the egg yolk.
  • Prevent the sauce from overheating prior to service.

The curdled sauce may be the result of the following reasons :

  • Insufficient agitation during mixing too much mechanical agitation which breaks down the protective layer of emulsifying agent.
  • Adding melted butter too quickly to the egg mixture.
  • Using incorrect formula.
  • Using egg yolks which lack sufficient emulsifying agent e.g. stale egg yolks.

To overcome the above-mentioned points, care must be taken to :

  • Ensure that the melted butter is not added too quickly to the egg yolks.
  • Whisking briskly when adding the melted butter.
  • Prepare sauce just before the service.
  • Ensure fresh eggs are used.


  • Place a small amount of boiling water into a clean bowl. Gradually whisk the curdled mixture on to the water.
  • Place fresh egg yolks into a clean bowl. Gradually whisk in the curdled mixture on to the yolk, whisk gently over a bain-marie.


  • Sauce Charon: Prepare a Sauce Béarnaise, omitting the final addition of tarragon and chervil and keeping it fairly thick,  add up a  quarter of its volume of tomato puree which has been well concentrated or reduced in order that the addition will not alter the consistency of the sauce.
  • Sauce Foyot: Prepare a  Sauce  Béarnaise,  keeping it fairly thick and finish with melted meat glaze added little at a time.
  • Sauce Maltaise: Prepare a Sauce Hollandaise and at the last moment add the juice of  2  oranges(reduced) and a good pinch of grated zest. Goes well with asparagus.
  • Sauce Palois: Prepare a Béarnaise but while doing this replace the principle flavoring of tarragon with the same quantity of mint in the reduction of white wine and vinegar and replace the chopped tarragon with chopped mint at the final stage.
  • Sauce Mousseline(Chantilly): Prepare Sauce Hollandaise and at the last moment carefully mix in.  stiffly whipped cream.


This delicious sauce is used in salads, sandwiches, and as apart of other sauces.It can be varied by using different oils, herbs, and other flavourings. Mayonnaise can also be made in a blender, food processer, or with an electric mixer. Make sauce that all the ingredients are at room temperature. If making by hand, set the bowl on a towel to stop it from sliding around.

Remember, mayonnaise is made with raw egg yolk which can harbor ‘Salmonella’ bacteria. Pregnant women, children, and the elderly should avoid undercooked or raw eggs.


This is a cold, emulsified sauce, used extensively in the Garde Manger.  

Egg yolks                                       2 

Oil (Olive oil, vegetable oil Or half of each) 360 ml



Mustard (Dijon) 


White vinegar /Lemon juice 15 ml

  • Bring all the ingredients to room temp.
  • Combine the yolks and seasoning and beat a little.
  • Add the oil very slowly and keep beating till an emulsion is formed.
  • Add the vinegar/lime juice and check to season.

Points to remembered

Faults :

Unstable emulsion caused due to

  1. When the ingredients have been at too low a temperature, thus preventing the emulsifying agents from coating the oil successfully.
  2. By using stale egg yolks which consequently provide an insufficient agent.
  3. By inadequate whisking when adding oil to the egg yolks, thus preventing even distribution of oil into the egg.
  4. By adding the oil too quickly in the initial stages of preparations, thus prevent a thorough mixing of yolks and oil resulting in the sauce separations.
  5. By using incorrect formula balance.

How to correct a curdled Mayonnaise Sauce?

 Mix the unstable emulsion on to fresh egg yolk or on to a few drops of boiling water. Use a clean bowl and proceed as for making Mayonnaise.


  • Sauce Tartare: To mayonnaise sauce add chopped gherkins, capers, shallots, parsley, chives.
  • Sauce Verte: Blanch rapidly for five minutes spinach and watercress & a mixture of parsley, tarragon, and chervil drain well. Refresh quickly and squeeze out all the water. Pound the leaves then squeeze them firmly in a clean cloth so as to obtain a thick herb juice. Add this to well-seasoned mayonnaise.
  • Sauce Mousquetaire: To mayonnaise add finely chopped shallots that have been cooked and completely reduced with white wine, some melted meat glaze, and chopped chives. Season the sauce with a touch of cayenne or milled pepper.
  • Sauce Remoulade: To mayonnaise add and mix in Mustard,  chopped gherkins,  chopped capers,  parsley tarragon and chervil, and some anchovy essence.
  • Sauce Casanova: Add chopped truffle and shallots, sieved hard-boiled egg to Mayonnaise.
  • Sauce Gribiche: Mix together cooked yolks of egg with mustard, salt, and pepper and gradually add oil and vinegar as for Mayonnaise. Garnish with chopped Capers, gherkins, and fine herbs along with the julienne of hard-boiled egg white.


This preparation is used to accompany a variety of grilled meat or fish dishes. Also, it adds interest and flavour to various products. They are easily prepared in advance and stored refrigerated in readiness for use.

Cream butter until soft, combine with flavorings and seasonings to taste. Roll in dampened greaseproof paper to a cylindrical shape, approximately 2 ½ cm wide. Store refrigerated but not frozen.

It may be utilized in the following way

  • Add to the sauce to enhance flavour, in the preparation of a culinary product e.g. snails in garlic butter.
  • place on hot food for service e.g. grilled steak, place in a sauce boat of iced water to keep the butter solid in a hot atmosphere.


  • Anchovy Butter: add anchovy essence /paste / pounded to butter.
  • Garlic Butter: chopped garlic, parsley, a pinch of pepper combined with butter.
  • Basil Butter: Add a fine puree of fresh basil leaves and a little lemon juice with the butter.
  • Colbert Butter: Butter creamed with parsley and tarragon and beef extract.
  • Maiter d’hotel Butter: Beurre Maître d’Hôtel, also referred to as Maître d’Hôtel butter, is a type of compound butter of French origin, prepared with butter, parsley, lemon juice, salt, and pepper. It is a savory butter that is used on meats such as steak, fish, vegetables, and other foods.
  • Ravigote Butter:  Pound blanched herbs and shallots, pass through a sieve, and add to soften butter.
  • Bercy Butter:  Reduce chopped shallots in wine, add butter, bone marrow, chopped parsley, and lemon juice.
  • Crayfish Butter: Pulverize crayfish debris, add butter and pass through a sieve.
  • Red wine Butter: reduce shallots in red wine and add to the butter with seasonings, lemon juice, and chopped parsley.
  • Nutty Butter: add finely chopped peanuts, the slices of butter may be dipped in chopped nuts.


Hot butter sauces are often used with vegetables, fish, meat offals, and poultry dishes. They can be served to complete a dish or as an accompaniment e.g. Poisson Meuniere, beurre meuniere to complete; beurre fondue to accompany asparagus, etc.


  • Beurre Noisette: Heat butter until brown and pour over the food on the dish, if desired a little lemon juice may be added. This butter is frequently used in conjunction with jus lie for shallow fried food.
  • Beurre Noire: Heat butter until it begins colour brown, add a few drops of vinegar, and pour over the food. Capers and chopped parsley may be added at the last moment.
  • Beurre Blanc: Cook chopped shallots in a little water, gradually adding the juice of the lemon as it evaporates. Whisk butter in small pieces at a time, keeping the pan in a bain-marie of water until the lemon sauce becomes white and frothy. Serve at once and do not allow to become too warm.
  • Beurre Rouge: Make as Beurre Blanc by using red wine.
  • Beurre Fondue: Heat butter until warm and just melted, add lemon juice, and served immediately.
  • Beurre Meuniere: As for Beurre Noisette garnish with chopped parsley.
  • Sauce au Beurre: Add flour to melted butter then boiling salted water to make a smooth sauce. Add a liaison of egg yolk, cream and lemon juice, allow to thicken, and finish with plenty of butter added in pieces at the last moment. Served with poached fish, asparagus etc.


Except the above-mentioned sauces, there are many sauces that are prepared independently. They are as follows

Jus lie – Thickened gravy.

Sauce Kari – Curry sauce.

Sauce Portugaise – Sauce Portuguese.

Sauce Brigade – Orange flavoured sauce.

Sauce Homard – Lobster sauce.

Sauce Bologonaise – Sauvory meat sauce.

Sauce Pommes – Apple sauce.

Sauce Pain – Bread sauce.

Sauce Menthe – Mint sauce.

Contemporary Sauces

The broad category of contemporary sauces includes beurre blanc, coulis, compound butter, and a variety of miscellaneous sauces, such as relishes, salsas, and compotes. The primary factors distinguishing contemporary sauces from the grand sauces are the following 

  • They usually take less time to prepare.
  • They are more likely to be specifically tailored to be given food or technique.
  • They have a lighter color, texture, and flavor than some of the grand sauces.
  • They are more likely to be thickened and finished using emulsions, modified starches, or reduction and less likely to contain roux.

Some of the popular contemporary sauces are:

  • Roasted Tomato Coulis.
  • Tomatillo Salsa Verde.
  • Red Pepper and corn relish.
  • Rosemary Oil.
  • Basil Oil.
  • Chimichurri sauce.
  • Red onion marmalade.


Spread the love



The answer to this question is quite simple. Some of the definitions which best describe a SALAD are:

  1. A dish of raw leafy green vegetables is often tossed with pieces of other raw or cooked vegetables, fruit, cheese, or other ingredients and served with a dressing.
  2. A cold dish of chopped vegetables, fruit, meat, fish, eggs, or other food, usually prepared with a dressing, such as mayonnaise.
  3. Food mixtures are either arranged on a plate or tossed and served with a moist dressing; usually consisting of or including greens.
  4. A salad is a food served with dressing. The food can be a cold dish, or green vegetables or a mixture of fruits, or a hot mixture of hot piquant food, or a frozen mixture of bland fruits, or chopped food in hot aspic, coleslaw potato, or meat.     (Theory of cookery)

In general, salads are cold preparations made from raw, cooked, or blanched vegetables, singly or in combination, and can include other items such as fresh herbs, fruits, nuts and cooked eggs, pasta, rice, fish, meat, and poultry.

morder food hospitality study


SALAD COURSE: In a very formal meal experience, salads are sometimes served after the main course. Such salads are light and refreshing in nature and provide a change from the heavy main course. Well-dressed salad greens and savoury vegetables are a popular choice.

MAIN COURSE: It is also substantial enough as a main dish. One of the bodybuilding foods such as meat, fish, egg, or cheese forms the base. The volume and richness of these salads are adequate to satisfy a normal appetite.

ACCOMPANIMENTS:  The salad is also served as an accompaniment with the main course.



These salads can be further subdivided in green salad or salad in season, which is served raw or cooked. Such salads normally use only a single kind of vegetable as a base and only one or two ingredients in small quantity as decoration or garnish.

Some examples of such salads with appropriate dressing are:





Cabbage Julienne

Vinaigrette / Mustard Cream


Roundels Of Cucumber



Salad Leaves



Slices Of Tomato With Chopped Parsley



Roudles Or Diced Cooked Beetroot

Mustard Cream


Compound salads are more elaborate salads that consist of more than one ingredient. Such salads can be further subdivided into four major groups:



parts of a sald hospitality study


The base may be made up of lettuce, cabbage, or any other leafy vegetables. It must cover the bottom part of the salad. The leaves must be clean and thoroughly washed because they can contain a lot of soil and insects. Preferably all the salads leaves must be washed with a chlorine solution.


ARUGULA: With its peppery and slightly bitter flavour, arugula is a terrific green to be used in a salad.  It can be gently braised, too. 

BELGIAN ENDIVE: These crunchy, slightly bitter leaves are often used to make hors d’oeuvres, but they can also be chopped and added to salads, or braised to make an exquisite salad.

CRESS: This is a peppery green that’s great in salads, sandwiches, and soups.  It’s attractive enough to make a good garnish as well.  There are several varieties, including watercress, upland cress, curly cress, and land cress. Cress is highly perishable, so try to use it as soon as possible after you buy it.

CURLY ENDIVE:  This crisp, bitter green leaf can be used in salads or cook it as a side dish.  The outer leaves are green and somewhat bitter; the pale inner leaves are more tender and mild. 

ICEBERG: This is prized for its crispness and longevity in the refrigerator, but it’s a bit short on flavor and nutrients. It’s one of the most readily available lettuces in India and is mostly used by a number of hotels to prepare salads. 

LOLLO ROSSO: This mild, tender lettuce has ruffled red edges.

RADICCHIO: With its beautiful colouring and slightly bitter flavour, radicchio is wonderful when combined with other salad greens. 

ROMAINE LETTUCE: Romaine combines good flavour and crunch, plus it has a decent shelf life in the refrigerator.  It’s the preferred green for Caesar salad.  Green romaine is the most common variety, but you can sometimes find red romaine, which is tender.

RED SANGRIA LETTUCE: Thick rose blushed leaves over a blanched pale yellow heart make for attractive lettuce.

BELGIAN ENDIVE: These crunchy, slightly bitter leaves are often used to make hors d’oeuvres, but they can also be chopped and added to salads, or braised to make an exquisite (and expensive) side dish.  Select heads with yellow tips; those with green tips are more bitter.   Their peak season in the late fall and winter.

BIBB LETTUCE   This butterhead lettuce has delicate, loose leaves and lots of flavour.  The only downside is that it’s usually expensive  

MIZUNA OR SPIDER MUSTARD   Mizuna has tender leaves and a pleasant, peppery flavour.

RED MUSTARD:   This has a pungent, peppery flavour that adds zip to salads.

DANDELIONS:   Dandelions have a somewhat bitter flavour, which Europeans appreciate more than Americans.   Older dandelion greens should be cooked; younger ones can be cooked or served raw as a salad green.  They’re available year-round, but they’re best in the spring. 


The body comprises of the main ingredient of the salad. It must be proportional to the base. The body must comprise of small bite size pieces of the ingredients. The ingredients used should have a balance of flavours and taste.


The main purpose of a garnish is to add a eye appeal to the finished product. But a certain number of times it can also be added to improve the taste of the salad. Can be either a part of the body also. It should be kept simple.


A Dressing is served with all salads, it is used to flavour the salad provides food value, and improves palatability and appearance. The dressing may be in liquid or semi-liquid form. It can be made with a variety of ingredients ranging from oil-vinegar, cream, yogurt, egg, and cheese.

Various oil used for making a dressing are:


Various vinegar used for making a dressing are:



Sauce Louis – Mayonnaise and heavy cream combined with chopped green pepper and green onion seasoned with chili sauce and Worcestershire sauce and lemon juice.

  • Blue cheese dressing – Creamy dressing containing crumbled blue cheese.
  • Roquefort dressing – Vinaigrette containing crumbled Roquefort or blue cheese.
  • French dressing- Three parts Oil and one part vinegar with mustard and garlic.
  • English dressing- one part of the oil and two-part vinegar, English mustard, and seasoning.
  • American vinaigrette- equal quantities of vinegar and oil, mustard and seasoning.
  • Lorenzo dressing – Vinaigrette with chili sauce and chopped watercress.
  • Anchovy dressing – Vinaigrette and mashed anchovies.
  • Italian dressing – Vinaigrette with garlic and herbs: oregano and basil and dill.
  • Half-and-half dressing – Half mayonnaise and half vinaigrette seasoned with minced garlic and mashed anchovies and grated Parmesan cheese; especially good for combination salads.
  • Mayonnaise – Egg yolks and oil and vinegar.
  • Russian dressing – Mayonnaise with horseradish grated onion and chili sauce or catsup; sometimes with caviar added.
  • Salad cream – A Creamy salad dressing resembling mayonnaise.
  • Thousand Island dressing – Mayonnaise with chili sauce or tomato ketchup and minced olives and peppers and hard-cooked egg.
  • Acidulated cream: Three-part of thin cream to one part of lemon juice, salt, and pepper.
Spread the love

Sugar/ Sweetener

Sweet is probably the most popular taste throughout the world, not only to make desserts but it is necessary for the whole host of cooking technique. Without the use of sweeteners, the world’s cooking heritage would be poorer.

Sugar or sucrose is a carbohydrate that occurs naturally in every fruit and vegetable in the plant kingdom. It is the major product of photosynthesis, the process by which plants transform sugar energy into food. Sugar occurs in the greatest quantities in sugar cane and sugar beets from which it is separated for commercial use.

Functions of sugar or sweeteners in food production are as follows:

  • Adds sweetness to any food and beverages
  • Adds brown color to cooked food by a process calls caramelization.
  • Sugar works as preservatives, eg; jam, jelly marmalade, candied fruits, etc.
  • Sugar helps to prepare fermented foods by taking part in the fermentation process
  • Being hygroscopic in nature it retains moisture for a longer time in a product.
  • Helps to make egg foam much more stable, hence used in making meringue.

In the field of professional food production sweeteners may broadly be classified into two sections:

  • Natural Sweetener
  • Artificial Sweetener


Natural sweeteners are those available directly or after slight processing from nature, mostly from plant sources, like Sugar, Honey, Maple syrup, Treacle, Molasses, and Jaggery, etc.

cooking, ingredients, flat hospitality studylay


Sugar is the generalized name for a class of sweet-flavored substances used as food. They are carbohydrates and are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose, fructose, and galactose. The table or granulated sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide. Other disaccharides include maltose and lactose.

Commercially the main sources for sugar are

Sugar cane – (Saccharum officinarum) is a giant grass native from tropical countries of South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is the main source of sugar for the world.

Sugar beet – (Beta vulgaris)  is a plant whose tuber contains a high concentration of sucrose. It is grown commercially for sugar production

Different types of sugar:

Granulated/Table sugar – Regular white sugar crystals are used widely both commercially and domestically. Must be used only in recipes where sufficient moisture is present to dissolve large grains. Good for hot beverages like tea, coffee, etc.

Caster/Superfine/Breakfast sugar – Finer crystals that dissolve easily. It is a better option for creaming with the fat. Used for delicate desserts like mousse, custards, and meringues. It is also very popular as a breakfast accompaniment as dissolves readily in tea and coffee and other cold drinks like fruit juices.

Icing/ Confectioner’s sugar – a powdered form of granulated sugar with a maximum of 3% of anti-caking or lump preventing agent ( corn flour is a most popular option as an anti-caking agent sometimes Calcium Phosphate is also used). It is very smooth and free flow in nature. Dissolves immediately in contact with moisture. Used for making icings and frostings.

Vanilla sugar – Caster sugar mixed with at least 10% pure vanilla extract or essence. Used in different desserts.

Brown sugar – Unrefined and unbleached sugar with high molasses content. Imparts a nice smoky flavor and color to the product. It has got a minute amount of minerals, vitamins, and proteins. The texture is moist, sticky, and tends to get lumpy very quickly. Used in fruit cake, plum pudding some special coffees, etc… few popular varieties are like, Muscovado, Demerara, Barbados, etc.

Muscovado is dark brown, strongly flavored sugar that is moist and fine-grained, useful for dark rich fruit cake or other dark desserts.

Demerara is partly refined with a small amount of molasses, which gives it a pale golden color, it gives a nice crunch to cookies.

Sugar Crystals/ Rock candy – simple sugar crystals converted to large crystals by adding some extra amount of sugar to a supersaturated solution. When water will be evaporated from such a solution sugar crystals will join to form large crystals. This can be colored also. Mainly used for decoration.

Preserving/Jam sugar – large sugar crystals mixed with a setting agent like pectin.

Invert sugar – Inverted or invert sugar is a mixture of glucose and fructose; it is obtained by splitting sucrose into these two components by treating with acid or other enzymes. The mixture is sold as a viscous liquid and is often referred to as Trimline or invert syrup. Compared to sucrose, inverted sugar is sweeter, and its products tend to retain moisture and are less prone to crystallization.

Liquid glucose – Glucose syrup, also known as confectioner’s glucose, is a syrup made from the hydrolysis of starch. Maize (corn) is commonly used as the source of the starch in this case, but glucose syrup can also be made from potatoes and wheat, and less often from barley, rice and cassava. This thick and viscous liquid contains dextrin gum which retards the crystallization of sugar. Popularly used for candy and sugar decorations.

Bakers Special Sugar – The crystal size of Bakers Special is even finer than that of fruit sugar. As its name suggests, it was developed especially for the baking industry. Bakers Special is used for sugaring doughnuts and cookies, as well as in some commercial cake recipes to create a fine crumb texture.

Coarse sugar – Also known as pearl or decorating sugar. As its name implies, the crystal size of coarse sugar is larger than that of “regular” sugar. Coarse sugar is recovered when molasses-rich, sugar syrups high in sucrose can crystallize. The large crystal size of coarse sugar makes it highly resistant to color change or inversion (natural breakdown to fructose and glucose) at cooking and baking temperatures. These characteristics are important in making fondants, confections, and liquors.

Date sugar – Date sugar is more food than a sweetener. It is ground up from dehydrated dates, is high in fiber. Its use is limited by price and the fact it does not dissolve when added to liquids.

Fruit Sugar – Fruit sugar is slightly finer than “regular” sugar and is used in dry mixes such as gelatin and pudding desserts, and powdered drinks. Fruit sugar has a more uniform small crystal size than “regular” sugar. The uniformity of crystal size prevents the separation or settling of larger crystals to the bottom of the box, an important quality in dry mixes.

Sugar Cubes – They are made from moist granulated sugar that is pressed into molds and then dried.

Sanding sugar – Also known as coarse sugar. A large crystal sugar that is used mainly in the baking and confectionery industries as a sprinkle on top of baked goods. The large crystals reflect light and give the product a sparkling appearance.

Superfine, ultra-fine, or bar sugar – This sugar’s crystal size is the finest of all the types of granulated white sugar. It is ideal for delicately textured cakes and meringues, as well as for sweetening fruits and iced drinks since it dissolves easily.

Free-flowing brown sugars – These sugars are specialty products produced by a co-crystallization process. The process yields fine, powder-like brown sugar that is less moist than “regular” brown sugar. Since it is less moist, it does not clump and is free-flowing like white sugar.

Turbinado sugar – This sugar is raw sugar that has been partially processed, where only the surface molasses has been washed off. It has a blond color and mild brown sugar flavor and is often used in tea and other beverages.

Liquid sugars – There are several types of liquid sugar. Liquid sugar (sucrose) is white granulated sugar that has been dissolved in water before it is used. Liquid sugar is ideal for products whose recipes first require sugar to be dissolved. Amber liquid sugar is darker in color and can be used in foods where brown color is desired.


honey dipper, honey, dipper hospitality study

Honey is one of the oldest sweeteners used by a human beings. It is mainly flower and fruit nectars collected and naturally processed by honeybees. It is very popular for its nice color and flavor. Commonly used in sauces, topping, and dips.


maple, syrup, sun hospitality study

This is the sap of maple tree, which is very expensive; hence for commercial purpose, it is blended with corn syrups in the range of 2-6 percentages. It is mainly served as a pancake topping.


The cooking of sugar should be carried out progressively, in a heavy-based pan made of un-tinned copper or stainless pan that must be absolutely clean & grease-free. Cooking begins over low heat until the sugar is dissolved. The heat can be increased under strict supervision. When the sugar reaches the desired cooking stage the pan must be removed from heat immediately, a few drops of water may be added to control the temperature. The degree of cooking is measured manually with a sugar/candy thermometer which can read temperature up to 2000C.

The different stages of sugar cooking: Coated: (1000C/21250F) – Absolutely translucent syrup about to come to boil. When a skewer is dipped & withdrawn, the syrup should coat its surface. Used for fruits in syrup.

Small thread or Small gloss: (1010C/2140F) – professional chefs test the consistency of this sugar by plunging the fingers in cold water & then quickly in the syrup. On parting the fingers carefully short threads will form about 2-3 cm long, which breaks easily. Can be used for marzipans.

Large threads or large gloss: (102 – 1030C/215 – 2170F) – the threads obtained between fingers are now stronger and about 0.5cm wide. This is used in recipes requiring sugar syrup & for buttercreams, icing & frostings.

Small Pearl: (103 – 1050C/217 – 2210F) – a few minutes after the large thread stage round bubbles form on the surface of the syrup. When a little is collected on a spoon and taken on fingers it forms a wide solid thread, mainly used in jams or torrent a special type of nougat.

Large pearl or Soufflé: (107 – 1090C/224 – 2280F) – The thread of sugar between fingers may reach a width of 2 cm. when one blows on the skimmer after plunging it in the syrup, bubbles are formed on the other side. Used in a jam, sugar-coated fruits, glances, and icings.

Small or softball: (116 – 118oC/241 – 2440F) – When a little syrup is removed with a spoon and plunged into a bowl of cold water, it will roll into a softball. If one blows on the skimmer dipped into the syrup, bubbles break loose and blow away. It is used for jams, jellies, soft caramels, nougats, and Italian meringue.

Large or hardball: (121 – 1240C/250 – 2550F) – after several boiling, the previous operation is repeated, and a harder ball is obtained. If one blows through the skimmer snowy flakes are formed. It is used in jams, sugar decorations, Italian meringue, fondant & caramel.

Light, small, or soft crack: (129 – 1350C/265 – 2750F) – A drop of sugar syrup in cold water hardens immediately and will crack and stick to teeth when chewed. Used mainly in toffee.

Hard crack: (149 – 1500C/295 – 3000F) – The drops of syrup in cold water become hard and brittle like glass but not sticky. The color is like a pale straw-yellow at the edges of the saucepan. It must be watched very carefully to prevent it from becoming caramel. It is used for boiled sweets and candies, spun sugar decorations, icing, sugar flowers, and candy floss.

Light caramel: (1600C/3250F) – The syrup now contains hardly any water, begins to change into barley sugar, then into caramel. Yellow at first, it becomes golden than brown. Used for cream caramel, sweets, nougatine, puddings, cakes, cookies, bread and to add distinctive flavors.

Brown or dark caramel (Blackjack): (161 – 1700C/326 – 3380F) – When it turns brown sugar loses its sweetening power. This is the last stage of sugar cooking before carbonization (sugar burns & smokes at 1900C/3750F). this is used for mainly coloring sauce, stock, cakes, etc.

Spread the love

Shortening Agent/Fats and Oils

Fats and oils are nutritionally useful and some form economical sources of energy and give a satiety value to the dish. They also contribute characteristic palatability, qualities of flavour, and texture and popularly used as the medium of cooking.

The scientific term “Lipid” comprises a group of substances that include natural fats and oils. Both lipids consist of fatty acids and glycerol.

The only difference between fats and oils is that oils are liquid at room temperature (only exceptions are coconut and palm oil), whereas fats are solid as they contain saturated fatty acids. Saturation means the density of fat, in other words, it is the molecular structure of the fat where the carbon atoms are bonded with hydrogen and oxygen.

The saturation is increased artificially by adding hydrogen into fat by a process known as saturation or hydrogenation of fat/oil. For example, oil can be converted into margarine by passing hydrogen into it to make it saturated. This is done to stabilize the fats and oils and therefore the shelf life of the product increases as it does not oxidize easily.

Those fats which are transformed artificially from oil to fats are known as trans-fats and they are not healthy as they are the prime cause of the cardiac disorder.

Fats and oils do not dissolve in water, but they can be emulsified with water to produce salad dressings and sauces. Fats along with carbohydrates and proteins make up the major components of food.

butter, good butter, fat hospitality study


Fats and oils are the prime ingredients for cooking and baking around the world. Fats and oils give richness, variety of texture, and smoothness to the fat otherwise it may be too dry to eat. The melting and smoking points of fats and oils are very important to the chefs, as they decide the usage of the lipid in the dish, one cannot use butter for deep frying as it has a very low smoking point, so it will burn to black till it reaches the temperature of frying.

Fats and oils are used for various purposes like:


  • Spreads – butter and margarine are used for spreads and their function is to add the flavour, nutritional value, and satiety value of bread.
  • Shortening – these are fats that shorten the gluten strand by surrounding them and make them more easily broken (short). When added to bread it gives a bit of tenderness, richness, and sheen to the crumb.
  • Tempering – spices are added to hot oil/fat and then added to dal, curries, rice, etc. to give better flavour, very common in Indian cuisine.
  • Salad dressings – fat is one of the main ingredients of salad dressings: like animal fat dressings like bacon fat, vinegar, and seasonings, or other common dressings like vinaigrette, mayonnaise, etc.
  • Flavoured oil/infused oils – nowadays flavoured oils play a vital role in food production, they can be used as salad dressings, garnishes, or simply as accompaniments e.g. Chili oil, basil oil, peppers oil, etc.
  • Frying medium – fats and oils are hugely used as cooking medium, i.e. pan roasting, deep-frying, and sautéing. Fats with a high smoking point is better for frying, the highest frying temperature needed for frying anything is 1990C/3900
  • Creaming and aerating effect – When making rice cakes, fat and sugar are beaten or creamed together.  This process incorporates small air bubbles into the mixture and so lightens the product.


Rendering is a process where the fat is melted on heat to separate the skin and non-fatty membrane. This is done over low heat, and sometimes some water is added to it and brings to a boil, then the flame is reduced and let most of the water evaporates leaving behind the clear fat which can be strained and stored away. Another method is to keep the fat on low heat, all the fat will melt out leaving some crisp skin behind, which is known as “crackling” and this can be used for salads and garnishes.


Clarifying butter is a process where the water and the milk solids are removed so that butter becomes more stable and can be used for cooking without changing its properties. This process is very similar to that of the rendering fat.


  1. Solubility – Fats and oils are insoluble in water. However, in the presence of a suitable substance known as an emulsifying agent, it is possible to form a stable mixture of fat and water.  This mixture is termed an emulsion.  The emulsion may be a fat-in-water emulsion, e.g. milk, or a water-in-fat emulsion, e.g. butter.
  1. Effect of heat – As fats are heated there are three temperatures at which noticeable changes take place.

Melting Point – Fats melt when heated. The temperature at which melting starts is called the Slip point.  Most fats melt at a temperature between 30°C and 40°C. 

Smoke Point – When a fat or oil is heated to a certain temperature it starts to decompose, producing a blue haze of smoke and a characteristic acrid smell.  Most fats and oils start to smoke at a temperature around 200°C.  In general, vegetable oils have a higher smoke-point than animal fats. when using fat or oil for deep frying, the frying temperature should be kept below the smoke-point.  Smoke-point is a useful measure when assessing the suitability of a fat or oil for frying purposes.  Repeated heating of a fat or oil or the presence of burnt food particles will reduce the smoke-point.

Flash Point – When fat is heated to a high enough temperature, the vapors given off will spontaneously ignite.  This temperature is known as the flash-point.  For corn oil, the flash-point is 360°C.  A fat fire should never be put out with water; this will only spread the fire.  The heat should be turned off and the oxygen supply cut off by covering the container of burning fat with a lid or blanket.



Lard is pig fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms. Lard was commonly used in many cuisines as a cooking fat or shortening, or as a spread similar to butter. Nowadays the uses of lard are restricted due to health concerns.


Suet is raw beef or mutton fat, especially the hard fat found around the loins and kidneys. Suet has a melting point of between 45° and 50°C. (113° and 122°F.). Its low melting point means that it is solid at room temperature but easily melts at moderate temperatures, such as in steaming. It used to be used for shortcrust pies


Tallow is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. It is solid at room temperature. Unlike suet, tallow can be stored for extended periods without the need for refrigeration to prevent decomposition, provided it is kept in an airtight container to prevent oxidation.


Butter is a dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk. It is generally used as a spread and a condiment, as well as in cooking applications such as baking, sauce making, and frying. Butter consists of butterfat, water and milk proteins.

Most frequently made from cows’ milk, butter can also be manufactured from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats, buffalo, and yaks. Salt, flavorings, and preservatives are sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter produces clarified butter or ghee, which is almost entirely butterfat.

Butter is an emulsion that remains a solid when refrigerated, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, and melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32–35 °C (90–95 °F).

It generally has a pale yellow color, but varies from deep yellow to nearly white. Its color is dependent on the animal’s feed and is commonly manipulated with food colorings in the commercial manufacturing process, most commonly annatto or carotene.


Ghee is made by simmering unsalted butter in a large pot until all water has boiled off and protein has settled to the bottom. The cooked and clarified butter is then spooned off to avoid disturbing the milk solids on the bottom of the pan. Unlike butter, ghee can be stored for extended periods without refrigeration, provided it is kept in an airtight container to prevent oxidation and remains moisture-free. Texture, colour, or taste of ghee depends on the source of the milk from which the butter was made and the extent of boiling.

It is the primary cooking medium of India and in many Arab countries. Flavorings are often added like in India it can be bay leaves, cumin, cloves, turmeric, etc, in Arab herbs like thyme, oregano, etc. can be added.


Schmaltz or schmalz is rendered chicken or goose fat used for frying or as a spread on bread, especially in German, Polish, and Jewish cuisine.

oil, olive oil, walnut oil



Obtained from corn or maize, it has a high smoking point of 232oC, thus very useful for deep frying.


Extracted from the seed of a cotton plant, having a high smoking point like corn oil.


Ii can be of two types refine and unrefined, refining increases the smoking point and makes it more suitable for deep frying. The smoking point of this oil is 232oC


Also known as peanut oil, it has a smoke point of 225oC, so good for deep frying


Most widely produced oil worldwide. It is made from the seed of the palm fruit. The presence of Beta carotene gives a red hue, which is faded when heated. It is one of the most stable oil, which is semi-solid at room temperature, so used for making margarine.


The rapeseed tree is a member of the Brassica family, it is used mainly as food for cattle, and the seed is used for making oil. It contains a good amount of omega-6 and 3 so it is considered as healthiest of oils. It is also known as Canola [can-o-la – Canadian oil low acid content].


Very common in India, especially in east India [West Bengal]. This oil is deep yellow in color and has a very pungent smell. It should allow smoking for at least 2 – 3 minutes to allow the pungent flavour to escape. Hugely used to pickle vegetables.


It is made from olives and mainly used in Mediterranean countries; it has a low smoking point of 165oC so not suitable for deep frying. It has huge uses like salad dressings


Made from various nuts, like walnut, hazelnut, almond, etc. those oils are suitable for salad dressing or soup garnishes for their very strong flavor, but not suitable for cooking due to their very low smoking point. Those oils may become bitter with the application of heat.


Some vegetables like avocado, pumpkin is often used to make oils to make margarine. Avocado oil is very expensive and used for salad dressing.


Margarine is a generic term that can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes. In many parts of the world, the market share of margarine and spreads has overtaken that of butter. Margarine is an ingredient in the preparation of many other foods and in recipes.

Margarine is an emulsion of water in fat.  The fat is a blend of refined vegetable oils, a portion of which has been hardened by hydrogenation to produce the desired plasticity in the final product.  Fish oils and animal fats may also be incorporated in the blend.  The hydrogenation is carried out by heating the oil in large sealed vessels under pressure.  Hydrogen is bubbled into the oil and finely divided nickel, which is subsequently removed by filtration, is required as a catalyst.  The oil blend is mixed with the water phase, which is skimmed milk, soured under controlled conditions to give the desired flavour to the product.  Artificial colouring, salt, and vitamins A and D are then added.  In Britain, these vitamins must be added by law.  This law is necessary because margarine often replaces butter in the diet and butter is an important source of vitamins A and D.  The emulsion is formed in a machine called a votator, in which mixing and cooling occur together, and fat of the desired consistency is produced.

  • PUFF MARGARINE – Pastry margarine performs better than butter in making puff pastry because of its high melting point. It does not melt quickly, thus allowing time for the puff pastry dough to rise sufficiently high while not making it heavy and soggy. Then as the temperature increases, the pastry margarine will then melt and infuse into the risen pastry, giving it its scrumptious flavor. It is low in moisture content also

  • CREAM MARGARINE – Has a lower melting point than other varieties of margarine, but solid at room temperature.

  • CAKE MARGARINE – A moderate melting point with medium moisture content, suitable for cake batters.

herb butter, butter, margarine

Hydrogenation in food industry

Hydrogenation is widely applied to the processing of vegetable oils and fats. Complete hydrogenation converts unsaturated fatty acids to saturated ones. In practice, the process is not usually carried to completion. Since the original oils usually contain more than one double bond per molecule (that is, they are polyunsaturated), the result is usually described as partially hydrogenated vegetable oil; that is some, but usually, not all, of the double bonds in each molecule have been reduced. This is done by restricting the amount of hydrogen (or reducing agent) allowed to react with the fat. Hydrogenation results in the conversion of liquid vegetable oils to solid or semi-solid fats, such as those present in margarine. Changing the degree of saturation of the fat changes some important physical properties such as the melting point, which is why liquid oils become semi-solid. Semi-solid fats are preferred for baking because the way the fat mixes with flour produces a more desirable texture in the baked product. Since partially hydrogenated vegetable oils are cheaper than animal source fats, they are available in a wide range of consistencies, and have other desirable characteristics (e.g., increased oxidative stability (longer shelf life)), they are the predominant fats used in most commercial baked goods. Fat blends formulated for this purpose are called shortenings.

Spread the love

Raising/ Leavening Process

Raising agents play a very important role in baking to achieve the right texture of baked goods.

It is a substance or process which helps to generate, release or entrap steam, gas (CO2, NH3), or air in a dough or batter either during cooking or mixing to increase the volume or surface area of those in order to get a lighter product after baking or cooking.

Types of Raising/Leavening agents or process

Biological Raising agent

Chemical Raising agent

Natural Raising agent

Mechanical Raising agent

The combination method of Raising


Yeast is known as a biological raising agent in the bakery, which is mainly used for different fermented dough and batters mainly in bread.

Saccharomyces cerevisae is the biological name for the most used yeast in the industry which is also known as Baker’s or Brewer’s Yeast.

Yeast is a single-celled fungus, capable of reproduction by a budding process in presence of four elements: moisture, food, air, and warmth, yeast can be kept alive but inactive by removing any of that one. The main purpose of using yeast in baking is to serve as a catalyst in the process of fermentation.

When all the four criteria are present yeast converts carbohydrates into CO2 and ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) with the help of four enzymes. These enzymes help to convert complex sugar into simple sugar and then also convert simple sugar to CO2 and alcohol.







Converts maltose to dextrose



Inverts cane and beet sugar/sucrose to dextrose or fructose



Converts inverted sugar and dextrose to CO2 & C2H5OH



Converts fats to fatty acids



Softens flour protein i.e. gluten to give better stretch-ability.

CO2 is the primary raising gas that enhances the volume of yeasted bread, and the alcohol evaporates during the baking process leaving behind a delicious flavour and distinctive bread aroma. The activity of the yeast can be controlled by the addition of salt.

Yeast works best in the temperature range of 35o to 450 C and it completely dies temperature above 65o C.

Types of Yeast available in the market:

FRESH/WET/COMPRESSED YEAST: It is sold in cake form. It has a beige colour, crumbly texture, and smell like overripe or slightly rotten pineapple. In fresh yeast the warmth has been removed by freezing to make it inactive. This contains 40% yeast and 60% moisture. The shelf life of this yeast is 10-14 days in the refrigerator. Freezing of this yeast is not recommended as water can become frozen and expanded to rupture the yeast cells. When fresh yeast gets spoiled it becomes dark in color and soft as it loses the ability to hold moisture.

ACTIVE DRY YEAST: it is kept alive and inactive by removing moisture from it. This has a remarkably good shelf life; almost one year. It is available as small round grains. Very popular among home bakers.

INSTANT DRY YEAST: it can be used directly with the flour; the making of yeast ferment is not required for this variety. It is sold in vacuum packets as this type of yeast is kept alive and inactive by removing both air and moisture.

different types of yeast hospitality study


Few very popular chemicals raising agents are

BAKING SODA: Sodium Bi Carbonate (NaHCO3). It reacts in a moist acidic medium to release CO2 as major raising gas. It will not work if no acidic ingredients are in the recipe. Acidic ingredients can be like fruit juice, sour cream, buttermilk, cocoa, vinegar, etc.

Too much baking soda can cause a soapy taste in final products. Baking soda must be stored in a cool dry place in an airtight container.

BAKING POWDER: Baking powder contains sodium bicarbonate, but it includes the acidic agent already (cream of tartar), and also a drying agent (usually starch) which helps the powder to avoid humidity and prevent releasing of gas inside the container. To make the baking powder more affordable, mono-calcium phosphate can be used in place of the tartaric acid.

CREAM OF TARTAR: this fine powder is a residue from wine fermentation casks. It doesn’t directly work as a raising agent but helps to activate the baking soda and also an important part of baking powder. Cream of tartar also helps to strengthen egg protein so that it can hold more air after whisking.

AMMONIUM CARBONATE/ SALT OF HARTSHORN/SAL VOLATILE: Very useful raising agent generates ammonia and CO2 during baking. But the repulsive smell of ammonia is the main problem to use this. Mainly used with strong flavoring agents or in a product which is baked for complete dryings like cookies or biscuits.


Georges-Auguste Escoffier (1847–1935), the greatest chef of his time, is still today revered by chefs and gourmets as the father of twentieth-century cookery. His two main contributions were (1) the simplification of classical cuisine and the classical menu, and the reorganization of the kitchen. Escoffier rejected what he called the “general confusion” of the old menus, in which sheer quantity seemed to be the most important factor. Instead, he called for order and diversity and emphasized the careful selection of one or two dishes per course, dishes that followed one another harmoniously and delighted the taste with their delicacy and simplicity. Escoffier’s books and recipes are still important reference works for professional chefs. The basic cooking methods and preparations we study today are based on Escoffier’s work. His book Le Guide Culinaire, which is still widely used, arranges recipes in a simple system based on main ingredient and cooking method, greatly simplifying the more complex system handed down from Carême. Learning classical cooking, according to Escoffier, begins with learning a relatively few basic procedures and understanding basic ingredients.

Escoffier’s second major achievement, the reorganization of the kitchen, resulted in a streamlined workplace that was better suited to turning out the simplified dishes and menus he instituted. The system of the organization he established is still in use today, especially in large hotels and full-service restaurants.


Steam or water vapour is the natural raising agent and it works on almost all bakery products. The moisture presents in dough or batter during cooking converts into steam which creates a pressure upward to make a lighter and fluffy products. Eg: pita bread pockets, Indian chapatti, panipuri etc.


WHISKING: this a process where using balloon beater/hand whisk liquid (mainly egg, egg white, cream, or water – protein solution) are agitated to incorporate air bubbles to make the liquid foamy or light, for example; whole egg sabayon for sponge cake or Spanish omelet, whipped cream for mousse, soufflé or other desserts.

To understand why introducing air bubbles makes egg proteins uncurl, you need to know a basic fact about the amino acids that make up proteins. Some amino acids are attracted to water; they’re hydrophilic, or water-loving. Other amino acids are repelled by water; they are hydrophobic, or water-fearing. Egg-white proteins contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids. When the protein is curled up, the hydrophobic amino acids are packed in the centre away from the water and the hydrophilic ones are on the outside closer to the water. When an egg protein is up against an air bubble, part of that protein is exposed to air and part is still in the water. The protein uncurls so that its water-loving parts can be immersed in the water—and its water-fearing parts can stick into the air. Once the proteins uncurl, they bond with each other—just as they did when heated—creating a network that can hold the air bubbles in place

CREAMING: Creaming is one of the most important mixing methods used in the different recipes. It incorporates the maximum amount of air bubbles created by dry crystalline sugar, typically fine granulated white table or super-fine, or brown sugar, beaten with a plastic solid fat (stick butter or margarine, shortening or lard), so a recipe will rise in the oven and be light in texture when baked. The cake rises from these air bubbles incorporated expanding from the heat of the oven, steam generated from the liquid ingredients, and from carbon dioxide generated from the chemical liveners or baking powder and/or baking soda. Recipes mixed with the Creaming Method, are typically SHORTENED (BUTTER) CAKES and some COOKIES. You will recognize it when the recipe indicates: “Cream butter and sugar together until light and fluffy”; or “Beat butter and sugar together until light in colour and creates soft peak”;

This can be done by beating the fat and sugar/flour together or by rubbing fat with flour/sugar on a surface following a circular motion.

LAMINATION: This method is designed to produce a laminated structure in which thin layers of tough fat are interleaved with equally thin layers of dough. When we bake the pastry; the thin layer of the fat melts and form oily layers between two leaves of dough preventing them from sticking together, or simply it lubricates the doughy layers.  As the heat penetrates more, the water in the doughy layer as well as in fat layers changes into steam. The steam finds its way between the various layers of dough and causes expansion of elastic gluten strands or films of the dough by pushing lubricated doughy layers apart from each other. This produces a great increase in the volume of the piece of the pastry. Later the gluten of the flour is coagulated while the excess water is dried out, so by that time it is properly cooked and able to retain the shape and fluffy volume.

Example: Puff pastry, croissant, Danish pastry, Indian lachha bread, etc.


SIEVING: While sieving flour or powder sugar those powder fall on the surface forming a pile which entraps air, this also considers as a minor raising process.


While a baking product is made using more than one of those major methods of raising they are known as raised by combination methods.

Few popular examples:

Danish Pastry: Lamination and biological

Cakes: creaming, whipping(mechanical), and chemical

Spread the love