Culinary

Culinary means “related to cooking“, are the arts of food preparation, cooking, and presentation of food, usually in the form of meals. People working in this field – especially in establishments such as restaurants – are commonly called “chefs” or “Cooks”, although, at its most general, the terms “culinary artist” and “culinarian” are also used. Table manners (“the table arts”) are sometimes referred to as culinary art.

fat foods, pastries, cheeses

Expert chefs are required to have knowledge of food science, nutrition, and diet and are responsible for preparing meals that are as pleasing to the eye as they are to the palate. After restaurants, their primary places of work include delicatessens and relatively large institutions such as hotels and hospitals.

Origin Of Modern Cuisine

A HISTORY OF MODERN FOOD SERVICE

The value of history is that it helps us understand the present and the future. In food service, knowledge of our professional heritage helps us see why we do things as we do, how our cooking techniques have been developed and refined, and how we can continue to develop and innovate in the years ahead. An important lesson of history is that the way we cook now is the result of the work done by countless chefs over hundreds of years. Cooking is as much science as it is art. Cooking techniques are not based on arbitrary rules that some chefs made up long ago. Rather, they are based on an understanding of how different foods react when heated in various ways, when combined in various proportions, and so on. The chefs who have come before us have already done much of this work, so we do not have to. This does not mean there is no room for innovation and experimentation or that we should never challenge old ideas. But it does mean a lot of knowledge has been collected over the years, and we would be smart to take advantage of what has already been learned. Furthermore, how can we challenge old ideas unless we know what those old ideas are? Knowledge is the best starting point for innovation.

THE ORIGINS OF CLASSICAL AND MODERN CUISINE

Quantity cookery has existed for thousands of years, if there have been large groups of people to feed, such as armies. But modern food service is said to have begun shortly after the middle of the eighteenth century. At this time, food production in France was controlled by guilds. Caterers, pastry makers, roasters, and pork butchers held licenses to prepare specific items. An innkeeper, to serve a meal to guests, had to buy the various menu items from those operations that were licensed to provide them. Guests had little or no choice and simply ate what was available for that meal.

In 1765, a Parisian named Boulanger began advertising on his shop sign that he served soups, which he called restaurants or restoratives. (Literally, the word means “fortifying.”) According to the story, one of the dishes he served was sheep’s feet in a cream sauce. The guild of stew makers challenged him in court, but Boulanger won by claiming he did not stew the feet in the sauce but served them with the sauce. In challenging the rules of the guilds, Boulanger unwittingly changed the course of food service history.

The new developments in food service received a great stimulus because of the French Revolution, beginning in 1789.Before this time, the great chefs were employed in the houses of the French nobility. With the revolution and the end of the monarchy, many chefs, suddenly out of work, opened restaurants in and around Paris to support themselves. Furthermore, the revolutionary government abolished the guilds. Restaurants and inns could serve dinners reflecting the talent and creativity of their own chefs, rather than being forced to rely on licensed caterers to supply their food. At the start of the French Revolution, there were about 50 restaurants in Paris. Ten years later there were about 500.

Another important invention that changed the organization of kitchens in the eighteenth century was the stove, or potager, which gave cooks a more practical and controllable heat source than an open fire. Soon commercial kitchens became divided into three departments: the rotisserie, under the control of the meat chef or rôtisseur, the oven, under the control of the pastry chef or pâtissier, and the stove, run by the cook or cuisinier. The meat chef and pastry chef reported to the cuisinier, who was also known as chef de cuisine, which means “head of the kitchen.”

morder food hospitality study

CARÊME

All the changes that took place in the world of cooking during the 1700s led to, for the first time, a difference between home cooking and professional cooking. One way we can try to understand this difference is to look at the work of the greatest chef of the pe-riod following the French Revolution, Marie-Antoine Carême (1784–1833). As a young man, Carême learned all the branches of cooking quickly, and he dedicated his career to refining and organizing culinary techniques. His many books contain the first systematic account of cooking principles, recipes, and menu making.

At a time when the interesting advances in cooking were happening in restaurants, Carême worked as a chef to wealthy patrons, kings, and heads of state. He was perhaps the first real celebrity chef, and he became famous as the creator of elaborate, elegant display pieces and pastries, the ancestors of our modern wedding cakes, sugar sculptures,

and ice and tallow carvings. But it was Carême’s practical and theoretical work as an author and an inventor of recipes that was responsible, to a large extent, for bringing cooking out of the Middle Ages and into the modern period.

 

Carême emphasized procedure and order. His goal was to create more lightness and simplicity. The complex cuisine of the aristocracy—called Grande Cuisine—was still not much different from that of the Middle Ages and was anything but simple and light. Carême’s efforts were a great step toward modern simplicity. The methods explained in his books were complex, but his aim was pure results. He added seasonings and other ingredients not so much to add new flavors but to highlight the flavors of the main ingredients. His sauces were designed to enhance, not cover up, the food being

sauced. Carême was a thoughtful chef, and, whenever he changed a classic recipe, he was careful to explain his reasons for doing so.

 

Beginning with Carême, a style of cooking developed that can truly be called international, because the same principles are still used by professional cooks around the world. Older styles of cooking, as well as much of today’s home cooking, are based on tradition. In other words, a cook makes a dish a certain way because that is how it always has been done. On the other hand, in Carême’s Grande Cuisine, and in professional cooking ever since, a cook makes a dish a certain way because the principles and methods of cooking show it is the best way to get the desired results. For example, for hundreds of years, cooks boiled meats before roasting them on a rotisserie in front of the fire. But when chefs began thinking and experimenting rather than just accepting the tradition of boiling meat before roasting, they realized that either braising the meat or roasting it from the raw state were better options.

ESCOFFIER

Georges-Auguste Escoffier (1847–1935), the greatest chef of his time, is still today revered by chefs and gourmets as the father of twentieth-century cookery. His two main contributions were (1) the simplification of classical cuisine and the classical menu, and the reorganization of the kitchen. Escoffier rejected what he called the “general confusion” of the old menus, in which sheer quantity seemed to be the most important factor. Instead, he called for order and diversity and emphasized the careful selection of one or two dishes per course, dishes that followed one another harmoniously and delighted the taste with their delicacy and simplicity. Escoffier’s books and recipes are still important reference works for professional chefs. The basic cooking methods and preparations we study today are based on Escoffier’s work. His book Le Guide Culinaire, which is still widely used, arranges recipes in a simple system based on main ingredient and cooking method, greatly simplifying the more complex system handed down from Carême. Learning classical cooking, according to Escoffier, begins with learning a relatively few basic procedures and understanding basic ingredients.

Escoffier’s second major achievement, the reorganization of the kitchen, resulted in a streamlined workplace that was better suited to turning out the simplified dishes and menus he instituted. The system of organization he established is still in use today, especially in large hotels and full-service restaurants.

MODERN TECHNOLOGY

Today’s kitchens look much different from those of Escoffier’s day, even though our basic cooking principles are the same. Also, the dishes we eat have gradually changed due to the innovations and creativity of modern chefs. The process of simplification and refinement, to which Carême and Escoffier made monumental contributions, is still ongoing, adapting classical cooking to modern conditions and tastes.

Before we discuss the changes in cooking styles that took place in the twentieth century, let us look at some of the developments in technology that affected cooking.

Development of New Equipment

We take for granted such basic equipment as gas and electric ranges and ovens and electric refrigerators. But even these essential tools did not exist until recently. The easily controlled heat of modern cooking equipment, as well as motorized food cutters, mixers, and other processing equipment, has greatly simplified food production. Research and technology continue to produce sophisticated tools for the kitchen. Some of these products, such as tilting skillets and steam-jacketed kettles, can do many jobs and are popular in many kitchens. Others can perform specialized tasks rapidly and efficiently, but their usefulness depends on volume because they are designed to do only a few jobs. Modern equipment has enabled many food service operations to change their production methods. With sophisticated cooling, freezing, and heating equipment, it is possible to prepare some foods further in advance and in larger quantities. Some large multiunit operations prepare food for all their units in a central commissary. The food is prepared in quantity, packaged, chilled or frozen, then heated or cooked to order in the individual units.

COOKING IN THE TWENTIETH AND TWENTY-FIRST CENTURIES

All these developments have helped change cooking styles, menus, and eating habits. The evolution of cuisine that has been going on for hundreds of years continues. Changes occur not only because of technological developments, such as those just described, but also because of our reactions to culinary traditions. Two opposing forces can be seen at work throughout the history of cooking. One is the urge to simplify, to eliminate complexity and ornamentation, and instead to emphasize the plain, natural tastes of basic, fresh ingredients. The other is the urge to invent, to highlight the creativity of the chef, with an accent on fancier, more complicated presentations, and procedures. Both these forces are valid and healthy; they continually refresh and renew the art of cooking. A generation after Escoffier, the most influential chef in the middle of the twentieth century was Fernand Point (1897–1955). Working quietly and steadily in his restaurant, La Pyramide, in Vienne,France,Point simplified and lightened classical cuisine. He was a perfectionist who sometimes worked on a dish for years before he felt it was good enough to put on his menu. “I am not hard to please,” he said. “I’m satisfied with the very best.” Point insisted that every meal should be “a little marvel.” Point’s influence extended well beyond his own life. Many of his apprentices, such as Paul Bocuse, Jean and Pierre Troisgros, and Alain Chapel, went on to become some of the greatest stars of modern cooking. They, along with other chefs in their generation, became best known in the 1960s and early 1970s for a style of cooking called nouvelle cuisine. Reacting to what they saw as a heavy, stodgy, overly complicated classical cuisine, these chefs took Point’s lighter approach even further. They rejected many traditional principles, such as a dependence on flour to thicken sauces, and instead urged simpler, more natural flavors and preparations, with lighter sauces and seasonings and shorter cooking times. In traditional classical cuisine, many dishes were plated in the dining room by waiters. Nouvelle cuisine, however, placed a great deal of emphasis on artful plating presentations done by the chef in the kitchen.

Very quickly, however, this “simpler ”style became extravagant and complicated, famous for strange combinations of foods and fussy, ornate arrangements and designs. By the 1980s, nouvelle cuisine was the subject of jokes. Still, the best achievements of nouvelle cuisine have taken a permanent place in the classical tradition. Meanwhile, many of its excesses have been forgotten. It is probably fair to say that most of the best new ideas and the lasting accomplishments were those of classically trained chefs with a solid grounding in the basics.

New Emphasis on Ingredients

Advances in agriculture and food preservation have had disadvantages as well as advantages. Everyone is familiar with hard, tasteless fruits and vegetables that were developed to ship well and last long, without regard for eating quality. Many people, including chefs, began to question not only the flavor but also the health value and the environmental effects of genetically engineered foods, of produce raised with chemical pesticides and fertilizers, and of animals raised with antibiotics and other drugs and hormones.

The public has benefited greatly from these efforts. Today, in supermarkets as well as in restaurants, a much greater variety of high-quality foods is available than there was 40 or 50 years ago. Many chefs have modified their cooking styles to highlight the natural flavors and textures of their ingredients, and their menus are often simpler now for this reason.

International Influences

After the middle of the twentieth century, as travel became easier and as immigrants arrived in Europe and North America from around the world, awareness of and taste for regional dishes grew. Chefs became more knowledgeable not only about the traditional cuisines of other parts of Europe but about those of Asia, Latin America, and elsewhere.

Many of the most creative chefs have been inspired by these cuisines and use some of their techniques and ingredients. For example, many North American and French chefs, looking for ways to make their cooking lighter and more elegant, have found ideas in the cuisine of Japan. In the southwestern United States, several chefs have transformed Mexican influences into an elegant and original cooking style. Throughout North America, traditional dishes and regional specialties combine the cooking traditions of immigrant settlers and the indigenous ingredients of a bountiful land. For many years, critics often argued that menus in most North American restaurants offered the

same monotonous, mediocre food. In recent decades, however, American and Canadian cooks have rediscovered traditional North American dishes. The use of ingredients and techniques from more than one regional, or international, cuisine in a single dish is known as fusion cuisine. Early attempts to prepare fusion

cuisine often produced poor results because the dishes were not true to any one culture and were too mixed up. This was especially true in the 1980s, when the idea of fusion cuisine was new. Cooks often combined ingredients and techniques without a good feeling for how they would work together. The result was sometimes a jumbled

mess. But chefs who have taken the time to study the cuisines and cultures they borrow from have brought new excitement to cooking and to restaurant menus. Today chefs make good use of all the ingredients and techniques available to them. It is almost second nature to give extra depth to the braising liquid for a beef pot roast by adding Mexican ancho peppers, for example, or to include Thai basil and lemon grass in a seafood salad. In the recipe sections of this book, classic dishes from many regions of the world are included among more familiar recipes from home. To help you understand these recipes and the cuisines they come from, background information accompanies

many of them. Cooking and cooking styles continue to change. Technology continues to make rapid advances in our industry, and men and women are needed who can adapt to these changes and respond to new challenges. Although automation and convenience foods will no doubt grow in importance, imaginative chefs who can create new dishes and develop new techniques and styles will always be needed, as will skilled cooks who can apply both old and new techniques to produce high-quality foods in all kinds of facilities, from restaurants and hotels to schools and hospitals.

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Mise En Place: “Everything Ready”

Even on the simplest level, preparation is necessary. If you prepare only one short recipe, you must first

  • Assemble your tools.
  • Assemble your ingredients.
  • Wash, trim, cut, prepare and measure your raw materials.
  • Prepare your equipment (preheat oven, line baking sheets etc.)

Only then you can begin the actual preparation.

When many items are to be prepared in a commercial kitchen, the situation is much more complex. Dealing with this complexity is the basis of kitchen organisation.

PLANNING AND ORGANISAING FOR PREPARATION.

The Problem :

Every food service operation faces a basic conflict between two unavoidable facts ;

  1. There is far too much work to do in a kitchen to leave until the last minute , so some work must be done ahead.
  2. Most foods are at their best quality immediately after preparation, and they deteriorate as they held.

The Solution :

To solve this problem, the chef must plan the pre preparation carefully. Planning generally follows these steps ;

  1. Break each menu item down into its stages of production. Note that the procedures are divided into a sequence of steps, which must be done in a certain order to make a finished product.
  2. Determine which stages may be done in advance.

           A. The first step of any recipe, whether written or not, is always part of advance preparation ; assembling and preparing the ingredients. This includes cleaning and cutting produce. Cutting and trimming meats, and preparing breading and batters for frying.

           B. Succeeding steps of a recipe may be done in advance if they can then be held without loss of quality.

           C. Final cooking should be done as close as possible to service, for maximum freshness.

Frequently separate parts of a recipe, such as a sauce or a stuffing, are prepared in advance,, and the dish is assembled at the last minute.

In general, items cooked by dry-heat methods, such as broiled steaks, sautéed fish and fresh fried potatoes, do not hold well. Large roasts are an important exception to this rule. Items cooked by moist heat, such as braised beefs, soups, and stews, are usually better suited to reheating or holding in a steam table. Very delicate items should always be freshly cooked.

  1. Determine the best way to  hold the item at its final stage of preparation.

             A. Sauces and soups are frequently kept hot, above 1400 F (600 C), for service in steam tables or other holding equipment. Many foods such as vegetables, however kept hot for the only short periods, because they quickly become overcooked.

            B. Refrigerator temperatures, below 400 F (40 C), are best for preserving the quality of most foods, especially perishable meats, fish, and vegetables, before final cooking or reheating.

  1. Determine how long it takes to prepare each stage of each recipe. Plan a production schedule beginning with the preparations that take the longest.

Many operations can be carried on at once, because they don’t all require your complete attention the full time. It may take 6 to 8 hours to make a stock, but you don’t have to stand and watch it all that time.

  1. Examine recipes to see if they might be revised for better efficiency and quality as served. Foe e.g.

            A. Instead of preparing a full batch of green peas and holding for service in the steam table, you might blanch and chill them and then heat portions to order in sauté pan, steamer, or microwave oven.

            B. Instead of holding a large batch of veal scaloppine, in mushroom sauce in the steam table, you might prepare and hold the sauce, sauté the veal to order, combine with a portion of the sauce, and serve fresh from the pan.

The Goal

The goal of preparation is to do as much work in advance as possible without loss of quality.

At service time, all energy can then be used for finishing each item immediately before serving with the utmost attention to quality and freshness.

Many preparation techniques in common use are designed for the convenience of the cooks at the expense of quality. Remember that quality should always take the highest priority.

pots, pans, cooking

PREPARATION OF INGREDIENTS (Mise-en-place)

Many techniques are used for food preparation before cooking and they are done according to the requirements of the various dishes. This helps to improve appearance, texture, palatability, and favour and foods combine readily.  The techniques are divided into two:

Sub-division and fractionalization

Combining and mixing in the preparation of foods

Mise-en-Place

Everything in its place”’ preparation prior to a task or service.

Sub – Division and fractionalization

  1. Washing: This is necessary to remove the superficial dirt.  Meat, fish vegetable, and fruits are washed in cold water before any preparation if peeling or cutting. If cut and soaked for a long period or washed after cutting, there is a great loss of water-soluble vitamins and minerals.  The more cut surface exposed, the more nutrition is lost.
  1. Peeling: Spoilt, soiled, and inedible portions are removed.  The skin of vegetables or fruits is either peeled or scraped.
  1. Paring: Paring is removing the surface layer in a circular motion by pressure of a knife-edge all around the object.
  1. Cutting: Reducing to small pieces with a knife.  When a similar result is obtained with a chopping knife, or with a mechanical food chopped the process is called chopping (small pieces).  Dicing – cutting in cubes is known as dicing, as in dicing potatoes, carrots, etc.
  1. Mirepoix: Coarsely cut root vegetables.  The desired shape for turning vegetable is barrel
  1. Mincing: Cutting into very fine pieces. Eg. Mutton, Onions, etc.
  1. Grating: Reducing to small particles by rubbing on a rough surface, as in grating lemon peels, cheese, etc.
  1. Grinding: Reducing to small fragments by crushing, as in grinding spices, of coffee in a mill or on a grinding stone.
  1. Mashing: This is a method of breaking up soft foods with pressure, with a potato masher or with a fork
  1. Pureeing: To press food through a food mill or fine strainer to make it smooth and semi-liquid.
  1. Pressing: Separating liquid portions from solids by weights or mechanical pressure, as in making cider from apples, paneer, etc.
  1. Steeping: Extracting colouring flavouring by allowing ingredients to stand in water to a temperature just below boiling point
  1. Milling: This is used for cereals to remove husk etc.
  1. Sieving: Passing through a fine wire mesh to remove impurities. It also helps in enclosing air and mixing ingredients evenly, like sieving of flour for cakes
  1. Refining: Freeing any material from impurities, as in refining cane sugar/oil.
  1. Skimming: Removing a floating layer by passing a utensil under it (ladle) as in skimming the cream from milk.
  1. Rendering: Separating fat from connective tissues by heat as in rendering lard (dripping).
  1. Filtration: Separating solids from liquids, through fine-meshed materials, as in filtering fruit juices for jelly through a cloth bag, or fine wire mesh strainer.
  1. Flavouring: A bundle of herbs and vegetables to impart flavour to stocks and sauces in Bouquet Garni.
  1. Homogenization: Subdividing large drops into smaller ones by forcing them through a small aperture under great pressure as in homogenizing the fat in the cream.
  1. Emulsification: Even dispersal of one liquid throughout another immiscible liquid.
  1. Evaporation or Reduction: Removal of water commonly accelerated by heating without a lid.

Combining and Mixing in the Preparation of Foods

Food preparation often involves the combining and mixing of different foods or food materials.  Important effects of the methods of combining foods or ingredients are those related to palatability.  Texture and flavour are often controlled to an important degree by the skill and method employed in combining component materials.

  • Beating: Mixing materials briskly, lifting and dropping them with an appropriate tool.  Sometimes used synonymously with whipping as defined below. This is done to a thin mixture of liquids. The aim is to mix well and incorporate air.
  • Blending: Mixing two or more ingredients thoroughly, e.g. blending milk into a white roux for the bechamel sauce.
  • Cutting in: Usually the incorporation of fat in flour and other sifted dry ingredients with a knife, a method which produces a relatively coarse division of the fat and does not result in blending as in cutting the fat into a pastry mixture.
  • Creaming: Softening fat by friction with a spoon usually followed by gradual incorporation of sugar as in cake making.
  • Folding: Mixing materials with a palette knife or wooden spoon, by a careful lifting and dropping motion as in folding whipped egg whites into a cake mixture.  The palette knife is to lift.
  • Kneading: To work the dough by pressing and folding until it becomes smooth and elastic.
  • Marinating: Coating the surface of food materials, a marinade, which is usually a mixture of oil and acid as in marinating the components of a vegetable salad with French dressing.
  • Sealing: Sautéing or pre-cooking roast, to develop colour and flavour
  • Stirring: Mixing materials with an appropriate tool, such as a spoon by a circular motion, as in stirring white sauce, while cooking.
  • Whipping: Rapid beating with a wire eggbeater or mechanical beater usually to incorporate air, as in whipping egg white.
  • Whisking: Whisking is done when a mixture needs a lot of air, items need to be mixed together so that they do not separate.
  • Blind baking: To cook an empty pastry shell before filling it with a liquid (or) creamy mixture, which would otherwise soak the bottom or with delicate fruit that does not need to be cooked.
  • Docking:
  1. Small holes are made in Pastry.
  2. The aim is to allow steam to escape during baking to avoid distorting the pastry.
  • Rubbing in:
  1. Fat and flour are rubbed together
  2. Fat is reduced to bread crumb sized particles
  3. Fat particles melt during baking, giving off steam which makes the pastry expand and rise.
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Hierarchy Area Of Department And Kitchen

The chef is responsible for all kitchen operations, including ordering, supervision of all stations, and development of menu items. He or she also may be known as the chef de cuisine or executive chef. The sous chef is second in command, answers to the chef, may be responsible for scheduling, fills in for the chef, and assists the station chefs (or line cooks) as necessary. Small operations may not have a sous chef

One of the definitions of a business organization is an arrangement of people in job to accomplish the goals of the operation.  Similarly, the organizational structure of the Kitchen staff will reflect the needs of the operation, the job functions, and the various goals.  Food Production organization vary according to the needs of the enterprise’s design.

The classical (continental) organization of a Kitchen varies widely, bust commonly in such an organization a Chef de Cuisine (Exec. Chef) is in charge and a Sous Chef (under Chef) supervises the kitchen and the heads of the various departments or section (Chef de Parties).  Under these Chefs are Assistant Cooks (Demi Chefs), Commis and other workers.

THE BASIS OF KITCHEN ORGANIZATION

The purpose of kitchen organization is to assign or allocate tasks so they can be done efficiently and properly and so all workers know what their responsibilities are. The way a kitchen is organized depends on several factors.

  1. The menu.

The kinds of dishes to be produced obviously determine the jobs that need to be done. The menu is, in fact, the basis of the entire operation. Because of its importance, we devote a whole chapter to a study of the menu.

  1. The type of establishment.

The major types of foodservice establishments are as follows:

  • Hotels
  • Institutional kitchens

Schools

Hospitals, nursing homes, and other health-care institutions

Employee lunchrooms

Airline catering

Military foodservice

Correctional institutions

  • Catering and banquet services
  • Fast-food restaurants
  • Carry-out or take-out food facilities
  • Full-service restaurants
  1. The size of the operation (the number of customers and the volume of food served).
  1. The physical facilities, including the equipment in use.

Depending on the above factors the classical kitchen brigade can be fabricated as follows:

kitchen, chef, food

CHEF DE CUISINE (HEAD CHEF)

The Chef de Cuisine in the large establishment is much more a departmental manager than a working craftsman. He is selected for his organizing and executive abilities than for his culinary skill.  Though it is obvious that he should have such skill and a large appreciation of fine cookery.  His principal function is to plan, organize and supervise the work of the kitchen. 

He prepares the menus for the management in accordance with the costing and catering policies laid down.  He has full responsibility for staff, selection and policy or major responsibility for staff, selection and dismissal in conjunction with the personnel department.

He will also be concerned with the planning and equipment of his kitchen.  Thus, the executive responsibilities for his Kitchen.  Thus, the executive responsibilities of the Chef de Cuisine can be considered under the principal head of.

  • Food and food costs (through menu planning & ordering)
  • Kitchen Staff
  • Kitchen plant and equipment

Under his control all three activities must be coordinated to produce goods efficiently and economically.  His status is normally second only to the manager and he will expect complete control of his department.

In addition to the crafts skill and technical knowledge acquired because of apprenticeship, technical training and experience, the Chefs de Cuisine must additionally acquire managerial qualities and administrative knowledge particularly regarding the organization of work, control of staff, the efficient use of machinery, costing, and food control.  He must be aware of modern development in manufacturing and processing food for his kitchen. Present trends indicate that the Chef must increasingly concern himself not only with cookery but with the quality of the food and art of food presentation.  In the widest sense.  This calls for a degree of the merchandising skill and on occasion showmanship. Hygiene is of top importance in the kitchen and there is hardly a better beginning than with the Chef’s own person.

A Chef de Cuisine must have knowledge of French, Current Affaires, commodities, and tools of his trade.

SOUS CHEF

Sous Chef or under chef is the principal assistant of the Chef de Cuisine.  In large establishments, the Sous Chef will have no sectional or partial responsibility but will aid the chef in his general administration and in supervising the work of preparing food and in overseeing its service at the (Pick up counter).  Where a considerable kitchen operation is involved there may be more than one Sous Chef.

The Sous Chef acts as a Chef de Cuisine in the absence of the Chef.  When the Chef de Cuisine is engaged at work within his office, i.e., occupied in Menu Planning, checking records figures, or in similar administrative routines, the Sous Chef directly supervises the practical kitchen activities.

The Sous chef directly supervises the food pick-up during meal service times and can make ad-hoc staff changes during the working day to relieve pressure.

In large establishments it is possible for there to be as many as four to six Sous Chefs, particularly it is so when separate kitchens are set up for say Grillroom, Restaurant, Banquet Service, specialty cuisines, etc.

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF EXECUTIVE SOUS CHEF

  • Supervises kitchen shift operations and ensures compliance with all Food & Beverage policies, standards, and procedures.
  • Assists Executive Chef with all kitchen operations.
  • Performs all duties of kitchen managers and associates, as necessary.
  • Recognizes superior quality products, presentations, and flavor.
  • Maintains purchasing, receiving, and food storage standards.
  • Ensures compliance with food handling and sanitation standards.
  • Calculates accurate theoretical and weighted food costs.
  • Estimates daily production needs on a weekly basis and communicates production needs to kitchen personnel daily.
  • Coordinates banquet production with Banquet Chef.
  • Supports procedures for food & beverage portion and waste controls.
  • Assists in maintaining associate cafeteria operation and food quality standards.
  • Follows proper handling and right temperature of all food products.
  • Knows and implements Taj Palace Hotel Hygiene Standards.
  • Helps the Executive Chef Research and test new food products in conjunction with company initiatives.
  • Assists the Executive Chef with maintaining all standard recipes.
  • Participates in training the Restaurant and Catering staff on menu items including ingredients, preparation methods, and unique tastes.
  • Operates and maintains all department equipment and reports malfunctions.
  • Assists with an effective kitchen equipment repair and maintenance program.
  • Orders associate uniforms according to budget and ensure uniforms are properly inventoried and maintained.
  • Purchases appropriate supplies and manage inventories according to budget
  • Reviews staffing levels to ensure that guest service, operational needs, and financial objectives are met.
  • Interacts with guests/customers, community, Company representatives, vendors, and local education systems as needed.
  • Trains associates in safety procedures and supervises their ability to follow loss prevention policies to prevent accidents and control costs.

CHEF DE PARTIE

Partie is a French word meaning “part (of a whole) or a section.” A Partie system is one in which an operation’s space equipment and jobs are divided up into sections. The Partie system for chefs evolved in the Escoffier era from an analysis of the tasks needed for production and then a grouping of those tasks to maximize production speed and efficiency. The original system lasted up to the 1930s and was designed primarily for large restaurants, especially those in major hotels providing extensive a la carte and table d’hôte menus in the classic French tradition. As the task of the professional kitchen came to involve serving more customers in more and different ways, its organization inevitably became more complex. Highly elaborate dishes required highly specialized experts rather than general chefs who must handle all types of cookery at once.

Chef de partie is a working cook in charge of a clearly defined section of activities within the kitchen.  The Chef de Partie particularly of the sauce and Grade Manager may have the status and duties of a Sous Chef in addition to sectional responsibilities.

All the Chef de Parties may be regarded as supervisors or foremen of their sections as well as skilled craftsmen.

JOB DESCRIPTION OF DEMI CHEF DE PARTI

  • Cooking and presentation as per the standardized recipes
  • Allocation of work
  • Checking mis-en-place on quality and quantity
  • Control wastage
  • Maintain quality
  • Innovate new dishes
  • Maintain discipline and grooming of staff
  • To Maintain Hygiene and sanitation
  • Portion control
  • Storage of food and provisions
  • Raw material quality check
  • Allot duties to commis
  • Control over production and wastage.
  • Assist in implementing TBEM processes
  • Adhering to HACCP
  • Enabling and adherence to the principles and work practices detailed under the HACCP System in the department viz., Food Safety, Hygiene and Cleanliness, Health, Storage, etc as applicable to the area of your workplace.

CHEF GARDE MANGER

The Chef Grade Manger oversees the larder.  The larder is not only a place where food is steamed but also a place where the raw materials of cookery are prepared and dressed.

In larger establishments, larder work may be broken into sections and in one or two instances, it is possible that the sub-sections may have the independence of the Chef Garde Manger, i.e., Boucherie might be directly controlled by the Chef De Cuisine or Sous Chef.

This is rarely true in smaller establishments, the sub-sections within the Grade Manger will both indicate the wide range of this Chef de Parties duties and explain why he enjoys a status in the Kitchen brigade comparable to that of the Chef Saucier.

The Chef Grade Manger is normally accommodated adjoining the main kitchen but will have its own cooking facilities.  According to the size of the establishment, its sub-section too will be separate to a greater or smaller extent.  This also incorporates Hors d’oeuvres section and a salad room, sometimes a fruit room where such items as melons, grapefruit, fruit salad, etc. are prepared.  There is a great deal of work organization and careful distribution of work to be carried out.  Chef Grade Manger caters to such dishes as those commonly found on a cold table and comprises not only of cold dishes and salads.  Sandwiches are his responsibility except for the sale of the hot or toasted sandwiches such as club sandwiches (Chef Rotisseur).  Mayonnaise, vinaigrette sauce, and other dressings and sauces for cold food are made by Chef Grade Manger.  Various sections looked after by Chef Grade Manger are as follows:

JOB DESCRIPTION OF CHEF GARDE MANGER

  • Performs all duties of Culinary and related kitchen area associates to train new associates and step in and assist during high demand times.
  • Supervises daily shift operations and oversees production and preparation of culinary items.
  • Opens and closes kitchen shifts and ensures completion of assigned duties.
  • Maintains food handling and sanitation standards.
  • Works with Restaurant and Banquet departments to coordinate service and timing of events and meals.
  • Assists with developing menus and promotions.
  • Operates all department equipment as necessary and reports malfunctions.
  • Purchases appropriate supplies and manage food and supply inventories according to budget.
  • Supervises staffing levels to ensure that guest service, operational needs, and financial objectives are met.
  • Understands and implements Marriott’s 30 Point Safety Standards.
  • Develops railroad-cleaning schedules for associates; ensures associates follow cleaning schedules and keep their work areas clean and sanitary.
  • Ensures all associates have proper supplies, equipment, and uniforms.
  • Communicates areas in need of attention to staff and follows up to ensure follow-through.
  • Helps train associates in safety procedures and supervises their ability to execute departmental and hotel emergency procedures.
  • Participates as needed in the investigation of associate accidents.
  • Understands and complies with loss prevention policies and procedures.

BOUCHERIE (Butcher Shop)

Boucherie in hotel differs in many important regards from that of retail trade.  It includes the dissecting of quarters of beef and carcasses of lamb etc.  It will also include the dressing of meat either for joints such as contra filet or small cuts like noisette, cotelettes or tournedos etc.

CHACUTIER (Pork Butcher and Sauage maker)

Charcutier involves Pork butcher, the preparation of Pork products and sausage, etc.  He is also responsible for the rendering and clarifying of dripping.  Again, the extent to which the Charcutier work is separated from the staff of the Grade Manger depends on the volume of work.

VOLAILLEUR (Poulterer)

Where there is an extremely large establishment, the Poulterer who is responsible for the plucking cleaning and dressing not only of the poultry, but game birds, hares and rabbits may be separated from the fish monger and the larder proper.

POISSONER (Fishmonger)

The hotel fish monger prepares fish not in the style of the tradesman, in retail trade for he must have the raw materials ready for the immediate attention of the appropriate Chef, either for the Chef Poissonnier or in some instances for cold dishes for Chef Grade Manger.

A wide range of products of sea, river and lake will normally come to him for treatment which includes skinning, filleting and portioning.  Fish, such as eel, oysters, lobsters and herbs will demand his attention as well as the ordinary range of river, sea and shellfish.

HORD D’OEUVRIER (Hors d’ ocuvre cook)

Where work justifies it, the preparation of Hors d’ oeuvre of all kinds is organized separately.  The dishes for this section can be great and involve the regular preparation of commodities e.g. preparation of dressings, varieties of vegetables salads (Potato, Russian), varieties of meat and fish dishes found on the Hors d’ oeuvries is often entrusted not only to a Chef Horss d’ oeuvrier and assistant of Chef Grade Manger but to semi-skilled hands, often women workers trained only in assembling prepared material and in decorating dishes.

CHEF DE NUIT

Night duty cook is a chef whose main duties are to take over when the main kitchen staff leave.A separate Chef de Nuit may be retained in the Grade Manger but normally one person suffices. Night duty cook does not necessarily remain on duty throughout te night but only until such time, the late meals have ceased.

The duties of Chef de Nuit are sometimes carried out by a Sous Chef.  The Sous Chef doing this is present for the service of dinner but not lunch and is responsible for all the work when the normal brigade has gone off duty.  This system is used in 75% of places where late service is given.  Sous Chef must make sure that he has all the necessary facilities and that the correct mis-en-place is left by Chef de Partie before they go off duty.

CHEF POTAGER (Soup Cook)

The Chef’s importance within kitchen is also supported by the fact that the repertory of soups including consommé, cremes and veloutés, purees, broth’s bisques and many specialty and nation favouring essences and garnished in hundreds of ways, besides all basic stocks are prepared by him.

Chef potager can be supplied by other parties with some of the garnishes required.  For example, he receives material not only from the Grade Manger but for consommé celestine, receive pancakes from the Chef Entremetier.  He receives stocks from the Chef poisoner for fish and other ordinary tools, particularly producing vegetables of wide variety of shapes and sizes.  Like all cooks, a cultivated palate is an importance requirement for adjustment.

CHEF SAUCIER (Sauce Cook)

He prepares all fundamental sauces i.e., Bechamel, tomato sauce, velouté.  He prepares all light and heavy entrees for example vol-au-vent (light entrée).  Heavy entrée (Steaks) i.e., meat, poultry and game dishes which are not roasted or grilled.

It is difficult to differentiate between the duties of Chef Saucier and that of Chef Rotisseur.  The Saucier prepares the peolage stews braised, boiled, and saluted dishes which approximates a roasting process.

He is the senior Chef de Partie and normally takes over the responsibility of the Sous Chef when absent.  He requires knowledge because his work covers an extensive variety of dishes and specialty sauces.

CHEF COMMUNAR (Staff/Cafeteria Cook)

The staff cook provides the meals for the employees who use the staff room for the wage-earning staff and includes uniformed and maintenance staff, chambermaids, waiters, lower grade clerical staff, etc.  Catering of this nature should be influenced by nutritional factors.

BREAKFAST COOK

The cooking and service of breakfast is commonly entrusted to a specialty cook whose range is limited o the needs of breakfast.  He does not rank as a full Chef de Partie, but needs to be of good skill.  He works alone with a Commis and parters.  After the breakfast preparation he attaches himself to the roast section.  Here he prepares mis-en-place and continues cooking roasts and grill for late service lunch when the Chef de Patie and staff go off.

 

The mis-en-place for breakfast including the boning and slicing of bacon and preparation for the various types of fish eaten at breakfast time, carried out in advance by a subordinate of Grade Manger and semi-skilled assistants in the patisserie.  The breakfast cooks and helpers are left with the simple tasks of assembling and cooking breakfast dishes.

CHEF ROTISSEUR

This is a very responsible section, Finest roast cooks are English as roasting has always been renowned in England as a specialization.  Roasts are very popular.  This partie is responsible for deep – frying of foods of all kinds, including fried potatoes and the Rotisseur may have an assistant le friturier (Frying cook) for the task.

Chef Rotisseur is responsible for savouries such as Welsh Rarebit and for Hot Sandwiches (Club Sandwich types).  This corner is also occupied with the preparation of stock for gravies which accompany the roasts and other dishes.

Foods to be roasted cover a wide range of poultry, game, and meat include the baking or pies, the joints poultry and game to be cooked by the Rotisseur are given the basic preparatory treatment (plucking, preparation, etc.) for the oven in the larder by the butcher or poulterer.  Sometimes commis from the roast corner may help the larder for clearing the trussing of the poultry of dissection trimming and trying of joints of butcher meat.  The roast corner is in the main stove section and all the necessary cooking apparatus for roasting, for deep frying for finishing of savouries under the salamander are grouped together and make this section the hottest. Some dishes are identical basically, but different methods of handling are employed therefore they are sometimes done by Rotisseur and sometimes by the saucier.

In short, the duties of roast cook are:

  • Responsible for roasting poultry and game feathered and furred.
  • Responsible for all deep-fried dishes, Pommes Frites, Pont- Neuf, etc.
  • Responsible for all deep-fried fish dishes.
  • Mis-en-place e.g., if separate grilled Pommes pailles mut be prepared by Rotisseur. These are used as a garnish on certain grills.
  • Savouries e.g., Oyster rolled in bacon grilled on a skewer, Welsh rarebit.

CHEF POISSONIER (Fish Cook)

The Chef Poissonier is responsible for the cooking, garnishing and sauce making for the fish courses with the exception of deep-fried fish, the grilled of fish possible by done by the grill cook.

Cleaning including scaling, skinning, fileting portioning, and bread crumbing are the responsibility of the Chefs Grade Manger.  The subordinate engaged in egg and crumbing is called in French the Panadier.

This chef is responsible for the cooking, garnishing, sauce making and the dishing of fish.  Fish featuring freshwater fish, sea water fish, shell like crab, crayfish, shrimps, lobster and mussels.

Oysters are ordinarily served either direct from fishmonger or a convenient cool place.  If they are cooked, they are dished out direct from Chef Poissonier.

Methods of cooking fish include poaching, a’la menuiere, en poele and elaborate dressings are done by Chef Poissonier.

Veloute de poisson is a fundamental sauce produced only by Poissonier made froma roux and a fond de poisson. Poissonier is responsible for making stock and then veloute, the fish bones are supplied by the Grade Manger.

He stores the sauces properly which are made in advance as precautions against food poisonisng.  The Reportoire of he fish dishes and their accompanying sauces requires great experience training and judgement from this Chef de Partie.

CHEF DE BANQUETS (Banquet Chef)

In large establishments separate arrangements may be provided if not for the complete cooking of banquet and function meals at least for their assembling and service.  The Chef given responsibility for special service of banquet may be known as Chef de Banquets.

CHEF PATISSIER

The Chef Patissier has a different status but certainly not less than the Chef Saucier and the Chef Garde Manger. The work of this department is normally separated from the main kitchen and is self-contained in the matter of cold stage, machinery, and equipment for making ices and with its own baking and cooking facilities.

Chef Patissier is responsible for all hot and cold sweets, lunches, dinners, and functions and for pastries served at teatime or other occasions.  He is also responsible for the making of pastes like short and puffs pastry, frying batters, making noodles and Italian pasta for supply to other corners of the Kitchen.

Sorbets and water ice-like items are made in the pastry section.  The service of ices and these sweets which are based upon ice cream are prepared and assembled in Patisserie.  They include the sweet ‘omelet au surprise’ and ‘souffle surprise’, ‘peach melba’, ‘Poire Helene’, dipped fruits, etc.

 The art of pastry includes work like colored sugars to make flower baskets and similar decorative center places, work with fondant and icing sugar, gum pastes, fashioning of praline into boxes, and decorative objects containing chocolates.

The work of the Patissier has always been highlighted by the beauty of the cold sweets, ices, and their accompaniments.  Chef Patissier requires great skill, imagination, and experience.  In bag establishments, semiskilled assistants will prepare fresh fruit salads for service not only at lunch and dinner but also at breakfast.  The Chef Patissier is therefore like the Grade Manger, something like a Chef de Cuisine of a specialty kitchen and in addition to his own skills must coordinate and organize the work of a few subordinates.

BOULANGERS (Baker):- He is a baker working under Chef Patissier. He is responsible for all baked items bread rolls, loaves of bread, breakfast rolls like croissants, brioches, etc.

GLACIER: (He would be responsible for making various kinds of ices such as bombes, biscuits, glace and many varieties of ice cream. HE is one of the assistants of Chef Patissier.

COMMIS

Dependent on the Partie concerned the sectional Chef will be assisted by one or more trained cooks who have not yet reached full chef status.  These assistants or commis should have completed their apprenticeship or training but will still be getting experience before taking full Partie responsibility.  The first commis as the senior of the assistants is called, should be capable of taking charge, when the Chef de Partie is off, and as second in command takes a considerable responsibility under his chef. 

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Aims And Objectives Of Cooking

What is Cooking?

Cooking is a chemical process where in raw materials are exposed to heat to get a finished product of a certain desired quality with a change in physical state also.

Aims of cooking

Improves the taste and food quality

Cooking improves natural flavour and texture of food. For example, roasting groundnuts, frying onions and Papads, cooking rice and roasting coffee seeds improve the flavour. Cooking meat with spices, rice with spices in making Pulao, frying cashew nuts in ghee, addition of turmeric, curry leaves, pepper in Pongal, blend flavour with one another during cooking.

Too much of cooking lowers the flavour as flavouring compounds are volatile. Over cooked Pulao does not taste as good as well-cooked Pulao.

Destruction of microorganisms

Microorganisms are present everywhere and some are useful in making curd, cheese and bread. Some are harmful and cause infections or produce toxins, e.g., clostridium botulism and salmonella. Some moulds produce toxins. Aspergillus flavus produces aflatoxin in groundnuts, cereals and spices. This aflatoxin is a health hazard.

One of the most important method of protection of food against harmful micro-organism is by the application of heat. Cooking food to the required temperature for a required length of time can destroy all harmful microorganisms in food e.g. pasteurised milk.

Tapeworm or its larvae which infests pork can be killed by proper application of heat. By cooking, food is made safe for consumption.

Improves digestibility

Cooking softens the connective tissue of the meat and the coarse fibres or cereals, pulsesnand vegetables so that the digestive period is shortened, andngastrointestinal tract is less subjected to irritation. Cooking improves the texture hence it becomes more chewable.

Cooking also bursts the starch granules of pulses and cereals so that the starch digestion is easier, rapid, and complete. When dry heat is applied to starches, they are converted to easily digestible dextrin’s. Cooking increases the access to enzymes and improves digestibility.

Increases variety

By cooking, same food can be made into different dishes. For example, rice can be made into plain, Pulao, lemon rice, biriyani, or combination with pulses into Idli. Wheat can be made into chapatis, Puri, paratha or halwa.

Increase’s consumption of food

Cooking improves the texture and makes the food chewable. Improvement in texture and flavour by cooking increases the consumption of food to meet our nutritional requirement.

Increase’s availability of food

Raw egg contains avidin which binds biotin making biotin unavailable to the body. By cooking, avid in gets denatured and biotin is available to the body. Trypsin inhibitors present in soyabean and duck egg get denatured on cooking and availability of protein is improved. Toxic substances from Kesar Dhal can also be removed by boiling it and throwing away the water.

Objective of cooking

  1. Retaining the nutritive value of the food.
  2. Retaining the original colour of the food.
  3. Prevent the clash of colour.
  4. Avoid undercooking
  5. Avoid overcooking

 

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