Service

grill restaurant
Food and Beverage Service is the service of Food made in the Kitchen and Drinks prepared in the Bar to the Customers (Guest) at the Food & Beverage premises, which can be:

Restaurants, Bars, Hotels, Airlines, Cruise Ships, Trains, Companies, Schools, Colleges, Hospitals, Prisons, Takeaway, etc

Food and Beverage Department is responsible for maintaining the high quality of food  and service, food costing, managing restaurant, bar, etc.

The Food and Beverage Service is a process of preparing, presenting, and serving food and beverages to customers. Food can include a wide range of styles and cuisine types. These can be classified by Country.

Beverages include all alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. Alcoholic beverages include wines and all other types of alcoholic drinks such as Cocktails, Beer, Ciders, Spirits, and Liqueurs. In the foodservice industry, there are a number of different industrial sectors and these are categorized according to the type of customer demand being met. The food and beverage industry in hotels traces its roots to the traditional community feasts and the movement of people on pilgrimage thousands of years ago. Most people were on the move primarily for preaching religion and hunting.

Tobacco – Cigarette

CIGARETTE

A cigarette is a small cylinder of finely cut tobacco leaves rolled in thin paper for smoking.The cigarette is ignited at one end and allowed to smolder; its smoke is inhaled from theother end, which is held in or to the mouth and in some cases a cigarette holder may be usedas well. Most modern manufactured cigarettes are filtered and include reconstituted tobaccoand other additives

History

The earliest forms of cigarettes were similar to their predecessor, the cigar. Cigarettes appearto have had antecedents in Mexico and Central America around the 9th century in the form ofreeds and smoking tubes. The Maya, and later the Aztecs, smoked tobacco and otherpsychoactive drugs in religious rituals and frequently depicted priests and deities smoking on pottery and temple engravings. The cigarette and the cigar were the most common methods of
smoking in the Caribbean, Mexico, and Central and South America until recent times.
By 1830, the cigarette had crossed into France, where it received the name cigarette; and in
1845, the French state tobacco monopoly began manufacturing them. The French word was
adopted by English in the 1840s. Some American reformers promoted the spelling cigaret, but
this was never widespread and is now largely abandoned.

Composition

Modern commercially manufactured cigarettes are seemingly simple objects consisting mainly
of a tobacco blend, paper, PVA glue to bond the outer layer of paper together, and often also
a cellulose acetate–based filter. While the assembly of cigarettes is straightforward, much
focus is given to the creation of each of the components, in particular the tobacco blend. A key
ingredient that makes cigarettes more addictive is the inclusion of reconstituted tobacco,
which has additives to make nicotine more volatile as the cigarette burns.

  • Paper
  • Tobacco blend
  • Additives
  • Cigarette tube
  • Cigarette
Paper

The paper for holding the tobacco blend may vary in porosity to allow ventilation of theburning ember or contain materials that control the burning rate of the cigarette and stabilityof the produced ash. The papers used in tipping the cigarette (forming the mouthpiece) andsurrounding the filter stabilize the mouthpiece from saliva and moderate the burning of thecigarette, as well as the delivery of smoke with the presence of one or two rows of small laser-drilled air holes.


Tobacco blend

The process of blending gives the end product a consistent taste from batches of tobacco grownin different areas of a country that may change in flavor profile from year to year due todifferent environmental conditions.

Reconstituted leaf (RL) sheet: a paper-like material made from recycled tobacco fines, tobaccostems and “class tobacco”, which consists of tobacco particles less than 30 mesh in size (about0.6 mm) that are collected at any stage of tobacco processing: RL is made by extracting thesoluble chemicals in the tobacco byproducts, processing the leftover tobacco fibers from theextraction into a paper, and then reapplying the extracted materials in concentrated form ontothe paper in a fashion similar to what is done in paper sizing. At thisstage, ammonium additives are applied to make reconstituted tobacco an effective nicotinedelivery system.

Expanded (ES) or improved stem (IS): ES is rolled, flattened, and shredded leaf stems that areexpanded by being soaked in water and rapidly heated. Improved stem follows the sameprocess, but is simply steamed after shredding. Both products are then dried. These productslook similar in appearance, but are different in taste.

 

Additives

Various additives are combined into the shredded tobacco product mixtures,with humectants such as propylene glycol or glycerol, as well as flavoring products andenhancers such as cocoa solids, licorice, tobacco extracts, and various sugars, which are knowncollectively as “casings”.

Cigarette tube

Cigarette tubes are prerolled cigarette paper usually with an acetate or paper filter at the end.They have an appearance similar to a finished cigarette, but are without any tobacco orsmoking material inside. The length varies from what is known as King Size (84 mm) to 100s(100 mm).

Cigarette filter

A cigarette filter or filter tip is a component of a cigarette. Filters are typically madefrom cellulose acetate fibre. Most factory-made cigarettes are equipped with a filter; those whoroll their own can buy them separately. Filters can reduce some substances from smoke but donot make cigarettes any safer to smoke.

Cigarette butt

The common name for the remains of a cigarette after smoking is a cigarette butt. The butt istypically about 30% of the cigarette’s original length.

Consumption

Smoking has become less popular, but is still a large public health problem globally.Worldwide, smoking rates fell from 41% in 1980 to 31% in 2012, although the actual number ofsmokers increased because of population growth. In 2017, 5.4 trillion cigarettes were producedglobally, and were smoked by almost 1 billion people. Smoking rates have leveled off ordeclined in most countries but is increasing in some low- and middle-income countries. Thesignificant reductions in smoking rates in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Brazil, and other countries that implemented strong tobacco control programs have been offsetby the increasing consumption in low income countries, especially China. The Chinese marketnow consumes more cigarettes than all other low- and middle-income countries combined.

Storage

A fine cigar should be kept at between 15°C and 18°C (60°F- 65°F) and between 55%- 60%humidity, with a little variation as possible. A cigar is stored in cigar cases that are lined with cedar wood. These cigar cases are stored in a humidor. Humidor or specially made boxes they all either made with or lined with cedarwood. This is done because the aroma of cedar blends well with cigars and as cedarwood is porous it allows the cigar to breathe. A free circulation of air around these boxes is essential. Cigars are usually sold in boxes of 25, 50, and 100.

Electronic cigarette

Electronic cigarette is an electronic inhaler that vaporizes a liquid solution into an aerosolmist, simulating the act of tobacco smoking. Electronic cigarettes are no longer marketed assmoking cessation aids or tobacco replacement in most countries. There may be similaritiesbetween conventional and some electronic cigarettes in the physical design and the nicotinerelease, which may approximate the same amount of nicotine as a conventional cigarette.There are also many electronic cigarettes which do not resemble conventional cigarettes at all.The amount of nicotine contained can also be chosen by the user, with many people choosingno nicotine at all.

Fire safe cigarettes

Fire safe cigarettes self-extinguishing, fire-safe or Reduced Ignition Propensity [RIP]cigarettes) are cigarettes that are designed to extinguish more quickly than standard cigarettesif ignored, with the intention of preventing accidental fires. In the United States, “FSC” abovethe barcode signifies that the cigarettes sold are Fire Standards Compliant (FSC).

Fire safe cigarettes are produced by adding two bands of the FSC chemical to the cigarettepaper during manufacture in order to slow the burn rate at the bands. Because this processdecreases the burn rate and does not prevent unattended cigarettes from igniting nearbymaterials or tinder, the term “fire-safe” has been called a misnomer which could lead smokersto believe that these cigarettes are less likely to cause fires than standard cigarettes.

Herbal cigarettes

Herbal cigarettes are cigarettes that do not contain any tobacco and which are composed of amixture of various other herbs and/or other plant material. Such cigarettes are not to beconfused with so-called non-additive and/ or natural tobacco cigarette variety. Like herbalsmokeless tobacco, they are often used as a substitute for standard tobacco products (primarilycigarettes), and many times are promoted as a tobacco cessation aid. Herbal cigarettes are alsoused in acting scenes by performers who are non-smokers, or—as is becoming increasinglycommon—where anti-smoking legislation prohibits the use of tobacco in public spaces.

Lights

Lights, or “Low-tar,” are considered to have a “lighter,” less pronounced flavor than regularcigarettes. These cigarette brands may also contain lower levels of tar, nicotine, or otherchemicals inhaled by the smoker. The filter design is one of the main differences between lightand regular cigarettes, although not all cigarettes contain perforated holes in the filteranymore. In some light cigarettes, the filter is perforated with small holes that theoreticallydiffuse the tobacco smoke with clean air. In regular cigarettes, the filter does not include theseperforations. In ultra-light cigarettes, the filter’s perforations are larger, and in theory, theselarger holes produce an even smaller smoke to air ratio.

Menthol cigarette

Menthol cigarette is a cigarette flavored with the compound menthol, a substance whichtriggers the cold-sensitive nerves in the skin without actually providing a drop in temperature.Menthol cigarettes have also been shown to inhibit nicotine metabolism, causing “systemicenhancement in exposure to nicotine”.

Kretek

Kretek is cigarettes made with a blend of tobacco,cloves and other flavors. The word “kretek”itself is an onomatopoetic term for the crackling sound of burning cloves. Haji Jamahri, aresident of Kudus, Java, created kreteks in the early 1880s as a means to deliver the eugenol ofcloves to the lungs, as it was thought to help asthma. Jamahri believed the eugenol cured hischest pains and he started to market his invention to the village, but he died of lung cancerbefore he could mass market it. M. Nitisemito took his place and began to commercialize thenew cigarettes. Today, kretek manufacturers directly employ over 180,000 peopleinIndonesiaand an additional 10 million indirectly.

Popular Cigarette Brands
  • Vogue.
  • Parliament.
  • Dunhill.
  • Davidoff.
  • Nat Sherman.
  • Marlboro.
Pipe Tobacco

A smoking pipe is a pipe that is specifically made to smoke tobacco. Typically, it will consist ofa chamber (the bowl) for the combustion of material and a thin stem (shank) ending in amouthpiece (the bit). Pipes can range from the very simple machine-made briar pipe to highly-prized handmade and artful implements created by renowned pipe makers which are oftenvery expensive collector’s items. “Estate pipes” are previously owned pipes that are sold to newowners. The bowls of tobacco pipes are commonly made of briar, meerschaum, corncob orclay. Less common are cherry wood, olive wood, maple, mesquite, oak, and bog-wood. Generally adense-grained wood is ideal. Pipe bowls of all these materials are sometimes carved with agreat deal of artistry. Unusual, but still noteworthy pipe bowl materials include gourds, as inthe famous Calabash pipe, and pyrolytic graphite. Metal and glass are uncommon materials fortobacco pipes, but are common for pipes intended for other substances, such as cannabis.

The stem needs a long channel of constant position and diameter running through it for aproper draw, although filter pipes have varying diameters and can be successfully smoked evenwithout filters or adapters. Because it is molded rather than carved, clay may make up theentire pipe or just the bowl, but most other materials have stems made separately anddetachable. Stems and bits of tobacco pipes are usually made of mountable materials likevulcanize, Bakelite, and soft plastic. Less common are stems made of reeds, bamboo, orhollowed out pieces of wood. Expensive pipes once had stems made of amber, though this israre now.

Tobaccos for smoking in pipes are often carefully treated and blended to achieve flavournuances not available in other tobacco products. Many of these are blends using stapleingredients of variously cured Burley and Virginia tobaccos which are enhanced by spicetobaccos, among them many Oriental or Balkan varietals, Latakia (a fire-cured spice tobacco ofSyrian origin), Perique (uniquely grown in St. James Parish, Louisiana) which is also an oldmethod of fermentation, or blends of Virginia and Burley tobaccos of African, Indian, or SouthAmerican origins.

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Tobacco- Cigar

Tobacco means a leaf product containing 1% – 3% of alkaloid nicotine (C10H12N2) which produces narcotic effect when smoked, snuffed or chewed.

Nicotiana tabacum is the plant which produces tobacco for the world commerce. Nicotianarustica is also used for making tobacco in different parts of the Europe. Tobacco grows best inwarm even climate, tropical or sub-tropical region ( java, Sumatra, Jamaica, Cuba, India etc)on well drained, carefully fertilized soil which reduces weekly moisture form rain or irrigation.

History

There is pre-historic evidence that man learned to smoke before they could write- various cave paintings and clay tablets show it.

In 1492, Christopher Colombus, during his voyage to America, witnessed West Indianssmoking tobacco in a hollow forked stick. He brought the tobacco seeds to Europe where the farmers grew them for medicinal purposes to relax the body.
In 1560, a French diplomat, Jean Nicot (from whose name comes to the name nicotine)introduced its use to France.
John Rolfe, an American colonist, commercialized it in Virginia from where the famous Virginia tobacco comes. America exported Tobacco to England who made it popular in Europe. It however became popular in America by 1850 only.

Varieties of Tobacco

The main type of tobacco for cigarette and pipe smoking is Virginian tobacco. The other types of tobacco include Egyptian tobacco grown in the Nile delta and Asia Minor and the Turkishtobacco grown in Turkey, Balkan, and Syria. The best quality of tobacco for cigars comes fromVeuluabazo district of Cuba where the tobacco is more aromatic than anywhere else in the world.

Processing of tobacco for Cigarettes, Cigars and Pipe Tobacco

After harvesting the leaves are left for drying and then fermented in conditioning chambers with regulated heat and moisture. After fermentation, the leaves become pliable and attain flavor. The leaves are then removed from the midribs and sorted out according to quality /perfection.
The leaves for pipe tobacco and cigarettes are shredded through the machine. The shredding is finer for cigarettes compared to pipe tobacco.

For cigars, the tobacco leaves are sorted out differently. The best quality or the perfect leaves are used for the outside wrapper. The slightly imperfect leaves are used for the binder. Whereas the broken or imperfect leaves are used for the filler. This is because there are three parts to a cigar. The filler, which is the main part of the cigar. The filler is held by the binder, which is again held by the wrapper. The wrapper is a smooth blemish-less leaf. It is then taken for maturing.

Cigar

cigar is a rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco leaves made to be smoked. Cigars are produced in a variety of sizes and shapes. Since the 20th century, almost all cigars are made of three distinct components: the filler, the binder leaf which holds the filler together, and a wrapper leaf, which is often the highest quality leaf used.

It is the sommelier’s responsibility to sell cigars to the guest. The cigar is made of three elements. The cigar ash gives some indication about the quality of the cigar. The first-grade cigar produces grayish ash which lasts for a considerable time before dropping down.

History

Tobacco was widely diffused among all of the indigenous people of the islands of the Caribbean. Italian explorer Christopher Columbus is generally credited with the introduction of tobacco to Europe. During his 1492 journey, three of his crewmen Rodrigo de Jerez, Hector Fuentes, and Luis de Torres, are said to have encountered tobacco for the first time on the island of Hispaniola, (present-day Haiti and the Dominican Republic), when natives presented them with dry leaves that spread a peculiar fragrance.

The cigar business was an important industry and factories employed many people before mechanized manufacturing of cigars became practical. Cigar workers in both Cuba and the US were active in labor strikes and disputes from early in the 19th century, and the rise of modern labor unions can be traced to the CMIU and other cigar worker unions.

Manufacturing Of Cigar

Quality cigars are still handmade. An experienced cigar-roller can produce hundreds of good, nearly identical cigars per day. Tobacco leaves are harvested and aged using a curing process that combines heat and shade to reduce sugar and water content without causing the larger leaves to rot. This takes between 25 and 45 days, depending upon climatic conditions and the nature of sheds used to store harvested tobacco. Curing varies by type of tobacco and desired leaf color. A slow fermentation follows, where temperature and humidity are controlled to enhance flavor, aroma, and burning characteristics while forestalling rot or disintegration. 

The leaf will continue to be baled, inspected, un-baled, re-inspected, and baled again during the aging cycle. When it has matured to manufacturer’s specifications it is sorted forappearance and overall quality, and used as filler or wrapper accordingly. During this process, leaves are continually moistened to prevent damage.

Composition

Cigars are composed of three types of tobacco leaves, whose variations determine smoking and flavor characteristics:

  • Wrapper
  • Binder
  • Filler

Wrapper

A cigar’s outermost layer, or wrapper, is the most expensive component of a cigar. The wrapper determines much of the cigar’s character and flavor, and as such its color is often used to describe the cigar as a whole. Wrappers are frequently grown underneath huge canopies made of gauze so as to diffuse direct sunlight and are fermented separately from other rougher cigar components, with a view to the production of a thinly-veined, smooth, supple leaf.

Binder

Beneath the wrapper is a small bunch of “filler” leaves bound together inside of a leaf called a “binder”. Binder leaf is typically the sun-saturated leaf from the top part of a tobacco plant and is selected for its elasticity and durability in the rolling process. Unlike wrapper leaf, which must be uniform in appearance and smooth in texture, binder leaf may show evidence of physical blemishes or lack uniform coloration. Binder leaf is generally considerably thicker and more hardy than the wrapper leaf surrounding it.

Filler

The bulk of a cigar is “filler”—a bound bunch of tobacco leaves.
These leaves are folded by hand to allow air passageways down the length of the cigar, through which smoke is drawn after the cigar is lit. If full leaves are used as filler, a cigar is said to be composed of “long filler”. Cigars made from smaller bits of leaf, including many machine-made cigars, are said to be made of “short filler”.
If a cigar is completely constructed (filler, binder, and wrapper) of tobacco produced in only one country, it is referred to in the cigar industry as a “puro,” from the Spanish word for“pure”.

Size & Color of Cigar

Cigars come in various sizes, three of the most important and popular being

  • CORONA
    – 5 ½ inches
  • PETIT CORONA
    – 5 inches
  • TRES PETIT CORONA
    – 4 1/4
    inches

Cigar terms which classify the wrapper leaf according to colour are-

CCC : Claro- light coloured cigar
CC : Colorado Claro-medium coloured cigar
C : Colorado- Dark coloured Cigar
CM : Colorado Maduro- Very dark coloured cigar
M : Maduro- Extremely dark coloured cigar.

 

Storage

A fine cigar should be kept at between 15°C and 18°C (60°F- 65°F) and between 55%- 60%humidity, with a little variation as possible. A cigar is stored in cigar cases that are lined with cedar wood. These cigar cases are stored in a humidor. Humidor or specially made boxes they all either made with or lined with cedarwood. This is done because the aroma of cedar blends well with cigars and as cedarwood is porous it allows the cigar to breathe. A free circulation of air around these boxes is essential. Cigars are usually sold in boxes of 25, 50, and 100.

Service of Cigar

Always carry a cigar cutter to cut the cigar as that ensures a cool-free drawing of smoke. If the guest requires you to cut the cigar take care that you don’t cut too deep so that you disturb the decorate band which held the cigar. For lighting the cigars avoid matchboxes, use lighters instead because for the end of the cigar to be lit, it has to be warmed first.

Few popular brand of cigar

  • Cohiba Behike 54
  • Montecristo Grand
  • Edmundo
  • New World By AJ
  • Fernandes
  • Partagas Serie D No 4
  • Partagás 8-9-8 Cabinet Varnished
  • Hoyo De MONTERREY EPICURE NO. 2
  • H. Upmann Sir Winston
  • Cohiba Rubusto
  • Montecristo No 4
  • Don Rafael Maduro
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KOt and Billing System

KOT is an abbreviation for Kitchen Order Tickets. It is a note which is forwarded to the kitchen, billing division, and one copy is retained in the system for future reference. The KOT application primarily contains details related to the table number, items ordered, and its quantity. Having a restaurant KOT, which is automated, reduces the scope of manual mistakes, saves time, helps you to have real-time reporting of all the orders at your restaurant, and reduces monetary discrepancies. With so many positives, what is stopping you from having an automated restaurant KOT generation process at your restaurant?

KOT (Kitchen order Ticket) / Bill Control System

Control implies checking at every stage, enables food and drinks to be coordinated with the aim of presenting a correct bill to each guest without delay.

In a food and beverage operation, for any food item and non-alcoholic beverage item a kitchen order ticket or KOT has to be made by the F&B personnel and concerned item is provided by the kitchen to the F&B personnel only on presenting the KOT. KOT is the written proof that the guest has been served with the item he has ordered. KOT is a very important tool of the F&B control system. Any food item ordered by the guest is written on KOT. Similarly, all alcoholic beverages that have to be obtained from the bar are noted down on BOT or the bar order ticket and are presented to the barman and it is only then the barman will provide the waiter with the alcoholic beverage.

KOT and BOT are made in 1+3 i.e. one original and three carbon copies.

Let us break down the steps of how a traditional restaurant KOT generation process works.

  • The waiter takes an order using carbon paper. Typically the traditional restaurant KOT contains three copies, in Red, Yellow, and White. 
  • The Red goes to the kitchen to process the food. The kitchen keeps this copy and ideally should send all the KOTs to the audit team after the day ends.
  • The yellow copy remains with the waiter until the food is served. Once the food is served, this copy is sent to the billing counter. The cashier enters the KOT in the system.
  • All these yellow KOTs are then sent to the audit department to create their jobs. But, somehow, this is a tedious task and often ignored and delayed for this very reason. Most of the time, the entire audit process is stopped. Moreover, if the audit functions exist, then the report comes after 15 days. The action is delayed. You cannot go to that customer and ask that you have forgotten to bill 2-3 items that were consumed by them.
  • The white copy remains in the KOT application pad. Loads of such pads are created and sorted. Eventually, all those pads are sent to the recycle bin.

All of the above mentioned is a slow, manual process, with much scope for errors, and a little area for monitoring and tracking of the orders. 

Importance Of Kot

KOT is the written proof of the day’s activities. It is full details of the items being sold on that particular date. Analysis of KOT can be done and records can be kept for future reference i.e. to prepare the budget for the same month next year. Plan out certain events to find out which item is the most selling and which is not. If needed the menu can be revised. The waiter’s performance can also be judged through the KOT. If he is performing well he can be appraised and if he is lacking he can be briefed about the proceedings.

TYPES OF KOT

1) Retour Or Return Check

If a food item has to be returned for some reason, another check or KOT has to be made out, marked return and sent with the dish in order to cancel the transaction. It has to be insured that the item is taken off the bill by sending the copy to the cashier.

2) En Place

It literally means “in its place”. In case of a table d hote menu the guest may wish a slight change in a particular dish, for example jacket potatoes instead of French fries. So, an en place check has to be made. The check has to be signed by a senior authority like the restaurant manager to show that this alteration is permitted at no extra charge.

3) Suivant

Where it is necessary to write out more than one food check for a meal, e.g., when a sweet dish check or KOT is written out after the main course has been served. At the head of this check word SUIVANT should be written, which means the following check, and shows that one check has already been written out for that particular table.

4) Suppliment Check

Sometimes a waiter requires ingredients from various sources to finish a dish. For e.g. for a cocktail or a mocktail lemon is required. A special check or a written supplement has to be made out in this case. This should be signed by the restaurant manager and normally there is no extra charge.

5) No Charge

Any complimentary items served to the guest or the executives of the hotel who are entitled to have food in the restaurant are written on this check and no bill is raised

6) Accident Check

It occasionally happens that the waiter may have an accident in the room and perhaps some food dishes are dropped. These must be replaced without any extra charge to the guest. Here a check must be made named ACCIDENT CHECK. It will show the number of portions of the particular dish required and should be signed by the restaurant manager. No charge is made.

 

Billing Methods

 Seven basic billing methods are:-

  • Bill as a check

 When a guest requires the bill, the waiter checks everything is entered on the duplicate copy of the food and drinks check and then totals the bill. It is presented to the guest as previously mentioned. One of the two methods of payments may now occur. The guest may pay at the cash desk on the way out or may pay the cash directly to the waiter who will give any change that is necessary. The cashier usually keeps the bill on payment but if the guest wishes to have a receipt, then a special bill is written out and receipted.

  • Separate Bill

This billing method is usually found running in conjunction with triplicate checking system. On receiving the duplicate copy of the food check from the waiter the cashier opens the bill in duplicate according to the table number on the food check. All sets of bill are serial numbered for control purposes. As the checks are received by the cashier from the waiter, he enters the items ordered as per the bill together with their correct prices. When this is done the bill and the duplicate checks are pinned together.

When the guest requests for the bill the waiter collects it from the cashier, who first checks that all items are entered and priced correctly and then total it up. It is advisable for the waiter to double check the addition. The top copy of the bill is presented to the guest on a folder, on receiving the necessary payment from the guest; the waiter returns the bill and cash to the cashier. The cashier receives and stamps both the copy and returns the first copy along with the change to the waiter which is returned to the guest.

  • Bill With Order

This billing method may take a variety of forms depending upon the requirements of the establishment and the depth of the management control information to be realized. It is further simple form of checking. This may be used in cafés, quick turnover restaurant and departmental stores. A simple form of control such as this is adopted for use in various forms of take away establishments.

The menu is normally limited with little or no choice, the waiter takes the order and marks down the guest requirements, calls for the order verbally over the hot plate and when the guest requests for the bill, the waiter writes down the price on the order sheet and hands it to the guest. The guest then hands it to the cashier on leaving and pays the required amount. There is only one copy of this order and the bill combined and the cashier for control purpose retains this once the guest has made the necessary payment. This system speeds up the process of billing for the customer and allows specific control over cash received and change given as well as controlling all stock items held.

  • Prepaid

This billing methods happens when prepayment and perhaps required for a specific occasion or event and allows the organizer to determine exact number prior to the day. In this instance, upon arrival at the event, admission or receipt of the food is obtained by handing in ones ticket or card.

  • Voucher

Here a customer has perhaps been issued credit by third party, his/her employer, in form of a luncheon voucher. This voucher can be exchanged for goods, food and non- alcoholic beverages to the maximum value indicated by the voucher. If the guest has consumed less value than mentioned in the voucher the difference is not paid to the guest. But if the guest consumes more than the value mentioned in the voucher the guest has to pay for the difference.

In the same way voucher may be issued for a specific value to be given in exchange for goods or services received. These credit vouchers are then used by the suppliers of goods or services to claim cash owing from the employer, firm or agency who issued them in the first instance.

  • No Charge

This is when the guest is not charged in exchange of any services or goods. He/she should be asked only to sign for the goods and services received and the bill should then be sent to the firm or company supplying the hospitality. In some instances the customer will require to show some type official form or letter authorizing that the hospitality may take place.

  • Deferred

In deferred billing a service has been requested by an individual, firm or company that has been confirmed and taken place. The bill for the total services received is then sent after the event and will be paid by the organizing person or body. Payment in this manner will normally relate the function catering events.

An Automated KOT System Improves Restaurant Ordering And Kitchen Operations

Contrary to what tech-phobic restaurateurs might tell you, an automated KOT system is easy to install and use. The entire process can be broken down into three simple steps:

  • Install KOT printers in the kitchen and bar.
  • Make sure that the kitchen prepares and supplies food, based on the printed KOT. Train all your staff accordingly.
  • Install the POS system at the foodservice desk.

While shifting from the traditional to the automated restaurant generation process seems rather straightforward, its associated positive impacts are a lot more than expected. The various ways an automated restaurant KOT generation process can smoothen your restaurant operations are:

  • Easy To Use
  • Accelerates Your Restaurant Service
  • Integrates With Online Ordering
  • Provides Real-time Reports
  • Reduces The Scope Of Discrepancies
  • Reduces The Dependence On Manual Entries
  • Low Investment
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Room Service / In-Room Dining

Room service or “in-room dining” is a hotel service enabling guests to choose menu items for delivery to their hotel room for consumption there. Room Service is organized as a subdivision within the Food & Beverage Department of high-end hotel and resort properties. Usually food items which require a lot of garnish are not served in rooms. Room service also extends to alcoholic drinks. However, many hotels stock such beverages in the mini-fridge.

There are two types of Room Service:

  • Centralized: Here all the food orders are processed from the main kitchen and sent to the rooms by a common team of waiters.
  •  Decentralized:  Each floor or a set of floor may have separate pantries to service them. Orders are taken at a central point by order-takers who in turn convey the order to the respective pantry.

MOBILE: This type of operation is found in resorts. In resorts there are mobile vans which go to the cottages and prepare the food in front of the guests or bring prepared food in it.

DUMB WAITER: Dumb waiter is a specialized elevator for room service. Mainly used in countries which are technically improved and have shortage of man power.

They are of three types:

  • One in which there is a waiter standing in the elevator and prepares the food inside the elevator and goes to the room and serves.
  • The second one is in which the elevator along with the prepared food opens into the floor pantry and the food is served from the floor pantry to the guests in their rooms
  • The third one is found in really technically improved countries in which the elevator along with the prepared food opens into the guest room and the food is directly served to the guests

Features IRD

  1. 24 hours room service in very good hotels.
  2. Room service is multi cuisine in nature– Except items which need a lot of garnishing, are not served at rooms because by the time it reaches the room it won’t be in the proper condition. Even noodles and pastas are not served.
  3. All meals- The various meals one have in a day are served. E.g. Bed Tea, Afternoon Tea etc.
  4. Dearly priced- It is priced more because it is served at the rooms and even lot of effort and equipments are required for the transportation of the food
  5. Low turnover- The majority of the resident guests only takes breakfast in their room which is much cheaper. They may have their lunch or dinner outside. Room service depends on the number of resident guests. And even there is no way of promoting room service in a hotel as in restaurants they do by advertising.
  6. Dispense Bar/ Mini Bar- A bar situated in the back area of a restaurant or in the pantry is known as Dispense Bar. The bar situated in the restaurant is known as American Bar or Cocktail Bar. A small refrigerator inside the room stocked with mineral water bottles, soft drinks and alcoholic beverages is known as mini bar.
  7. Ordering through phone- Order taker is one of the most important people in room service. An order taker should be attentive and listen properly to the guest and should repeat the orders

LOCATION AND EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR ROOM SERVICE

The room service department in a large hotel is located near the still room, main kitchen, and service elevator.

The cabin is equipped with: 

  • Sink unit
  • Hotplate
  • Refrigerator
  • Cloche
  • Salamander
  • Small still set or other coffee making machine
  • Cutting boards
  • Knives
  • Storage space shelves and cupboard for crockery
  • Silverplate, hollowware
  • Cutlery.
  • Flatware
  • Glassware
  • Cruets, Worcester sauce, sugar, etc.
  • Linen (Table cloth)
  • Gueridon trolley
  • Chafing lamps and Suzette pans
  • Wine service equipment’s
  • Room service menu cards
  • Room service kitchen order ticket
  • Status of guests staying
  • Telephone
  • Room List
  • Computer
  1. Room service menu card:  this card features the names of dishes that are available for room service. The room service order taker refers to this card if necessary when an order is received from room guests.
  2. Telephone:  Telephone calls are handled by the room service order taker when guests make calls for room service.
  3. Room service KOT:  the dishes ordered by room guests are transferred to kitchen order ticket by the room service order taker and sent to the hot plate for collection.
  4. Status list: This gives information on VIP guests which help the room service department place complimentary cookies and fruit basket according to the policy of the hotel.
  5. Integrated computer system: This displays room number, name of guest, number of persons staying, expected date and time of departure, status of the guest, etc.

ORDER TAKING FOR ROOM SERVICE

Usually, in hotels, where complimentary breakfast is offered to resident guests room service, is not extended. However, some guests due to some reasons may order breakfast dishes in their rooms.

The waiter receives the order and transmits the same to the kitchen. In the meanwhile, he prepares his tray or trolley. He then goes to the cashier to have a cheque prepared to take along with the food order for the guests’ signature or payment. Usually, clearance of soiled dishes from the room is done after half an hour or an hour. However, the guest can telephone Room Service for the clearance as and when he has finished with the meal.

Methods of collecting breakfast order:

  • Doorknob card 
  • Telephone

Door knob card: A card which can be hung on the door knob mainly for breakfast. During or at the morning most of the guests order for breakfast and there is less number of order takers so guests can order their breakfast through Breakfast Doorknob Card.

  1. Placing an order through a doorknob card: In this method, the names of all breakfast dishes are printed on the card with one small box against each dish for the guest to write the quantity required. Guests fill in the following information: 
  • Name of the guest
  • Room number
  • Time at which breakfast is required
  • Portion

Advantages

  • It is entered by the guest themselves and hence, it is a written document of their order.
  • The volume of business can be easily predicted.

Disadvantages

  • Guests may ask for dishes that are not available which may result in dissatisfaction.
  • Two-way communication is not possible, hence, no scope for suggestive selling

       2. Order through telephone: Guests may directly place the order to the room service department through telephone. The phone should be answered within three rings, saying ‘Good morning Room Service! How may I help you, Sir/Madam?’ the following information should be noted down: 

  • Name of the guest
  • Room number
  • Time at which breakfast is required
  • Portion

Advantages

  • Scope for suggestive selling
  • Dishes can be explained if necessary

Disadvantages

  • Room service telephone may be busy during peak hours.
  • Order takers may not be able to understand the accent of the guest.

Service in the room

  •  When approaching the door of the room you will enter make sure you know the guests name.
    1.    HOW? Check a vacant rooms report, ask the Butler on the floor, call the operator or front office to check in the system.
    2.    WHY? It is an international basic standard to use the guests name all the time.

  • Observe the signage on the door (DND/Service Room)
    1.    HOW? Look at the panel beside the door where you swipe your master key to get in.
    2.    WHY? We do not want to disturb a guest if they have placed the DND sign on.
  • Check if the room is not double locked
    1.    HOW? Swipe the key and see if the red light appears and there is no sound of the lock opening.
    2.    WHY? If it is early in the morning or late at night the guest might not want to be disturbed and did not place the DND sign. It would be then better to ask the Butler to call the guests room to see if the guest doesn’t mind that someone comes in.
  •  Ring the bell once and wait for 10 seconds. Announce the department and wait for another 5 seconds.
    1.    HOW? Press the bell picture on the panel near the door. (Do not press to hard as the panels are delicate).
    2.    WHY? We have to wait as the guest might be in the bathroom, on the balcony or getting changed. We also want the guest to know who is waiting at the door and for what reason.
  • If the guest opens the door say ‘Good Morning Mr/s. guests name I am your name from your department may I state your purpose in the room’. Proceed if the guest agrees or come back at the requested time
    1.    WHY? We want to make sure that we use the guest’s name, and they know who you are, and what you are going to do in the room. Remember to be very clear when you speak as some of the guests do not speak English very well.
  • If there is no response from the room repeat the above mentioned step.
    1.    WHY? We have to give the guest adequate time and not rush them or they might be watching T.V and did not hear the first time or in the bathroom having a shower and not hear the bell
  •  Open the door slowly, knock twice and announce your department again. Only open the door till you can see the first light switch.
  • Check the bathroom and if the door is locked then knock again and announce your department.
  • Check the bedroom and the balcony to reconfirm that there is no guest on the room. When you reach the wardrobe area, announce your department once again.
  • If there is no one in the room proceed with task.

Room Service Trolley Set Up

  • The trolley is ready with a neat and clean table cloth.
  • Set up the trolley with following things.
  • Flower vase on the middle
  • Salt &Pepper
  • Sugar bowl (white sugar, brown sugar, sugar-free like Splenda)
  • Preserves and butter before you pick up the food
  • B&B plate.
  • Cutlery folder ready with bread and butter knife Main course fork and knife and dessert spoon.
  • Hot box ready and recharged.
  • Coffee cup with underline and tea spoon
  • Milk creamer with the coffee or tea orders as per the guest requirements.
  • Juice glass.
  • All hot and cold food should be covered with the plate cover as soon as picked from the kitchen.
  • New table clothe on the top of the hot box to set up the dining table inside the room.
  •  Service napkins to be used for placing hot food or for other services

Breakfast Basic Set Up On The Tray

These are the step by step what you need to do on Breakfast Basic Set Up On The Tray preparation. Be very focused on every detail because these steps will make your routine operation very effective and efficient. Will anticipate guests’ complaints and guard your company’s standard of performance excellently. These standards could vary depends on your company situation and conditions but this guide of Breakfast Basic Set Up On The Tray is used in so many 5 stars hotels all around the globe and has been tested for many years with so many compliments earns. Focus on the details is key before you deliver anything to the guest’s room and start your service role. Teamwork will make your service PERFECT!

 

  • Tray is ready with a neat and clean tray mat.
  • Set up the tray with the following things.
  • Flower vase on the tray
  • Salt &Pepper
  • Sugar bowl (white sugar, brown sugar, sugar-free like Splenda)
  • Preserves and butter before you pick up the food
  •  B&b plate.
  • Cutlery folder ready with bread and butter knife Main course fork and knife and dessert spoon.
  • Coffee cup with underline and teaspoon
  • Milk creamer with the coffee or tea orders as per the guest’s requirements.
  •  All hot and cold food should be covered with the plate cover as soon as picked from the kitchen.
  • Service napkins to be used for placing hot food or for other services
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Methods Of Food Service

Services of food & beverage in the Food and Beverage Operations can be carried out many ways. But during the method of service, certain factors have to be kept in mind which is as follows:-

  1. The type of establishment
  2. Time available for the meal
  3. Turnover of customers expected
  4. The cost of meal served
  5. Site of the establishment

Some of the main methods of services are as follows:

SILVER SERVICE/ PLATTER TO PLATE SERVICE

This usually includes serving food at the table. It is a technique of transferring food from a serving dish to the guest’s plate from the left. Food is placed in the serving platters by the chef and transferred onto the plate to the guest by the waiter. It is a highly personalized service that adds to goodwill. It gives the guest the choice of selecting and quantifying the food served to him.  However skilled waiters are required for silver service. In addition to this high capital investment, maintenance cost is involved as silver service requires great attention and care.

Following are the disadvantages of silver service-

  • When the last portion is served, the food on the platter looks scattered and unappetizing. Even portions can be miscalculated, ending up in giving more or less to the last guest due to uneven distribution of food. After the service, the platters and service gear gets piled up on the sideboard.
  • Time-consuming
  • Difficult to maintain the service temperature of the food
  • Service charge is generally high
  • High capital investment

AMERICAN SERVICE/ PRE-PLATED SERVICE

Method of serving food in which the food are placed on plates in the kitchen by the chef and is served to the guests by the waiter/waitress from the right side of the guest.It is quick and simple service which involves less capital investment, labour and maintenance cost. Garnishes are maintained on individual portions, which don’t involve much skill.

ENGLISH SERVICE/ BUTLER SERVICE

The English word “butler” is derived from the Middle English Word “Boteler” from old French “bouteiller” (bottle bearer) and before that from Middle Latin “Butticula”.

Gradually, throughout the 19th century and particularly the Victorian era, as the number of butlers and other domestic servants greatly increased in various countries , the butler became a senior male servant of a household’s staff.

Butler is involved in helping the host to conduct the service smoothly. Platters and entrée dishes are brought on trolley and kept before the host to portion out all the items. Often the butler and the assistants take the platters around for second helping. It is also called Family Style service. It is a very private type of service which doesn’t exceed ten to fifteen guests.

GUERDON SERVICE        

The definition of the term guerdon is a movable service table, or trolley, from which food is carved, filleted, flamed and served. This may include serving foods that have to be prepared and served or simply food that is being served from the guerdon. In other words, it is movable side board carrying sufficient equipment for the service requirements, together with any spare equipment that may be necessary.

Gueridon service is normally found in high class establishments with an a la carte menu. It is more expensive as it requires a higher level of service skills, more elaborate and expensive equipment and a larger area for the movement of trolleys.

FLAMBE SERVICE

Flambé dishes first became popular in Britain during the Edwardian era. Crepe Suzette claims to be the first flambé dish, which supposedly was invented by Henri Charpentier when as a commis at the Café de Paris in Monte Carlo in 1894. Common Guéridon trolleys are-

  • The Flambé trolley
  • The Pastry trolley
  • Hors d’ oeuvre trolley
  • Carving trolley

ADVANTAGE

  1. Display of dishes- Pastries, Carving, etc.
  2. The showmanship and expertise act of the service personnel is brought forward.
  3. Impulse buying.
  4. Cost is minimum – Great returns.

DISADVANTAGE

  1. SPACE REQUIREMENT
  2. SAFETY
  3. INITIAL COST IS HIGH
  4. HIGHLY SKILLED STAFF

BUFFET SERVICE

The word “buffet” is a French word that means a refreshment table which in English means “service from a side table”. 

In this type of service, the food is placed on a common table from which the guest can help themselves. It is a common method of feeding a large number of people with minimal staff in a short span of time. The option of unlimited portions makes the buffet-style popular.

Types of buffet

Sit down buffet

  • Space requirement is more.
  • Dishes are displayed and guests help themselves or assisted service is there.
  • Common for both informal and formal functions.
  • Popular for the wedding reception. Standing buffet
  • Where space is minimum this type of buffet is ideal.
  • People stand and consume their meals. Popular in case of dealers meet etc.

Fork buffet

  • Simply where flatware is used.
  • When people stand and eat, it is not convenient to use the knife, hence the fork is convenient to use.
  • All food items should be manageable with a fork i.e. large slices of meat or fish is not suitable

Finger buffet

  • No cutlery is required
  • Ideal for Indian food and finger buffet is popular for wedding reception
  • Popular in the smaller establishments and outdoor catering. Cold buffet
  • Display of cold cuts and cold hors’d oeuvre are served.
  • Popular in the western world. Display buffet
  • Display of ice carving, tallow sculpture, butter sculpture (centerpiece)
  • Salad display
  • Live counter
  • Tawa counter
  • Japanese teppanyaki (live counter) Chinese/Thai live counter. • Carving and flambé items.

Buffet service is normally carried out from a chafing dish. The various parts of a chaffing dish include a stand, food pan, water pan, and lid, and fuel pot.

Advantages

  • Fast service.
  • A variety of dishes can be served.
  • High profit and low food cost.
  • Less skilled manpower.
  • Economically priced

 Disadvantages

  • Impersonalized service.
  • Portion control may not be improvised.
  • Standardization of dishes is not possible.
  • Elaborately garnished dishes can’t be served.
  • The initial cost is high
  • Breakage is more

RUSSIAN SERVICE

This type of service has come from the era Tsar of Russia who believed in the show. The basic element in Russian service derives from the old style of having large joints, whole fish, or birds often decoratively placed on platters with elaborate garnishes on the sideboard visible to the guests before being served. The food is then collected on smaller platters by the waiter and served to guest on the table just as in silver service. This form of service enjoyed slight popularity in Europe in the 19th century otherwise Russian Service as a distinct and separate form of service no longer remains.

CAFETERIA SERVICE

In a cafeteria service mostly cooked food is arranged behind a food serving counter. There is no or little table service. Typically a patron takes a tray and pushes it along a track in front of the counter. Depending on the establishment servings may be ordered from attendants, selected as readymade portions already on plates, or self service of food of their own choice. 

In some establishments, a few items such as steaks may be ordered and the patron waits for those items to be prepared or is given a number and is brought to the table. 

Beverages may be filled from the self service dispensers or ordered from the attendants. At the end of the line the patron has to pay to the cashier in case of commercial establishments. At some self service cafeterias, purchases are priced by weight rather than individual item.

The trays with selected items or food are taken to a table to eat. Institutional cafeteria may have a common table, but upscale cafeteria provides individual table as in sit down service restaurants. Upscale cafeteria has traditional cutlery and crockery and some have servers carrying the food tray to the table or clearing the used and empty trays.

Cafeteria is a Spanish word meaning coffeehouse though it has no relation with cafeteria service. It might have a single or multiple point entry.

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Types Of Menu

It is a list of food items offered for a meal along with prices whether set for individual items or for the whole meal.

Menu is a list , in a specific order, of dishes to be served at a given meal

For commercial establishment it will also include the prices (either set for individual items or for the whole meal), taxes and other charges applicable

HISTORY AND ORIGIN OF MENU

The word menu was originated in the year 1541 when the Duke Henry of Brunswick, was holding a party where was constantly referring to a piece of paper

An exquisite lady was enquiring with the Duke about the food items in a nasal tone saying, “may I know”. This phrase was later converted to the word “Menu”.

In 1718, we get the first recorded description of menu, where in a party the guest were able to look at the names, recipes and ingredients of the preparations in the look called “ Ecriteau” in French which means “Bill of Fare”

PRESENTATION OF MENU

 It is usually the style of presentation of menu along with the prices mentioned. There are ways of presentation of menu.

  • Book form
  • Card form
  • Board form Place mats

Book form

This type of presentation of menu is very common in large establishments where there are more items. The items are listed along with their respective prices. Most of the restaurants follow this style.

Card Form

The food items along with their pricing are written on a card for smaller establishment.

Board Form

It is mostly found in fast food centres, food courts or pavilion where a large board is displayed with the names of the dishes and their pricing.

Place mats

Such form of menu presentation is generally found in food service areas where turnover of the guest is very high and fast efficient service is required. Place mats are printed papers placed on the guest table with the names and prices displayed. Once the guest is done with their meal, the mats are immediately removed and new ones are placed. Usually followed in coffee shop, fast food centres etc.

TYPES OF MENU

Table d’hôte (table of the host)

It is a fixed menu generally of a starter, a main course, a dessert and a beverage at last, and is served at a stated price which is for the entire meal.

Cater to a large number of people in a short period of time like institution, industries, transport catering etc.

À la carte (in the style of a card)

It is the selection from the menu card where each item is priced separately.

In this the menu is presented in form of a card. All the food items are listed along with their individual respective pricing. It is most popularly used menu.

Other forms of menu are:-

CARTE DU JOUR– (menu for the day): It is a card comprising of food items listed with composite pricing and has been planned for the day. Mostly used for institutional/ industrial/ welfare catering.

PLAT DU JOUR– (dish of the day/ chef’s special): A special food item prepared by the chef for a particular day. It is quite expensive.

PLATS DU JOUR-(plates/ dishes of the day): When there are multiple special items it is not verbally promoted but written in a card with individual pricing.

OBJECTIVES OF MENU PLANNING

  1. The menu must satisfy guest expectations.
  2. The menu must attain marketing objectives.
  3. The menu must help achieve quality objective.
  4. The menu must be cost effective.
  5. The menu must be accurate.
  1. The menu must satisfy guest expectations: Because guest satisfaction is a byword of dinning service management, your menu must, above everything else, reflect your guest’s tastes and preferences – neither the chef’s, the food and beverage director’s nor those of the manager of the dinning outlet.
  2. The menu must attain marketing objectives: While part of marketing is discovering what guests want, another important aspect is providing for their needs at convenient locations and times and at prices that they are willing and able to pay. In some cases, excellent product development, pricing and promotion will convince guests that you have what they desire – even if up until now they never knew what it was that they’d been looking for.
  3. The menu must help achieve quality objective: Quality concerns are closely related to marketing concerns. It is important that you clearly understand all aspects of quality requirements and develop menus that incorporate these standards into your food menus. High quality and good nutrition go hand – in – hand. A menu that helps achieve quality objectives would also offer enough choices to the guests so that they can order a nutritionally well-balanced meal. Other aspects of food quality include flavor, texture, color, shape, consistency, palatability, flair and guest appeal. As you plan the menu, remember to balance it so that textures, colors, shapes and flavors are not repetitive.
  4. The menu must be cost effective: Both commercial and institutional food service operations should plan menus that recognize financial restraints. Generally, commercial properties cannot attain their profit objectives unless their product costs, which the menu often dictates, fall within a specific range. In institutional food service operations, minimizing costs is also the menu planner’s responsibility. Whether you plan a menu for a commercial or an institutional operation, you must select menu items that are within the operation’s budget.
  5. The menu must be accurate: You are responsible for telling the truth when you formulate menus. You must not mislabel a product, describe it inaccurately, or deceive the guest by your menu presentation. The menu is a powerful advertising tool. It can influence what guests order and their expectations. If your food service operation does not deliver the type of products that your menu represents, your guests may feel cheated and never return.

MENU PLANNING CONSIDERATION

  1. Colour repetition– repetition of colour in the dishes of a menu will be monotonous for a guest which would harm the appetite of the guest.
  2. Balance of Heaviness- while fixing a menu the balance of heaviness should always be kept in mind i.e., from light to heavy and ultimately to light.
  3. Repetition of Ingredients– As with repetition of colour, repetition of ingredients or taste will also harm the appetite of a guest and will be monotonous and irritating for the guest
  4. Kitchen Skills– the efficiency of kitchen department and its output capacity is an essential factor in determining the type of menu.
  5. Seasonal Favorites– availability and usage of seasonal fresh fruits and vegetables are other factors to be considered while planning a menu. A good menu should always include seasonal favorites in its courses for example mango in summers, carrot in winters etc.
  6. Local Favorites– The favorites of the local people, their eating habits and food culture needs to be taken into consideration while planning a menu.
  7. Availability of equipments – while planning the menu, availability of the equipments required to prepare as well as serve the food needs to be considered.

CONSTRAINT OF MENU PLANNING

  • Age– The preference of food items varies with age group. The children and aged people prefer less spicy food while the younger likes rich and spicy dishes.  Ideal menu should take care of people in each and every age group.
  • Profession– People in different profession have different food preferences, athletes, sport person will go for high carbohydrate while people in entertainment business will prefer low fat/ cholesterol diet.
  • Nationality– people of different nation have different food preferences. An European will like mild continental food, while Indian, Thai and Mexican will prefer spicy food
  • Group size– when group size is large it is difficult to serve elaborate menu.
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Courses of menu

The courses of meal around the world vary in number from as small as just one to as wide as 17, in case of a traditional French meal. The courses are divided according to what food one eats. There are different food profiles according to the country’s culture and customs. Generally, there are at least three courses of a meal

Hors d’oeuvre- Appetizers

This course is a starter which is basically tasty and tangy and stimulates our hunger and increases our appetite

They are of two types-

  • Classical- all Pre plated and cover is item specific
  • General- most of them platter to plate and cover is fish knife and fish fork

Classical Hors d’oeuvres-

  1. Pample mousse ( Grapefruit)- This is a citrus fruit

Cover– Grape fruit cup, doily, under plate, grapefruit spoon/tea spoon.

Accompaniment- caster sugar in sugar dredger

  1. Jus (Juice) – Fruit juices like orange juice, pineapple juices, apple juices etc.

Cover- Pony tumbler, doily, teaspoon and under plate

Accompaniment-  Sweet- Caster sugar

  1. Cocktail de fruits de mer (Sea Food Cocktail)- shellfish like shrimps, lobster etc dressed with cocktail sauce

Cocktail sauce- mayonnaise + tomato ketchup

Cocktail de crevettes- indicates prawn

Cocktail d’homard- indicates lobster garnished with parsley Cover- Sea food cocktail glass, doily, under plate and teaspoon. 

  1. Huitre ( oyster) –Bivalve molluscs served raw in clusters of dozen Cover- in a deep plate on a bed of crushed ice, above a cloth napkin on a large plate, one oyster fork or fish fork at an angel of 45° to the cover from the edge of the table on the right hand side.
  2. Melon- there are 4 common varieties
    • Canteloupe
    • Honey Dew
    • Charentaise
    • Water melon

Cover- Boat shaped cut (melon cup), half plate, doily, fruit fork, fruit knife. If over ripe- serve with dessert spoon to the right of the cover

If not very ripe and scooped out- serve with the tea spoon accompanied with   caster sugar

  1. Caviare (caviar)- These are roe of sturgeon

Roe- processed fish eggs

Sturgeon- Particular species of fish found in Caspian Sea or black sea

Types-

  • Grainy Caviar
  • Pressed Caviar

              Grainy caviar can be further classified into-

              Beluga- white in colour

              Sevruga- dark in colour

              Ossetra- black in colour

It is sold in weight basis. Almas is the costliest among all the caviars which costs 23000 dollar per kg.

Cover- Caviar Knife/ Fish Knife on the right side of the cover, caviar pot on a bed of crushed ice in a caviar plate

Accompaniment- Blinis/Toast (blinis is a savoury Russian pan cake), sieved egg yolk, chopped egg white, chopped shallots and segments of lemon

  1. General Hors d’oeuvre

Cover- Fish knife, Fish Fork and Half Plate

  1. Salads- dressed or tossed
  2. Oeuf Mayonnaise
  3. Fish- Anchovies, tuna, prawns, pickled fish, smoked fish etc
  4. Meat- Cold cuts
  5. Canapés- one bite sized snacks with a base of bread, toppings and garnish
  6. Pate de foie gras- paste of goose liver

Potage / Soup

Soup also act as an appetiser for the further courses to come. Soups like clear soup(consommé) and the other a thick soup (crème, veloute, puree) are served during this course. Although it must be noted that the clear soup is always placed first on the menu.

Liquid extract of solid ingredients, classified as food.

Of two types- Thick &  Thin

  • Thick Soup-
    1. Cream soup
    2. Puree
    3. Bisque
    4. Chowder

Cover- Soup Bowl/ Soup Plate, under plate, soup spoon, doily/ paper napkin

Examples- Crème de Tomate, Bisque d’homard, Puree of lentils

  • Thin Soup-
    1. With Garnish-Consommé brunoise, consommé julienne etc. Cover-Soup Bowl, doily, under plate, soup spoon
    2. Without garnish- Consommé clair, consommé en tasse etc.

Cover- Double handled consommé cup, under plate, doily and dessert spoon.

Poisson / Fish

Poisson is the dishes made from fish. Fish, being soft-fibred,prepares the palate for the heavier meats that follow. Ideal fish for dinner menu compilation are: Sole, Salmon, Halibut, Escallops, etc. Rarely seen on a menu for the evening meal are Cod, Bass, Haddock, Brill, Hake, and Plaice.

Preparation- smoked fish, grilled fish, fried fish etc

Cover- Fish Knife, fish fork and half plate

Popular dishes-

  • Poisson frit l’ orly (Batter) – tomato ketchup

Poisson grille- lemon butter sauce

Entrée / Entree

The First in the meat course Entrées is generally small, well-garnished dishes which come from the kitchen ready for service. They are always accompanied by very rich gravy or sauce when relive follow entrée then potatoes and vegetables are not served with the latter; if, however, a reliever does not follow the entrée they would be served with the dish.

Cover– small fork, small knife and half plate

Popular dishes-

  • Rognon Saute Bercy- kidney with brown sauce
  • Chop de porc- pork chops
  • Vol au vent au rognon

Releves / Joints

This is the main meat course on the menu, Releves are normally larger than entrees and take the form of butcher’s joints which have to be carved. These joints are normally roasted. A sauce or a roast gravy with potatoes and green vegetables are always served with this course.

Cover– Large knife, large fork and large plate

Accompaniments– sauce, bread, vegetables (devoid of potato), potato preparations etc

Examples

Boeuf roti(roasted beef)- sauce raifort (horseradish sauce)

Gigot d agneau roti (roasted leg of lamb) – sauce de menth (mint sauce)

Cuissot de porc roti (roasted hind pork) – sauce des pommes (apple sauce)

Yorkshire pudding, steaks etc can also be served as an accompaniment

Sorbet / Sorbet

Because of the length of the French classical menu, this course is considered to be the rest between courses . It counteracts the previous dishes and rejuvenates the appetite for those that are to follow. It is water and crushed ice slush flavoured as a rule with champagne and served in a glass.

Cover– champagne saucer/ pony tumbler, under plate, teaspoon

Roti / Roast

At this stage, the balance of the courses is gradually returning from heavy to light. Roast always contain roast of game or poultry: – chicken, turkey, duck, pheasant, quail. Each dish is accompanied by its own particular sauce and gravy, with a green salad served separately on a cresent shaped dish.

Cover– large knife, large fork and large plate

Examples

Dindon Roti (roasted turkey) – sauce d’airelle (cranberry sauce)

Poulet Roti (roasted chicken) – sauce de pain (bread sauce)

Lapin Roti (roasted rabbit) – Jus Roti

Caneton Roti (roasted duckling) -Sauce d’orange

Legumes / Vegetables

We now have a vegetable dish served only with its accompanying sauce. These are vegetable dishes that can be served separately as an individual course or may be included along – with the entrée, relevé or roast courses.

Cover– small knife, small fork and half plate

Examples

Choux fleur Mornay, Asperges chaud- Beurre fondu, Legume au gratin

Entremets / Sweets

Entremets on a menu refers to desserts. This could include hot or cold sweets, gateaux, soufflés or ice-cream. 

Examples of Entrements:

Crepe suzette : – pancakes in a rich fresh orange juice and  flamed with brandy.

Ananas Flambes au kirsch: – Pineapple flamed with cherry flavoured liquor.

Peche Melba: – Vanilla Ice cream topped with a peach coated with a raspberry jam sauce and decorated with cream.

Bombes : – various Ice cream sweets.

Savoureux / Savory 

A dish of pungent taste, such as anchovies on toast orpickled fruit. They are seved hot on toast or as savoury soufflé.Welsh rarebit, Scotch woodcock, Canape diane are some of the examples. 

Welsh rarebit: – Cheese sauce Flavoured with ale on toast gratinated.

Canape Daine :- Chicken livers rolled in bacon and grilled, placed on a warm toast.

Champignons sur croute: – mushrooms on toast.

Dessert / Cut Fruits & Nuts

Dessert is a course that typically comes at the end of a meal. All forms of fresh fruit and nuts may be served in this course. Common desserts include cakes, cookies, fruits, pastries and candies.

Cover– Half plate, fruit/small knife, fruit/ small fork

Essential accompaniment- sugar dredger (caster sugar)

Exception- Raisins Frais (grapes) – half plate, Grape scissors, bowl of water to rinse the grapes, doily, under liner (quarter plate) for the bowl and scissor and finger bowl.

Boissons / Beverage

All types of hot or cold beverage,Tea,Coffee etc. are served. Always remember that while compiling menus beverages are not counted as a course.

Examples are:

Coffee: Cafetiere, Iced, Filter, Speciality, Decaffeinated.

Tea: Indian, Ceylon, Earl Grey, Darjeeling, Orange Pekoe

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17 Course French Classical menu

In western formal dining, a full course menu can consist of 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, or 16 courses, and, in its extreme form, has been known to have twenty-one courses. In these more formalised dining events, the courses are carefully planned to complement each other gastronomically. The courses are smaller and spread out over a long evening, up to three, four or five hours, and follow conventions of menu planning that have been established over many years. Most courses (excluding some light courses such as sorbets) in the most formal full course dinners are usually paired with a different wine, beer, liqueur, or another spirit. The most luxurious well-known full course is, of course, created from French in which represent their elegant service in gastronomy.

This legendary full classic French full course dinner consists of 17 menus from appetiser to dessert and ended with a drink.

Hors d’oeuvre- Appetizers

This course is a starter which is basically tasty and tangy and stimulates our hunger and increases our appetite

They are of two types-

  • Classical- all Pre plated and cover is item specific
  • General- most of them platter to plate and cover is fish knife and fish fork

Classical Hors d’oeuvres-

  1. Pample mousse ( Grapefruit)- This is a citrus fruit

Cover– Grape fruit cup, doily, under plate, grapefruit spoon/tea spoon.

Accompaniment- caster sugar in sugar dredger

  1. Jus (Juice) – Fruit juices like orange juice, pineapple juices, apple juices etc.

Cover- Pony tumbler, doily, teaspoon and under plate

Accompaniment-  Sweet- Caster sugar

  1. Cocktail de fruits de mer (Sea Food Cocktail)- shellfish like shrimps, lobster etc dressed with cocktail sauce

Cocktail sauce- mayonnaise + tomato ketchup

Cocktail de crevettes- indicates prawn

Cocktail d’homard- indicates lobster garnished with parsley Cover- Sea food cocktail glass, doily, under plate and teaspoon. 

  1. Huitre ( oyster) –Bivalve molluscs served raw in clusters of dozen Cover- in a deep plate on a bed of crushed ice, above a cloth napkin on a large plate, one oyster fork or fish fork at an angel of 45° to the cover from the edge of the table on the right hand side.
  2. Melon- there are 4 common varieties
    • Canteloupe
    • Honey Dew
    • Charentaise
    • Water melon

Cover- Boat shaped cut (melon cup), half plate, doily, fruit fork, fruit knife. If over ripe- serve with dessert spoon to the right of the cover

If not very ripe and scooped out- serve with the tea spoon accompanied with   caster sugar

  1. Caviare (caviar)- These are roe of sturgeon

Roe- processed fish eggs

Sturgeon- Particular species of fish found in Caspian Sea or black sea

Types-

  • Grainy Caviar
  • Pressed Caviar

              Grainy caviar can be further classified into-

              Beluga- white in colour

              Sevruga- dark in colour

              Ossetra- black in colour

It is sold in weight basis. Almas is the costliest among all the caviars which costs 23000 dollar per kg.

Cover- Caviar Knife/ Fish Knife on the right side of the cover, caviar pot on a bed of crushed ice in a caviar plate

Accompaniment- Blinis/Toast (blinis is a savoury Russian pan cake), sieved egg yolk, chopped egg white, chopped shallots and segments of lemon

  1. General Hors d’oeuvre

Cover- Fish knife, Fish Fork and Half Plate

  1. Salads- dressed or tossed
  2. Oeuf Mayonnaise
  3. Fish- Anchovies, tuna, prawns, pickled fish, smoked fish etc
  4. Meat- Cold cuts
  5. Canapés- one bite sized snacks with a base of bread, toppings and garnish
  6. Pate de foie gras- paste of goose liver

Potage / Soup

Soup also act as an appetiser for the further courses to come. Soups like clear soup(consommé) and the other a thick soup (crème, veloute, puree) are served during this course. Although it must be noted that the clear soup is always placed first on the menu.

Liquid extract of solid ingredients, classified as food.

Of two types- Thick &  Thin

  • Thick Soup-
    1. Cream soup
    2. Puree
    3. Bisque
    4. Chowder

Cover- Soup Bowl/ Soup Plate, under plate, soup spoon, doily/ paper napkin

Examples- Crème de Tomate, Bisque d’homard, Puree of lentils

  • Thin Soup-
    1. With Garnish-Consommé brunoise, consommé julienne etc. Cover-Soup Bowl, doily, under plate, soup spoon
    2. Without garnish- Consommé clair, consommé en tasse etc.

Cover- Double handled consommé cup, under plate, doily and dessert spoon.

Oeuf / Egg

Oeufs are the dishes made from egg. There are many styles of cooking and preparation of eggs such as boiled, en cocotte, poached or scrambled. This course is not included in the dinner menu.

Farinaceous / Farineaux / Pasta or Rice

This is Italy’s contribution to the courses of the menu. It includes different kinds of rice and pasta. Pasta dishes are spaghetti, lasagne and gnocchi. There are more than 200 varieties of pasta. The ingredients, size, shape and colour determine the type of pasta.

Poisson / Fish

Poisson is the dishes made from fish. Fish, being soft-fibred,prepares the palate for the heavier meats that follow. Ideal fish for dinner menu compilation are: Sole, Salmon, Halibut, Escallops, etc. Rarely seen on a menu for the evening meal are Cod, Bass, Haddock, Brill, Hake, and Plaice.

Preparation- smoked fish, grilled fish, fried fish etc

Cover- Fish Knife, fish fork and half plate

Popular dishes-

  • Poisson frit l’ orly (Batter) – tomato ketchup

Poisson grille- lemon butter sauce

Entrée / Entree

The First in the meat course Entrées is generally small, well-garnished dishes which come from the kitchen ready for service. They are always accompanied by very rich gravy or sauce when relive follow entrée then potatoes and vegetables are not served with the latter; if, however, a reliever does not follow the entrée they would be served with the dish.

Cover– small fork, small knife and half plate

Popular dishes-

  • Rognon Saute Bercy- kidney with brown sauce
  • Chop de porc- pork chops
  • Vol au vent au rognon

Sorbet / Sorbet

Because of the length of the French classical menu, this course is considered to be the rest between courses . It counteracts the previous dishes and rejuvenates the appetite for those that are to follow. It is water and crushed ice slush flavoured as a rule with champagne and served in a glass.

Cover– champagne saucer/ pony tumbler, under plate, teaspoon

Releves / Joints

This is the main meat course on the menu, Releves are normally larger than entrees and take the form of butcher’s joints which have to be carved. These joints are normally roasted. A sauce or a roast gravy with potatoes and green vegetables are always served with this course.

Cover– Large knife, large fork and large plate

Accompaniments– sauce, bread, vegetables (devoid of potato), potato preparations etc

Examples

Boeuf roti(roasted beef)- sauce raifort (horseradish sauce)

Gigot d agneau roti (roasted leg of lamb) – sauce de menth (mint sauce)

Cuissot de porc roti (roasted hind pork) – sauce des pommes (apple sauce)

Yorkshire pudding, steaks etc can also be served as an accompaniment

Roti / Roast

At this stage, the balance of the courses is gradually returning from heavy to light. Roast always contain roast of game or poultry: – chicken, turkey, duck, pheasant, quail. Each dish is accompanied by its own particular sauce and gravy, with a green salad served separately on a cresent shaped dish.

Cover– large knife, large fork and large plate

Examples

Dindon Roti (roasted turkey) – sauce d’airelle (cranberry sauce)

Poulet Roti (roasted chicken) – sauce de pain (bread sauce)

Lapin Roti (roasted rabbit) – Jus Roti

Caneton Roti (roasted duckling) -Sauce d’orange

Legumes / Vegetables

We now have a vegetable dish served only with its accompanying sauce. These are vegetable dishes that can be served separately as an individual course or may be included along – with the entrée, relevé or roast courses.

Cover– small knife, small fork and half plate

Examples

Choux fleur Mornay, Asperges chaud- Beurre fondu, Legume au gratin

Salades / Salad

Various types of salads which are served during this course.

Examples

Salade francaise : – lettuce, tomato, egg, & vinaigrette dressings.

Salade vert: – Lettuce, watercress, cucumber and green pepper.

Buffet Froid / Cold Buffet 

In this course Chilled meat(small) pieces are served. 

Examples 

Poulet roti : – Roast chicken

Ham in Parsley Aspic (Jambon Persillé)

Caneton Roti: – Roast Duck

Mayonnaise d hommard: – lobster mayonnaise

Entremets / Sweets

Entremets on a menu refers to desserts. This could include hot or cold sweets, gateaux, soufflés or ice-cream. 

Examples of Entrements:

Crepe suzette : – pancakes in a rich fresh orange juice and  flamed with brandy.

Ananas Flambes au kirsch: – Pineapple flamed with cherry flavoured liquor.

Peche Melba: – Vanilla Ice cream topped with a peach coated with a raspberry jam sauce and decorated with cream.

Bombes : – various Ice cream sweets.

Savoureux / Savory 

A dish of pungent taste, such as anchovies on toast orpickled fruit. They are seved hot on toast or as savoury soufflé.Welsh rarebit, Scotch woodcock, Canape diane are some of the examples. 

Welsh rarebit: – Cheese sauce Flavoured with ale on toast gratinated.

Canape Daine :- Chicken livers rolled in bacon and grilled, placed on a warm toast.

Champignons sur croute: – mushrooms on toast.

Fromage / Cheese

Fromage is an alternative to the outdated savoury course, and may be served before or after the sweet course. It is usually served with butter, crackers and occasionally celery.Gouda, Camembert and Cheddar are some examples of cheese.All type of cheese may be offered together with appropriate accompaniments, the ideal cheese board will combine hard, semi-hard, soft or cream, blue and fresh cheese.

  1. Hard cheese- parmesan, derby
  2. Semi hard Cheese-cheddar, Edam
  3. Soft/ cream Cheese-brie, feta
  4. Blue veined Cheese- gorgonzola, stilton

Cover– quarter plate and small knife/ small fork

Accompaniment- Brown Bread, cream cracker biscuit, celery sticks, water cress,    radish etc

Dessert / Cut Fruits & Nuts

Dessert is a course that typically comes at the end of a meal. All forms of fresh fruit and nuts may be served in this course. Common desserts include cakes, cookies, fruits, pastries and candies.

Cover– Half plate, fruit/small knife, fruit/ small fork

Essential accompaniment- sugar dredger (caster sugar)

Exception- Raisins Frais (grapes) – half plate, Grape scissors, bowl of water to rinse the grapes, doily, under liner (quarter plate) for the bowl and scissor and finger bowl.

Boissons / Beverage

All types of hot or cold beverage,Tea,Coffee etc. are served. Always remember that while compiling menus beverages are not counted as a course.

Examples are:

Coffee: Cafetiere, Iced, Filter, Speciality, Decaffeinated.

Tea: Indian, Ceylon, Earl Grey, Darjeeling, Orange Pekoe

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F&B Service Equipment’s – Familiarization

CROCKERY

The crockery must blend with the rest of the items on the table and also with the general décor of the establishment

An establishment uses one design and pattern on crockery, but when an establishment has a number of different food service areas it is easier from the control point of view to have a different design in each service area.

While purchasing crockery the following points are to be considered:

  1. Every item of crockery should have a complete cover of glaze to ensure a reasonable length of life
  2. Crockery should have a rolled edge which will give added reinforcement at the edge. This if well-done means that the chipping will only occur on the under edge which is not visible to the guests. One word of caution here is that hygiene is most important- chipped crockery could harbor germs.
  3. The pattern should be under rather than on top of the glaze as the pattern on top of the glaze will wear out and discolor very quickly. Thus crockery with patterns under the glaze is more expensive but with longer life.

Crockery for the catering industry

  1. Bone china- this is very fine and hard crockery that is very expensive. Decoration/pattern is to be found under the glaze only
  2. Earthenware- it is the cheapest and least durable crockery. Often hotel earthenware is given a trading name by the manufacturer to indicate its strength.

Some examples of these are as follows:

-Vitreous

-Vitrified

-Ironstone

VITRIFIED earthenware is recognized as the strongest.

         3. Stoneware- it is non-porous and extremely durable with high thermal and shock resistance. The price is slightly higher than hotel earthenware due to the long-life guarantee.

      4. Porcelain- this is of a completely different composition with a semi-translucent body, normally blue/grey, and is highly resistant to chipping.

Storage

Crockery should be stored on shelves in piles of approximately 2 dozens. They should be stored at a convenient height so that they can be placed and removed without the fear of accident. It possible china should be covered to prevent dust and germs setting on it.

Sizes Of Various Crockery

  1. Side/quarter plate- 6 inches in diameter
  2. Half plate- 8 inches in diameter
  3. Large plate- 10 inches in diameter
  4. Soup plate- 8 inches in diameter
  5. Cereal plate- 5 inches in diameter

TABLEWARE / CUTLERY

Tableware is a term recognized as embracing all items of flatware, cutlery, and hollowware. They may be analyzed as follows:

  1. Flatware- In the catering industry, it denotes all form of spoon and fork
  2. Cutlery- In refers to knives and other cutting implements
  3. Hollowware- it consists of any item made from silver, apart from flatware and cutlery. Example: teapots, sugar basins, creamers, etc.

When purchasing tableware it is important to consider the following points

  1. The type of menu and service offered
  2. The maximum and average sitting capacity
  3. The rush hour turn over
  4. The washing up facilities and their turnover

The tableware in the catering establishment is EPNS- Electro Plated Nickel Silver. It is an alloy of nickel and brass dipped in silver.

Storage

Ideally, flatware and cutlery should be stored in drawers lined with baize to prevent them from getting scratched. Hollowware should be stored on shelves that are labeled accordingly.

GLASSWARE

Glass contributes to the appearance of the table and the overall attraction of the room. There are many standard patterns available to the caterers. Most manufacturers now supply hotel glassware in standard size for convenience of ordering, availability, and quick delivery. Glasses are generally measured in terms of capacity by the ounce. The hotel glassware is generally plain though in certain specialty outlets coloured or cut glasswares may be used.

Sizes of various glassware:

Hi- ball- 10oz

Collins- 12oz

Pony tumbler- 6 oz

Cocktail glass- 2oz

Brandy balloon- 12oz

Champagne saucer- 6oz

Beer mug- 12oz

White wine glass/ club goblet-4 oz

Red wine glass/ Paris goblet/ 6 oz

Liqueur glass- 1 oz

Roly poly- 9oz

Old fashioned – 9oz

Parfait glass- 4 oz

1oz- 28.4ml

Note: Glasses are cleaned by dipping in a solution of hot water and vinegar and wiped with a wiping cloth.

Storage

Glassware is normally stored in a glass pantry and should be placed in single rows on paper-lined shelves, upside down to prevent dust from settling in them. An alternative to this is to have plastic coated wine racks made specifically for the purpose of stacking and storing glassware. Such racks are also a convenient method of transporting glassware from one point to another which prevents breakage. Tumblers should not be stacked inside one another as this may result in breakage.

CLEANING AND POLISHING EPNS ITEMS:

Apart from normal silver plate tarnishes, the speed of tarnishing varies according to the food in contact. Sulfide-containing food like egg, vinegar, etc. will form silver sulfide and thus changing the color from yellow to brown to blue-black.

  1. Burnishing Machine – the machine consists of a revolving drum half filled with highly polished ball bearings. The drum is lined with rubber to protect the silver during cleaning. The cleaning agent is detergent and hot water. It may be plumbed into the mains or remain portable with the water being poured by means of a hose from a tap. Depending on the size of the machine in use, it may be divided into various compartments to hold specific sizes of silver. It may be also possible to insert a rod through the center of the drum from one end to another. This rod is removable can is passed through the handles of the teapot, coffee pot, sugar basin, etc. As the machine is switched on the drum revolves and the mixture of soap and water acts as a lubricant between the silver and the ball bearings. Thus any tarnish is removed but the silver is unscratched. It is then rinsed, dried, and stacked.
  2. Plate powder- This is a pink powder that needs to be mixed with a little methylated spirit to obtain a smooth paste. Spirit is used to mix the powder so that it evaporates quickly leaving a layer of the paste on the silver. The smooth paste, once prepared, is rubbed onto the article being cleaned with a clean piece of cloth. The articles are then left until the paste has dried which is then rubbed off with a clean piece of cloth. It is advisable to rinse the articles in hot water and wipe them dry. This method is both- time-consuming and messy, but produces very good results.
  3. Polivit method- a polivit is a perforated aluminum sheet best used in enamel or galvanized iron bowl. The polivit is placed in the bowl along with some soda. The silver to be cleaned is then put into the bowl, ensuring that at least a piece of silver is in contact with the polivit. Sufficient boiling water is poured into the bowl to cover the silver. A chemical reaction takes place between the polivit, soda, boiling water, and silver which removes the tarnish. After 3-4 minutes, the silver should be removed and placed in another bowl of boiling water, rinsed, drained, and wiped with a tea cloth. Though it is a time-consuming method it produces good results.
  4. Silver dip- this is a pink coloured liquid that must be used in a plastic bowl. The silver to be cleaned is placed in a wire basket and dipped into the bowl containing the liquid. The silver should be left in the bowl for a shorter time period and then lifted out and drained. After draining it is placed in warm water, rinsed, and wiped with a tea cloth. It is an easier method and consumes less time but is harder on the silver than any other method due to the reaction between the silver and the liquid. Used widely in medium-sized hotels.
plate cutlaries
Source: The Decor Circle
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Attributes Of A Good Waiter

Attributes Of A Good Waiter

Personal hygiene and appearance

    1. Good grooming and clean presentation gives the waiter a feeling of well-being and the confidence to do the job efficiently and correctly
    2. Pride in one’s appearance is an essential quality of a good waiter. Guests will have confidence in an establishment if the waiter is well-groomed, neat, and professional.
    3. Hands are particularly important as they are constantly under the eye of the guest. Fingernails should be kept trimmed, well-shaped, and very clean. A meal can be spoiled for a guest by a waiter’s dirty nails.
    4. Playing with and fingering hair, face & hands should be discouraged at all times in the restaurant
    5. Chewing gum is not permitted
    6. Jewelry worn by service staff should be kept to a minimum. A watch, one plain ring, and small plain earrings are permissible.
    7. For young people with skin problems like acne, care should be taken with diet- plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables and minimum of sweets, cleanliness is a must.
    8. Uniforms should be well-tailored and fit properly
    9. Waiters should wear conservative comfortable shoes, well-polished and black socks.
    10. Waiters’ uniform is often designed according to the décor of the restaurant. Staff should understand that a well-pressed, attractive uniform gives confidence not only to the person but also to the guests.

Attitude to work

  1. A respectful manner towards guests and senior staff members is necessary. A waiter should never be servile, for he should be proud of his skills, particularly if he is a good waiter
  2. A waiter is a technical salesman- he must have complete knowledge of all food and beverage available in the establishment, their correct presentation and service
  3. All guests should be treated as V.I.P.s, regardless of whom or what they are and everyone should be given equal respect
  4. A waiter’s conduct should be of the highest degree at all times, but particularly in front of the guest rules and regulations should be followed to the letter.
  5. Food service personnel should have pleasant manners, showing courtesy and tact, even temper and good humor when things go wrong
  6. The guest is always right- even when he is wrong. Never argue with a guest if the problem cannot be handled satisfactorily call a senior member of the staff with more experience to solve the problem
  7. So that the establishment makes the maximum amount of business and profit during the service period, service staff must develop a sense of urgency
  8. Honesty is exceptionally important in dealing with both the guest and management. There must be trust and respect between all the three parties which develop a good team spirit and creates an efficient and pleasant atmosphere
  9. Assist fellow workers where possible without interfering. Never say to a guest, “Sorry, that’s not my table”. Help where you can, it is everyone’s advantage in the long run.
  10. A second or third language is imperative for anyone working in the catering industry- take the trouble to learn language from the sub-continent as well as a foreign language. It will serve as a career booster in the future.

Assuming responsibility

  1. As one grows in maturity one’s responsibility increases. To be able to assume responsibility is a sign of maturity itself.
  2. One has a responsibility towards one’s employer, the guests, and also one’s fellow-workers. Furniture and types of equipment are costly; one has the responsibility to take care of it.
  3. Responsibilities grow as one’s skill increases.
  4. Taking the job seriously, no matter how menial, will be recognized by those in higher authority.

SALES & SALESMANSHIP

A good waiter should be able to sell anything. He / She should be interactive without being intrusive. Communication skills are of utmost importance. It is very important to be knowledgeable about the product one is selling. It is also important to enjoy the job as only then the waiter can make the guest happy.

UPSELLING & SUGGESTIVE SELLING

Good F&B Personnel should be able to sell anything. He / She should be interactive without being intrusive. Communication skills are of utmost importance. It is very important to be knowledgeable about the product one is selling. It is also important to enjoy the job as only then the waiter can make the guest happy.

Up-Selling

It is the selling of higher-priced items on the menu card in order to increase the overall sales of the establishment. The idea is to convince the guest to willingly go for those items and not to force the guest into making the decision. The guest should feel as if the idea is his own.

Example: The order taker trying to push the sales of higher-priced items on the menu card like prawns and mutton ahead of fish and chicken.

Suggestive Selling

It is the suggestion of additional and accompanying items to go with the original/actual order in order to increase the overall sales of the establishment. Here the order taker should guide the guest about proper accompaniments in order to convince the guest.

Example: The order taker suggests certain additional items to the guest at the time of taking the order which goes well with the original order given by the guest e.g. green salad with the Indian lunch or dinner.

attributes of a good waiter hospitality study
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