Nutrition

Nutrition is the biochemical and physiological process by which an organism uses food to support its life. It includes ingestion, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism, and excretion.

BMI
Nutrients are the substances that provide energy and biomolecules necessary for carrying out the various body functions. All living organisms need nutrients for proper functioning and growth. But they show divergence in how they fulfill this demand. Some animals feed on simple inorganic compounds to meet their nutrient requirement, while others utilize complex compounds. The mode of nutrition varies from one species to another.

Nutrition is a method in which the food is consumed by the organisms into the body and utilizing the nutrients from the food.

Explanation

Macronutrients are nutrients that people need in relatively large quantities. Proteins, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water are all nutrients.

Carbohydrates

Sugar, starch, and fiber are carbohydrates.

  • Sugars are simple carbs. The body quickly breaks down and absorbs sugars and processed starch.
  • Fiber is also a carbohydrate. The body breaks down some fiber types and uses them for energy; others are metabolized by gut bacteria, while other types pass through the body.
  • Fiber and unprocessed starch are complex carbs. It takes the body some time to break down and absorb complex carbs.
Proteins

Proteins consist of amino acids, which are organic compounds that occur naturally. Some foods provide complete protein, which means they contain all the essential amino acids the body needs. Other foods contain various combinations of amino acids.

Food Science

Define food science

Food science could be a discipline within the biological, physics & engineering are wont to study the character of foods, the reason behind their deterioration, & the principles underlying food processing.

The relation of food science with other branches of science.

Food science may be a systematic study of the character of food materials & the scientific principles underlying their modification, preservation & spoilage.
To understand food science the essential concept of physics, chemistry, mathematics, & biology & their applications i.e biochemistry, microbiology & food technology is important to organize, store, & serve wholesome & high-quality products.
All food is chemical compounds that undergo various chemical reactions in any respect stages from production to consumption. These reactions have supported the law of chemistry. Many processes used while preparing food involved physical changes except for chemical changes.

Mater exists in 3 states – solid, liquid & gas. With the increased temperature a pure substance will change from solid to liquid & then to gas.
Many organic compounds will decompose undergoing various chemical reactions.
Many foods are a fancy mixture of chemical substances. In processed food additives are added to enhance color, texture, flavor, etc & these additives also are chemical compounds.
The objectives of the discipline are to develop a basic scientific understanding of food processing as determining through biochemistry, chemistry, physics,& other science. Food science & technology is that the key to the conversion of raw agricultural material into a wild sort of properly processed & preserved food, thus contributing to the well-being, economy, standard of living& progress of humanity. it’s a groundwork & applies principal & practice from a broad spectrum of basic & technology including:
• Biology – botany, bacteriology, microbiology, mycology.
• Chemistry – biochemistry, physical, analytical,&organic chemistry. • Physics – rheology, thermodynamics, cryogenic, radiophysics, ultrasonic • Nutrition & psychology – sensory behavior.
• Medicine – metabolism, toxicology, health & diseases.
• Economics

Different scopes of the topic

1. Food analyst & chemistry –Investigation of the fundamental components of food which will be physical, organic & biochemical properties. The changes that occur during preparation involve texture, color, flavor & also associated with the nutritive value of food.
2. Food quality factors & their measurement – they cover the area: appearance, texture, flavor, nutritional, sanitary, organoleptic changes, taste panels, etc.
3. Nutritive aspects of food constituents & the effect of processing & handling – the nutritive value will be increased during handling, processing, or storage. During fermentation, removal of moisture or adding additives, etc the nutrients may be enriched. this information helps in regulating the nutritional value of the food supply.
4. Food microbiology, mycology & toxicology – Use of yeast, mold, bacteria in food production is important. Microbiological culture, monitoring, sampling & testing methods are essential. Identification of toxicity & stop the spoilage of food is required.
5. Food processing & engineering – Food processing plants, food packaging materials, methods, testing & evaluation effect on the period of food. Energy conservation & internal control is extremely important within the food sector.
6. nutrient development – food development is commonly commodity-related. These sorts of products have to be dispensed within the pilot plant. Knowledge of food science &technology & the evaluation of their quality & marketability is required.
7. Food safety & regulation – Food sanitation is expounded to public health. Knowledge of food labeling. nutritional labeling, food laws, food additives, food-born diseases, detection, identification, government & non-government agencies associated with food safety & current issues is important.
8. The food industry – Publication of major trade associations, industry standards, the structure of food industries, international food corporations, information of allied industries i.e.- packaging, chemicals, equipment knowledge is required.

Emerging Trends within the area of food science/ technology
Increased concern about nutritional content is extremely focused in those days.
Refined food is expressed by both consumers & nutritionists. Dietary guidelines & nutrition education target replacing refined food with whole grains, legumes & other food. Concern about food issues of safety is incredibly strong. Food scientists are responding to those nutritional & safety concerns in several ways, including increased attention to food interaction &bioavailability of nutrients, improved analytic & detection methods & research & education in food safety. New product developments, new processing technology, are bringing the new area to food industries. Food biotechnology could be a growing area i.e. genetically modified food.
Principles of food sciences include food microbiology & food safety are vital within the food industry.

PROTEIN            

Classification   -1. nature – plant & animal…..

(From 1st sem)     2. on structure – fibrous Example –in muscle myosin & globular    

                                                           Protein example – globulin, albumin, etc

  1. on characterization – simple, conjugated &derived protein….  
  2. on function – class I, class II, incomplete protein ……..

Native protein  –

            Protein found in leaving tissues of animals & plants is called native protein…..

Denatured protein –  

            It is a non-proteolytic modification in the original structure of the native protein. It gives rise to physical, chemical & biological properties. It is brought about by denaturing agents, increasing in temperature, extensive beating.

Three stages of denaturation – 

               1st stage structural alteration

               2nd stage coagulation

               3rd stage curdling

Effect of denaturation – 

  • react with proteolytic enzymes
  • decreased solubility
  • lose their biological activity as the enzyme is destroyed i.e browning reaction does not take place in boiled potato
  • improved the flavor & texture
  • It is irreversible unless it occurs in a very mild condition.

Factors affecting denaturation –

  • pH
  • Heat
  • surface denaturation
  • Salt
  • Moisture

Gelatin –

partially denatured protein prepared from collagen, an intercellular cementing substance of the cell, gelatin gel is affected by the following: 

  • concentration of gelatin
  • sugar
  • acid
  • fruits & vegetables
  • whipping, sponges,& cream

MILK- 

         It is a solution of sugar lactose, & water-soluble vitamins & minerals

It is a colloidal dispersion of protein &  an emulsion of fat in water.

Water accounts for 87% of milk.

2 type of protein

  • Casein- alpha,beta casine
  • serum or whey protein – albumin,globulin

There are colloidal dimensions & make milk opaque. Casein is colloidally dispersed in milk as calcium phosphonate.

Fresh milk has a pH of 6.6& casein micelles are dispersed as a colloidal sol. When acid is added to milk casein micelles become stable & it coagulates, forming a gel.

calcium phosphonate+     H+ (acid)    ->    neutral casein  + Ca++

     (sol)                                                                        (gel)

Egg Foams 

Egg white is a viscous sol with proteins dispersed in it. It can be beaten into foam. The protein ovomucin, ovoglobulin, & conalbumin are necessary to form affine foam with small air cells. As air is incorporated into the liquid the water layer of egg white gets thinner. Surface denaturation takes place. It helps to make the foam rigid,& when heat is applied the protein coagulate forming a permanent foam.

 

  1. Foamy
    • bubbles form on the surface, but all egg white is not broken up.
    • foam is extremely unstable
    • air cells are generally large
    • the mixture is still fluid
    • acid, salt vanilla are added at this stage
  2. Soft peaks
    • air cells are medium-fine, all egg white exist as foam
    • foam is fairly stable, slightly drainage occurs on short standing
    • the mixture is shiny, flows easily in a bowl, but is elastic
    • soft peak fall over to near the base of foam as the beater is lifted from foam
    • sugar is added gradually at this age
  3. Stiff peaks
    • air cells are fine, especially if acid is added at the foamy stage. The mixture is white & opaque.
    • foam quite stable, some drainage occurs on prolonged standing
    • the mixture is shiny, flows slowly in a bowl, but is still elastic
    • peaks are still quite soft, but the tip of the peak falls over as the beater is pulled from foam
    • egg white for soufflés& omelets are beaten to this stage
    • egg white & sugar are beaten to this stage for some cakes & pie.
  4. Dry
    • air cells are very fine, the mixture is extremely white
    • foam is not stable, drainage is rapid on long-standing
    • the mixture is dull, has lost its ability to flow in the bowl  mass is brittle & inelastic, peaks remain rigid points  this stage is avoided for products of fresh egg white.

Once the beaten egg is reached its desired stage it should be used promptly otherwise it will stiffen upon standing without additional beating.

When the egg white is beaten beyond the stiff peak stage dry stiff foam, curdled in appearance, is obtained.

Over beating makes the surface a denatured film that is insoluble. 

Egg yolk should be beaten extensively to forms a fine, fairly stable foam.

The foam is not denatured by beating, unlike egg white.

Factors affecting egg white foam formation                        

  1. Utensils should be large enough to allow for a full increase in the volume of foam. However, it should not be too large that the beater has no content with egg white.
  2. A fine wiper should be used to give fine small air cells.
  3. Egg white wipes readily at room temperature.
  4. The presence of fat, even in the trace, interferes with foaming &produces foam for less volume. Egg white should separate from egg white.
  5. Salt & cream of tartar is used in egg white foams. Both these ingredients delay foam formation.
  6. Addition of water up to 40% of the volume of egg increase the volume of foam. It also makes the product more trend’, especially in omelets &sponge cakes. It is incorporated towards the end.
  7. Sugar act as a hydrating agent & excess beating is required to produce a foam.     

Fats & oils

RANCIDITY

Spoilage of fat is known as rancidity.

There are 2 types of rancidity hydrolytic rancidity – reaction with moisture.

  • oxidative rancidity – reaction with oxygen

Auto oxidation – it is also a part of oxidative rancidity with 3 steps initiation, propagation, termination.

Prevention of rancidity.

Reversion – many fats & oils change flavor before becoming rancid. This change is very different from rancid flavor is called reversion.

Difference between rancidity &reversion                     

Rancidity may hydrolytic or oxidative with typical flavor change of rancid oil but for reversion, it is an onset of rancidity.

All oil turn rancid but for rent

All oil turns rancid but for rancidity some oil reverts…..

In rancidity, the smell is the same for all oils but reversion, there are specific smells….

Carbohydrates   

Classification (Follow Link)

Structures –

  1. Ring structures
  2. Three-dimensional structures

Reducing sugar – They are sugars that possess free aldehyde Or ketone groups. All monosaccharides are reducing sugars.

Non-reducing sugar – Monosaccharides are linked together through their aldehyde or ketone groups & these groups are not free, the sugar is called non reducing sugar. Sucrose is anon- reducing sugar 

Starch – Polysaccharides  made with amylase & amylopectin……(picture of starch granules)

Effect of cooking on starch

Moist heat change is called gelatinization.

Factors affecting the gelatinization

  • mixing & stirring
  • concentration of starch
  • Temperature
  • duration of heat
  • Type of starch
  • Added ingredients

– sugar/acid/fats/milk protein

Retrogradation – amylase starch is less stable it leaves the water after cooling this is known as retrogradation.

Dry heat change in carbohydrates is called dextrinization.

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Food and Nutrition – Nutrition FAQ

Q.) Discuss the function of water in our body? What are the visible & invisible sources of water? 

Ans.)  An important nutrient .75 to 80 percent of our total body is water. it’s a structural & functional unit of our body. the whole humour is distributed among two major components.

Extracellular fluid – contain sodium

Intercellular fluid – contain potassium & these two ions have to be maintained all time.

Water is formed from hydrogen & oxygen the ratio is 2:1. We lose water daily through sweat, urine, feces, etc. The deficiency of water causes dehydration, so we’ve to take care of the water balance of our body.

Function

  • Water quenched our thirst and is that the most refreshing & cooling of all liquids.
  • It could be a structural component of all cell
  • Water may be a medium during which all reaction takes place
  • It is an important component of all humor like blood, cerebrospinal fluid, bile, digestive,fluid, urine
  • It acts as a lubricant & helps us to swallowed food or digest food.
  • It acts as a solvent for the products of digestion & helps in transporting this product in numerous pare of body.
  • It regulates the blood heat.
  • It helps to throw the stuff from the body.

Sources visible & invisible water – Visible water that we are able to see are- plain water, fruit juices, tea, milk, coffee, etc

 Invisible water that’s inside the food s & metabolic water.

The fluid we take differently               2,200 ml/day

From metabolism                                200 ml/day

(Ref-food & nutrition by Roday)

Q.) Classify vitamins supported their solubility. What are the sources of vitamin A & ergocalciferol in our body? 

Ans.)  The term vitamin comes from the words ‘vital amine’. This chemical is significant for keeps. Vitamins are called microelements. It’s required in a very little amount, but it’s vital for us. Vitamins are organic compounds like carbohydrates, protein, fat. Though it’s required in an exceedingly little amount contains a specific function like regulation, maintenance, growth & protection. Many of them can’t be synthesized by our body but & must be obtained from the diet.

Vitamins are grouped per their solubility in either fat or water.

Fat-soluble vitamins – the vitamin that easily soluble in fat. They required fat for absorption & is stored in our body. they’re Vitamin – A, D, E, K. Water-soluble Vitamins – the vitamin that easily soluble in water.

water-soluble vitamins –soluble they’re easily absorbed in our body but not stored, they’re excreted through urine. they’re vitamin B complex – B1 Thiamin/B2 Riboflavin/B12 Cyanocobalamin/ Niacin/Folic acid / vitamin C etc.

Vitamin A & vitamin D both are fat-soluble vitamins.

Vitamin A helps to take care of normal vision in dim light. It A found in a very group of compounds called retinol & retinoic acid. These are only found in animals. i.e., egg yolk, oily fish, fish liver oil, milk & milk product, butter, ghee are the rich source.

Plant food contains a yellow, orange, red-colored pigment called carotene. Carotene pigments are converted to fat-soluble vitamins within the body. it’s the proVitamin of axerophthol.

Sources of Vitamin in plant – all yellow, orange, red color fruits & vegetable, like carrot, mango, pumpkin, papaya, all green vegetable, etc are the rich source of vitamin A.

Vitamin D – it’s a vitamin. Two important kinds of vitamin D are D2 ( ergosterol ), D3 (7-dehydrocholesterol). Sunlight is that the main source of D. via sterol 3 is produced when 7 dehydrocholesterol within the skin is exposed to the UV ray within the sun. it’s also found in fish liver oil, fortified milk, vanaspati & also some sun-dried food like bari, dry fish, etc.

Q.)  What is the role of thiamin in our body? What are the deficiency diseases of thiamin?

Ans.)  Thiamin, B1, is an compound & also a vitamin.The chemical structure contains a pyramiding ring & a thiazole ring. it’s readily soluble in water & slightly soluble in alcohol. it’s absorbed through the duodenum& jejunum & circulates within the blood as free thiamine. There are different role of thiamin in our body –

  • It works mainly as a co-enzyme.
  • Thiamin exists in tissues mostly within the kind of thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), which is required within the breakdown of glucose to administer us energy.
  • It helps to take care of a healthy system.
  • It is required for a traditional appetite &digestion.
  • The daily requirement of thiamin is 0.5mg/1,000kcal/day. An adult who needs 3,000 kcal would require 1.5mg of thiamin per day.

Deficiency of thiamin  The symptom of deficiency occurs because the tissue cells are unable to receive sufficient energy from glucose. Therefore, they can’t perform their normal function. The gastrointestinal, cardiovascular & nervous systems are especially affected.

The severe deficiency causes beriberi, this is often of two type –

  1. Dry beriberi – inflammation of the nerves, numbness of the leg, muscle weakness & cramps are the most symptoms.
  2. wet beriberi – Severe edema, enlargement of the guts, palpitation& increase within the rate of a heartbeat. It is also called ‘rice eaters’ disease because it’s seen in people whose chief diet consists of white rice.

Q.) What are the factors affecting menu planning? Plan a low-cost dinner menu for your hostel & discover its nutritive value.

Ans.)  Menu planning could be a process of coming up with & scheduling the intake of meals for general or specific individual requirements.To plan a menu we’ve to follow certain factors –

  • Meeting nutritional requirement: a decent menu won’t only provide adequate calories, fat,& protein but also minerals, vitamins essential for the physical wellbeing of every member. in an exceedingly proper diet, the ratio of energy distribution from carbohydrate, protein & fat would be 7:1:2respectively. The diet should contain from “basic Five Food Groups”.
  • Meal pattern should fulfill the family needs: A family meal should cater to the requirements of the various members. A growing adolescent boy may require rich food to satisfy his appetite; whereas a young child might have a soft & ulcer diet. A nursing mother needs more green in their diet. Heavy workers required more calories than other members. The meal pattern varies with the age, occupation,& lifestyle of the relations.
  • Meal planning should give maximum nutrients: Losses of nutrients during processing, cooking should be minimized. Sprouted grams, malted cereals fermented food enhance the nutritive value. Good quality protein should be distributed all told meals. The autoclave is wont to conserve nutrients.
  • Meal pattern should save time & energy: Planning of meal should be drained such some way, that the recipes should be simple & notorious. Labor & time-saving device should be used. Using convenience foods saves time & energy.
  • Economic condition: Any meal that’s planned, it doesn’t satisfy the budget of the family, can not be put into practice. the value of meals may be reduced by bulk purchasing & using seasonal fruits & vegetables.
  • Consideration for individual likings & disliking: The meal planner mustn’t only meet RDA but also individual preferences, particularly vegetarian & nonvegetarian preferences. Food habits & dietary patterns should even be considered. Religion, traditions& customs of a private should even be considered while planning a menu.
  • Planned menu should provide variety: If the meal is monotonous it can not be excepted. Variety may be introduced through color, texture & taste, by employing a different styles of cooking methods.
  • Availability of foods: The menu should include locally available foods. The wide variation in dietary patterns throughout the planet depends largely upon the available food supply.
  • Type of food service: The menu should be planned concerning the sort of foodservice, whether it’s a cafeteria, seated service, buffet, etc.
  • Equipment & workspace: The menu should be planned keeping the available equipment & workspace in mind. Deepfreeze, refrigerators, grinders, dough kneaders, deep fat fryers, etc should be adequate.
  • Leftover food: an efficient manager should consider how leftovers may be rotated to get maximum profit. Adequate cupboard space & hygienic standards should be ensured to attenuate the chance of contamination & spoilage of food.
  • Meal frequency & pattern: The meal timings & the quantity of meals consumed in a very day, whether meals are packed or served at a table, also influenced the choice of food items on the menu. The age, activity level, state, work schedule, & economic factors must be known before planning meals for institutional catering.

To plan a low-cost dinner menu of a hostel few things we’ve to stay in mind,

  • we must provide them the food selected from the organic phenomenon,
  • that will provide the energy,
  • bodybuilding & maintenance,
  • regulation of body processes & protection against infection.

To plan a balanced meal we’ve got to follow few steps –

1)Collect information regarding the customer concerning

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Activity level
  • Religion
  • Socio-economic background
  • Food habits

2) Check the RDAs for energy & protein

3) Prepare a food plan, i.e., list the quantity of servings from each food groups to fulfill the RDA

4) Decide the amount of meal

5) Distribute serving for every meal

6) Select food & plan the menu

7) Menu for each day

8) Cross-check to make sure that every one food groups are included within the required amount.

Plan a low-cost dinner menu of a hostel

Basic information

  • Age: 18+
  • Gender : Male/ Female
  • Activity: Moderate
  • Religion: Mixed
  • Background: Urban, middle-income families
  • Food Habits: Cosmopolitan

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA according to ICMR)

Calories: Male – 2,640 / Female – 2060

Protein : Male – 78gm / Female – 63gm

Low cost dinner food plan for –  Adult male (moderate)

For dinner    / for 1 student

Menu –    Soya nugget & potato curry

                 Backed bringel

                 Green salad (Cucumber , tomato, onion)

                 2 chapatis

                 Rice  (cooked ) ½ cup weight 100 gm   (if it is 1cup then wt – 200gm)

                Sweet 1 piece     

ICMR CHART, ALL VALUES ARE PER 100 gm OF EDIBLE PORTION

                                     (Ref – Nutritive value of Indianfood, 2007)

Q.) what’s RDA?

Ans.) Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is defining because the nutrients present within the diet satisfies the daily requirement of all individuals in an exceeding population. RDA of a person depends on many factors like age, gender, physical work, physiological stress.

AGE – An adult required more calories than a baby thanks to the massive size of the body & increased activity. A growing child required more calories & protein per kg of weight.

Gender – female requires fewer calories than male as BMR is lower & size of the body is smaller.

Physical work – Sedentary workers required fewer calories & water-soluble vitamins than hard-working people.

Physiological stress – During special conditions the nutrients requirement are increased.

SUMMARY OF EAR FOR INDIANS – 2020
SUMMARY OF EAR FOR INDIANS – 2020
SUMMARY OF RDA FOR INDIANS - 2020
SUMMARY OF RDA FOR INDIANS - 2020
DAILY NUTRIENT RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE ELDERLY IN INDIA - 2020
DAILY NUTRIENT RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE ELDERLY IN INDIA - 2020
MACRONUTRIENT
ACCEPTABLE MACRONUTRIENT DISTRIBUTION RANGE (AMDR) BY AGE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL GROUPS AS PERCENT OF ENERGY (%E)
SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDED INTAKES FOR OTHER MINERALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS
SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDED INTAKES FOR OTHER MINERALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS
TOLERABLE UPPER LIMIT (TUL) FOR NUTRIENTS - 2020
TOLERABLE UPPER LIMIT (TUL) FOR NUTRIENTS - 2020

All Source from : National Institute of Nutrition  (ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition )

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Energy

 Food is digested, the complex nutrients i.e., carbohydrates, fats, protein are counteracted into monosaccharides, fatty acids & glycerol, & amino acids, respectively. These simple forms are absorbed into the bloodstream & supplied to the variant cells within the body to be oxidized by series of complex steps to released energy.

silhouette, women, tree

The human being needs energy for the following:

  • Basal metabolism
  • Metabolic responses to food – thermogenesis / SDA
  • Physical activities
  • Growth
  • For mothers in special conditions (pregnancy & lactation)

TEF = BMR (45 – 75percent) + Thermogenesis (10 percent) + Physical activities (15 – 50 percent)

Factors affecting the BMR.

 BMR is that the most important component of the daily energy demand representing 45 – 70 percent of daily total energy expenditure. it is highly variable & the rationale behind this variation include factors like

  • body size & composition,
  • age,
  • gender,
  • environmental condition,
  • hormonal status,
  • fever/illness/infection/injury,
  • specific body conditions of mothers (pregnancy & lactation),
  • other factors, etc

Thermal effect of food (SDA)

Thermal effect of food (TEF) determined primarily by the number of the composition of food consumed. For example, is greater after consumption of carbohydrate & protein than after fat.

Physical Activity

yoga, fitness, exercise

Sedentary workers –persons taking, reading, watching TV, listening Radio, doing computer works specially sitting activities (teachers, office workers).

Moderate workers – with some activity’s servants, house cleaners, rural woman’s, students etc.

Heavy workers – Labour class.

Energy requirement the amount of food needed to create a sure physiological state will vary from one individual to a unique one. All people do not require an identical amount of nutrients. Requirements vary depending upon age, gender, body size, activities, state of health, etc. ICMR has prepared Recommended Dietary Allowances(RDA) for Indians.

Energy balance: Energy output – Energy input

Energy balance may be a condition within which the energy provided by food is kind of up to energy expenditure by the body resulting in a gradual weight. Overweight & underweight both are abnormalities Both measured by BMI (Body Mass Index)

BMI = Weight in kilograms/height in meters squires

BMI
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Water

A very important nutrient .75 to 80 percent of our total body is water. the overall humor is distributed among two major components

water, bottle, desire

Extracellular fluid – contain sodium

Intercellular fluid – contain potassium

Water is created of hydrogen & oxygen the ratio is 2:1

Sources visible & invisible water.

Visible water that we are able to see are- plain water, fruit juices, tea, milk, coffee, etc

Invisible water that’s inside the food s & metabolic water.

Function

  • Water quenched our thirst and is that the most refreshing & cooling of all liquids.
  • It may be a structural component of all cell
  • Water may be a medium within which all chemical action takes place
  • It is a vital component of all bodily fluid like blood, body fluid, bile, juice, urine.
  • It acts as a lubricant & helps us to swallowed food or digest food.
  • It acts as a solvent for the products of digestion & helps in transporting this product in numerous pare of body.
  • It regulates the vital sign.
  • It helps to throw the stuff from the body.
summer, sea, foam

Water balance

In a normal individual, the upkeep of water balance is archived by adjusting both water intake & excretion pro re nata. the most important inputs of water are –

  • Fluids that we consume beverages, including water reckoning on climatic condition & habits.
  • Different sorts of foods & fruits that we take a solid form.
  • Metabolic water.

Output or loss of water from the body

  • Renal loss – Kidneys excrete about 1-2 liter of water daily
  • Skin – The water loss from the skin is thru perspiration.
  • Intestine – atiny low quantity of water is generally lost in feces.
  • Lungs – The air expired from the lungs also contains water.
  • Sweat – It depends on the physical activity & status.
water intake and output

Dehydration – it’s defined as an excessive loss of body water. it’s going to occur thanks to inadequate intake of, or abnormal loss of body water or a mixture of both.

The symptoms of dehydration are

  • Thirst
  • Loss of appetite
  • Decreased urination
  • Nausea
  • Impaired temperature regulation
  • Muscular spasms
  • Increased rate

Symptoms of severe dehydration appear when Fluid levels fall by over 10 percent. A 20 percent loss of fluid from the body may be fatal.

A dehydrated person is sometimes managed by Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT). The WHO recommended ORS ( Oral Rehydration Salt ) that are to be dissolved in 1 liter of water & make an Oral Rehydration Solution & need to be finished within 24 hours. He can also take HAF.( Home Available Fluid)

Home Available Fluid – Normally we prepared in home 1 glass of water + 2 spoons filled with sugar + a pinch of salt + few drops of juice (lime juice contained potassium & salt contain sodium which helps to keep up the equilibriums among intracellular & body fluid .)

 

ORS (WHO) for 1 liter

 Content    (amount in gm)

Glucose                   20.0

common salt          3.5

baking soda            1.5

Kaochlor                    1.5

ORS (WHO) for 1 liter

 Content    (amount in gm)

Glucose                   20.0

common salt          3.5

baking soda            1.5

Kaochlor                    1.5

A minimum of +8 glasses of water is usually recommended daily. An excess amount of water causes edema. (Swelling of the skin).

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Fat

Definition –It belongs to lipids groups. We found triglycerides in foods. It converts to Glycerid & carboxylic acid. it’s made from Carbone hydrogen & oxygen. the most source is providing energy i.e 9 kcal/gm. it’s aster of carboxylic acid & glycerol.

The lipids that are important to our health are carboxylic acid, fats, oils, phospholipids, sulpholipids& sterol.

burger, hamburger, bbq

Classification of Fat

FAT

 Saturated fatty acids – These are found in animal food like meat, fish, fixings etc.No no covalent bond, solid in nature. For example- stearic, palmitic, butyric, etc. A maximum of 10 percent of our total calories should come from our total calories.

Unsaturated carboxylic acid – One, two, or more double bonds, liquid in nature.

it’s classified into TWO –

  • MUFA– example monounsaturated fatty acid & has one covalent bond .found within the groundnut, olive oil; vegetable oil, etc. they will help to lower the blood cholesterol level.
  • PUFA – example- linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic acid has two or more double bonds. they assist in lowering blood cholesterol levels & prevent atherosclerosis & coronary heart diseases.

Essential Fatty Acid: Polyunsaturated carboxylic acid can’t be synthesized in our body. we’ve got to require it through our diet. Example- linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic acid.

oil, olive oil, walnut oil

Cholesterol

It’s a fat-like substance present in food. it’s different in structure from triglycerides. it’s present all told cells of the body & in large amounts within the brain & nerve tissue. The diseases related are cardiovascular disorders. the conventional glucose level are going to be 200mg/100ml of blood.

Human get cholesterol from- • Synthesis of liver • Food rich in cholesterol

Functions of cholesterol are –

  • It is that the precursor of all storied hormones
  • A precursor of Vit D, 7- dehydrocholesterol, is present within the skin which is irradiated by UV ray of sunlight to make D
  • it’s required for the formation of bile
  • It is a necessary component of the plasma membrane.
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Protein

Definition – Protein comes from the Greek word ‘Proteo’ means ‘to take the primary place.’ are very complex nitrogenous chemical compound. it’s made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen. The presence of nitrogen distinguished protein from carbohydrates & fats. except for nitrogen, elements like sulfur, phosphorous, copper, & iron are found in some proteins. Lipid combined with protein-formed lipoprotein

egg, hen's egg, boiled egg

Structure of aminoalkanoic acid

Structure of aminoalkanoic acid

The basic units from which proteins are built are amino acids. Each organic compound contains a group (COOH) or acid group & an amino or basic group.

Proteins incorporates chains of amino acids that are linked to every other by a bond (-CO-NH-).

22 different amino acids are cosmopolitan in nature. The protein obtained from plants and animals is kind of different both in amounts present & in quality. The protein content of any food is estimated by measuring the nitrogen content of the food.

Essential organic compound – Those amino acids which can not be synthesized in sufficient amounts by the body & must be provided by the diet are called essential amino acids. There are 10 essential amino acids. Among those 9 are essential for adults with it 1 for youngsters.

Non essential aminoalkanoic acid – There are 12 non essential aminoacid.This aminoalkanoic acid is synthesized in our body from another organic compound. (total – 22 amino acids)

Essential AminoAcid Non essential organic compound

Classification of protein

Functions of protein – Protein performs three main functions 

  • Structural function
  • Regulatory function
  • Energy

Structural function

  • Protein helps us in growth & development.
  • All body substance except urine & bile are made from protein
  • Proteins are the foremost constituent of muscles, organs, the secreter, & collagen.
  • Collagen is that the main structural protein of bone, ligament, skin, etc.
  • All enzymes, some hormones are like insulin are made from proteins
  • Maintenance or wear & tear
  • It also helps to repair the dead cell.

Regulatory functions – Certain amino acids & proteins have highly specialized functions within the regulation of bodily process & protection against disease.

Hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein within the blood cells, performs a very important role by transporting oxygen to the tissue cell.

Plasma protein maintains water balance & regulates the pressure level within the blood.

All enzymes & some hormones are made of protein.

 

Energy – Like carbohydrate-protein too provides 4kcal/gm.

Effect of deficiency & excess

It is referred to as PCM (Protein calorie malnutrition) OR PEM (Protein-energy Malnutrition) Protein deficiency is more marked during times when protein needs are more especially among preschool children in an exceedingly developing country. Leads with only protein deficiency referred to as Kwashiorkor symptom moon face, edema, pot belly, irritated in nature, red color hair, etc. Marasmus could be a combined disease of calorie + protein deficiency. Symptoms skeleton-like features, very eagerness to require food, etc.

An excess amount of protein causes kidney & cholesterol problems.

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Carbohydrates A Nutrient

Sources – (carbohydrate content in food)

Food                                                              value in g/100g

Sugar                                                                         99.4

Rice                                                                            78.2

Jowar                                                                         72.6

Wheat                                                                        69

Rajma                                                                        60.6

Yam                                                                            26

Potato                                                                        22.4

 

Role of Dietary fiber

  • Fibers are commonly called roughages, bulk, and cellulose polysaccharides. • Normally found in fertiliser
  • this is often not digested by humans for the absence of an enzyme usually present within the herbivorous animal.
  • This acts as a laxative
  • The contraction of the gastrointestinal tract is stimulated by fibers.
  • Fiber increased water absorption, forming a bigger, softer stool that rapidly passes through the colon.
  • Soluble fibers bind bile acids & cholesterol & are beneficial to people stricken by heart diseases.
  • It reduced the triglyceride & glucose level within the blood.
  • it’s no calories.
  • It also beneficial to people on a weight reduction regime.
  • It helps in lowering glucose levels. 
  • Regular intake of fiber may prevent cancers of the colon & rectum. 
  • The fiber contained within the daily diet should be approximately 20 g/day is usually recommended by American Dietetic Association, National cancer institute suggested the upper limits as 35 g/day.

Sources – (carbohydrate content in food)

Food                value in g/100g

Sugar                  99.4                          

Rice                     78.2                          

Jowar                  72.6

Wheat                 69

Rajma                 60.6

Yam                     26

Potato                22.4

waffle, sweets, ice cream

Glycemic Index (GI)

The ability of carbohydrates to boost blood sugar is cited as Glycemic Index (GI).

Factors that affect the GI:

  • The fiber within the diet reduced the GI.
  • A high level of glucose increased GI level.
  • A high level of protein fat decreased GI level.

The glycemic index, glycaemic index, or GI is that the measurement of glucose (blood sugar) level increase from carbohydrate consumption. Foods raise glucose to varying levels. It estimates what proportion each gram of obtainable carbohydrate during a food raises a personality’s glucose level following consumption of the food, relative to consumption of pure glucose. Medium GI whole wheat products, basmati rice, grapes, sucrose, raisins, fruit juice, regular frozen dessert High GI staff of life, most white types of rice, corn flakes, glucose, maltose, maltodextrins, white potato, chapatti

As you will see from the figure below, meals containing carbohydrate-rich foods with a high glycemic index provides a more rapid rise in blood glucose than meals with a coffee glycemic index. High GI food areas are called “fast carbohydrates” while the term “slow carbohydrates” refers to foods with a coffee GI.

potatoes, vegetables, food

Like vitamins, minerals must be obtained through whole foods or high-quality supplements. Food is any substance consumed to supply nutritional support for the body. it is usually of plant or animal origin and contains essential nutrients, like carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals.

The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism’s cells to provide energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.

Importance of Food 

This hub importance of food gives you brief knowledge of food and its importance to our health and food essential for our body and provides you the menu for health building. Food plays an awfully vital role in maintaining proper health and helps within the prevention and cure of diseases. Good nutritive food makes healthy, but at the identical time, bad or unhealthy food gives rise to many diseases. Our cells, tissues, and everyone organs work properly only with nutritious food which we eat.

A poor diet can have an injurious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases like scurvy and kwashiorkor; health-threatening conditions like obesity and metabolic syndrome; and such common chronic systemic diseases as disorder, diabetes, and osteoporosis.

The maintenance and promotion of health are achieved through different combinations of physical, mental, and social well-being, together sometimes remarked because the “health triangle”. The WHO’s 1986 further stated that health isn’t just a state, but also “a resource for existence, not the target of living. Health may be a positive concept emphasizing social and private resources, furthermore as physical capacities.”

Generally, the context during which a personal life is of great importance for his health status and quality of life. it is increasingly recognized that health is maintained and improved not only through the advancement and application of health science, but also through the efforts and intelligent lifestyle choices of the individual and society. consistent with the globe Health Organization, the most determinants of health include the social and economic environment, the physical environment, and therefore the person’s individual characteristics and behaviors. 

The English word “health” comes from the Anglo-Saxon word hale, meaning “wholeness, a being whole, sound or well,”. Two aspects to health Most people accept that health is divided into two broad aspects – physical and mental state.

Physical health for humans, physical health means good body health, which is healthy due to regular physical activity (exercise), good nutrition, and adequate rest. Another term for physical health is physical wellbeing. Physical wellbeing is defined as something someone can do by developing all health-related components of his/her lifestyle. Fitness reflects a human cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, and body composition. 

Glycemic Index

Other contributors to physical wellbeing may include proper nutrition, bodyweight management, abstaining from substance abuse, avoiding alcoholic abuse, hygiene, and getting the correct amount of sleep. Mental health Mental health refers to people’s cognitive and emotional well-being. someone who enjoys good psychological state doesn’t have a upset. consistent with WHO, psychological state is “a state of well-being during which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can deal with the traditional stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and may make a contribution to his or her community“.

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What is nutrition??

The definition of nutrients may be a substance that has nourishment for growth or metabolism. Plants absorb nutrients mostly from the soil within the style of minerals and other inorganic compounds and animals obtain nutrients from ingested foods.

food, products, rustic

THE SIX ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS PEOPLE NEED

 

  1. WATER – Everyone knows that clean water is very important to health on all levels. Our body’s weight consists of about two/thirds water and therefore the average person in a perfect environment needs a minimum of two liters of water per day. Dehydration could be a common reason behind many chronic ailments.
  2. PROTEIN – Protein is formed from amino acids and 22 of those amino acids are crucial to human health. The body uses protein to keep up, build and replace tissues in muscles, bones, blood, and organs. In fact, our system is created of proteins. Without protein, cuts and abrasions will not heal quickly, muscles will not grow and therefore the blood will not clot correctly. High protein foods include meats, fish, milk and dairy products, eggs, and beans. Nuts and seeds are an excellent source of protein.
  3. FAT – Fats are essential for fuel and storing energy in order that they are a very important a part of the definition of nutrients. Yet bear in mind that there are good fats and bad fats. Here is a breakdown of the various forms of fats…
fried, chicken, roast METHODS OF COOKING
  1. CARBOHYDRATES – there is plenty of discuss carbs, but they too are important within the definition of nutrients! Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, cellulose, and gums. They function a serious energy source within the diet and are needed to provide a hormone called insulin. Insulin is required to maneuver sugar from the blood to the cells where it produces energy.
  2. VITAMINS – Vitamins are important when trying to grasp the definition of nutrients. they assist regulate body functions and help break down your food. Many vitamins contain antioxidants which are substances that protect cells from damage and prevent many degenerative diseases.Your body cannot produce vitamins (except for cholecalciferol and vitamin K) so that they must be obtained through natural, healthy foods or nutritional supplements.
  3. MINERALS – Finally within the definition of nutrients is minerals. There are a minimum of 60 minerals within the body and it is said that a minimum of 22 are essential to healthiness. Minerals form up 4% of our weight and are crucial to several body processes like digestion, heart function, and bone formation.
potatoes, vegetables, food

Like vitamins, minerals must be obtained through whole foods or high-quality supplements. Food is any substance consumed to supply nutritional support for the body. it is usually of plant or animal origin and contains essential nutrients, like carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals.

The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism’s cells to provide energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.

Importance of Food 

This hub importance of food gives you brief knowledge of food and its importance to our health and food essential for our body and provides you the menu for health building. Food plays an awfully vital role in maintaining proper health and helps within the prevention and cure of diseases. Good nutritive food makes healthy, but at the identical time, bad or unhealthy food gives rise to many diseases. Our cells, tissues, and everyone organs work properly only with nutritious food which we eat.

A poor diet can have an injurious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases like scurvy and kwashiorkor; health-threatening conditions like obesity and metabolic syndrome; and such common chronic systemic diseases as disorder, diabetes, and osteoporosis.

The maintenance and promotion of health are achieved through different combinations of physical, mental, and social well-being, together sometimes remarked because the “health triangle”. The WHO’s 1986 further stated that health isn’t just a state, but also “a resource for existence, not the target of living. Health may be a positive concept emphasizing social and private resources, furthermore as physical capacities.”

Generally, the context during which a personal life is of great importance for his health status and quality of life. it is increasingly recognized that health is maintained and improved not only through the advancement and application of health science, but also through the efforts and intelligent lifestyle choices of the individual and society. consistent with the globe Health Organization, the most determinants of health include the social and economic environment, the physical environment, and therefore the person’s individual characteristics and behaviors. 

The English word “health” comes from the Anglo-Saxon word hale, meaning “wholeness, a being whole, sound or well,”. Two aspects to health Most people accept that health is divided into two broad aspects – physical and mental state.

Physical health for humans, physical health means good body health, which is healthy due to regular physical activity (exercise), good nutrition, and adequate rest. Another term for physical health is physical wellbeing. Physical wellbeing is defined as something someone can do by developing all health-related components of his/her lifestyle. Fitness reflects a human cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, and body composition. 

yoga, exercise, fitness

Other contributors to physical wellbeing may include proper nutrition, bodyweight management, abstaining from substance abuse, avoiding alcoholic abuse, hygiene, and getting the correct amount of sleep. Mental health Mental health refers to people’s cognitive and emotional well-being. someone who enjoys good psychological state doesn’t have a upset. consistent with WHO, psychological state is “a state of well-being during which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can deal with the traditional stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and may make a contribution to his or her community“.

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