A cigarette is a small cylinder of finely cut tobacco leaves rolled in thin paper for smoking.The cigarette is ignited at one end and allowed to smolder; its smoke is inhaled from theother end, which is held in or to the mouth and in some cases a cigarette holder may be usedas well. Most modern manufactured cigarettes are filtered and include reconstituted tobaccoand other additives
The earliest forms of cigarettes were similar to their predecessor, the cigar. Cigarettes appearto have had antecedents in Mexico and Central America around the 9th century in the form ofreeds and smoking tubes. The Maya, and later the Aztecs, smoked tobacco and otherpsychoactive drugs in religious rituals and frequently depicted priests and deities smoking on pottery and temple engravings. The cigarette and the cigar were the most common methods of
smoking in the Caribbean, Mexico, and Central and South America until recent times.
By 1830, the cigarette had crossed into France, where it received the name cigarette; and in
1845, the French state tobacco monopoly began manufacturing them. The French word was
adopted by English in the 1840s. Some American reformers promoted the spelling cigaret, but
this was never widespread and is now largely abandoned.
Modern commercially manufactured cigarettes are seemingly simple objects consisting mainly
of a tobacco blend, paper, PVA glue to bond the outer layer of paper together, and often also
a cellulose acetate–based filter. While the assembly of cigarettes is straightforward, much
focus is given to the creation of each of the components, in particular the tobacco blend. A key
ingredient that makes cigarettes more addictive is the inclusion of reconstituted tobacco,
which has additives to make nicotine more volatile as the cigarette burns.
- Tobacco blend
- Cigarette tube
The paper for holding the tobacco blend may vary in porosity to allow ventilation of theburning ember or contain materials that control the burning rate of the cigarette and stabilityof the produced ash. The papers used in tipping the cigarette (forming the mouthpiece) andsurrounding the filter stabilize the mouthpiece from saliva and moderate the burning of thecigarette, as well as the delivery of smoke with the presence of one or two rows of small laser-drilled air holes.
The process of blending gives the end product a consistent taste from batches of tobacco grownin different areas of a country that may change in flavor profile from year to year due todifferent environmental conditions.
Reconstituted leaf (RL) sheet: a paper-like material made from recycled tobacco fines, tobaccostems and “class tobacco”, which consists of tobacco particles less than 30 mesh in size (about0.6 mm) that are collected at any stage of tobacco processing: RL is made by extracting thesoluble chemicals in the tobacco byproducts, processing the leftover tobacco fibers from theextraction into a paper, and then reapplying the extracted materials in concentrated form ontothe paper in a fashion similar to what is done in paper sizing. At thisstage, ammonium additives are applied to make reconstituted tobacco an effective nicotinedelivery system.
Expanded (ES) or improved stem (IS): ES is rolled, flattened, and shredded leaf stems that areexpanded by being soaked in water and rapidly heated. Improved stem follows the sameprocess, but is simply steamed after shredding. Both products are then dried. These productslook similar in appearance, but are different in taste.
Various additives are combined into the shredded tobacco product mixtures,with humectants such as propylene glycol or glycerol, as well as flavoring products andenhancers such as cocoa solids, licorice, tobacco extracts, and various sugars, which are knowncollectively as “casings”.
Cigarette tubes are prerolled cigarette paper usually with an acetate or paper filter at the end.They have an appearance similar to a finished cigarette, but are without any tobacco orsmoking material inside. The length varies from what is known as King Size (84 mm) to 100s(100 mm).
A cigarette filter or filter tip is a component of a cigarette. Filters are typically madefrom cellulose acetate fibre. Most factory-made cigarettes are equipped with a filter; those whoroll their own can buy them separately. Filters can reduce some substances from smoke but donot make cigarettes any safer to smoke.
The common name for the remains of a cigarette after smoking is a cigarette butt. The butt istypically about 30% of the cigarette’s original length.
Smoking has become less popular, but is still a large public health problem globally.Worldwide, smoking rates fell from 41% in 1980 to 31% in 2012, although the actual number ofsmokers increased because of population growth. In 2017, 5.4 trillion cigarettes were producedglobally, and were smoked by almost 1 billion people. Smoking rates have leveled off ordeclined in most countries but is increasing in some low- and middle-income countries. Thesignificant reductions in smoking rates in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Brazil, and other countries that implemented strong tobacco control programs have been offsetby the increasing consumption in low income countries, especially China. The Chinese marketnow consumes more cigarettes than all other low- and middle-income countries combined.
A fine cigar should be kept at between 15°C and 18°C (60°F- 65°F) and between 55%- 60%humidity, with a little variation as possible. A cigar is stored in cigar cases that are lined with cedar wood. These cigar cases are stored in a humidor. Humidor or specially made boxes they all either made with or lined with cedarwood. This is done because the aroma of cedar blends well with cigars and as cedarwood is porous it allows the cigar to breathe. A free circulation of air around these boxes is essential. Cigars are usually sold in boxes of 25, 50, and 100.
Electronic cigarette is an electronic inhaler that vaporizes a liquid solution into an aerosolmist, simulating the act of tobacco smoking. Electronic cigarettes are no longer marketed assmoking cessation aids or tobacco replacement in most countries. There may be similaritiesbetween conventional and some electronic cigarettes in the physical design and the nicotinerelease, which may approximate the same amount of nicotine as a conventional cigarette.There are also many electronic cigarettes which do not resemble conventional cigarettes at all.The amount of nicotine contained can also be chosen by the user, with many people choosingno nicotine at all.
Fire safe cigarettes
Fire safe cigarettes self-extinguishing, fire-safe or Reduced Ignition Propensity [RIP]cigarettes) are cigarettes that are designed to extinguish more quickly than standard cigarettesif ignored, with the intention of preventing accidental fires. In the United States, “FSC” abovethe barcode signifies that the cigarettes sold are Fire Standards Compliant (FSC).
Fire safe cigarettes are produced by adding two bands of the FSC chemical to the cigarettepaper during manufacture in order to slow the burn rate at the bands. Because this processdecreases the burn rate and does not prevent unattended cigarettes from igniting nearbymaterials or tinder, the term “fire-safe” has been called a misnomer which could lead smokersto believe that these cigarettes are less likely to cause fires than standard cigarettes.
Herbal cigarettes are cigarettes that do not contain any tobacco and which are composed of amixture of various other herbs and/or other plant material. Such cigarettes are not to beconfused with so-called non-additive and/ or natural tobacco cigarette variety. Like herbalsmokeless tobacco, they are often used as a substitute for standard tobacco products (primarilycigarettes), and many times are promoted as a tobacco cessation aid. Herbal cigarettes are alsoused in acting scenes by performers who are non-smokers, or—as is becoming increasinglycommon—where anti-smoking legislation prohibits the use of tobacco in public spaces.
Lights, or “Low-tar,” are considered to have a “lighter,” less pronounced flavor than regularcigarettes. These cigarette brands may also contain lower levels of tar, nicotine, or otherchemicals inhaled by the smoker. The filter design is one of the main differences between lightand regular cigarettes, although not all cigarettes contain perforated holes in the filteranymore. In some light cigarettes, the filter is perforated with small holes that theoreticallydiffuse the tobacco smoke with clean air. In regular cigarettes, the filter does not include theseperforations. In ultra-light cigarettes, the filter’s perforations are larger, and in theory, theselarger holes produce an even smaller smoke to air ratio.
Menthol cigarette is a cigarette flavored with the compound menthol, a substance whichtriggers the cold-sensitive nerves in the skin without actually providing a drop in temperature.Menthol cigarettes have also been shown to inhibit nicotine metabolism, causing “systemicenhancement in exposure to nicotine”.
Kretek is cigarettes made with a blend of tobacco,cloves and other flavors. The word “kretek”itself is an onomatopoetic term for the crackling sound of burning cloves. Haji Jamahri, aresident of Kudus, Java, created kreteks in the early 1880s as a means to deliver the eugenol ofcloves to the lungs, as it was thought to help asthma. Jamahri believed the eugenol cured hischest pains and he started to market his invention to the village, but he died of lung cancerbefore he could mass market it. M. Nitisemito took his place and began to commercialize thenew cigarettes. Today, kretek manufacturers directly employ over 180,000 peopleinIndonesiaand an additional 10 million indirectly.
Popular Cigarette Brands
- Nat Sherman.
A smoking pipe is a pipe that is specifically made to smoke tobacco. Typically, it will consist ofa chamber (the bowl) for the combustion of material and a thin stem (shank) ending in amouthpiece (the bit). Pipes can range from the very simple machine-made briar pipe to highly-prized handmade and artful implements created by renowned pipe makers which are oftenvery expensive collector’s items. “Estate pipes” are previously owned pipes that are sold to newowners. The bowls of tobacco pipes are commonly made of briar, meerschaum, corncob orclay. Less common are cherry wood, olive wood, maple, mesquite, oak, and bog-wood. Generally adense-grained wood is ideal. Pipe bowls of all these materials are sometimes carved with agreat deal of artistry. Unusual, but still noteworthy pipe bowl materials include gourds, as inthe famous Calabash pipe, and pyrolytic graphite. Metal and glass are uncommon materials fortobacco pipes, but are common for pipes intended for other substances, such as cannabis.
The stem needs a long channel of constant position and diameter running through it for aproper draw, although filter pipes have varying diameters and can be successfully smoked evenwithout filters or adapters. Because it is molded rather than carved, clay may make up theentire pipe or just the bowl, but most other materials have stems made separately anddetachable. Stems and bits of tobacco pipes are usually made of mountable materials likevulcanize, Bakelite, and soft plastic. Less common are stems made of reeds, bamboo, orhollowed out pieces of wood. Expensive pipes once had stems made of amber, though this israre now.
Tobaccos for smoking in pipes are often carefully treated and blended to achieve flavournuances not available in other tobacco products. Many of these are blends using stapleingredients of variously cured Burley and Virginia tobaccos which are enhanced by spicetobaccos, among them many Oriental or Balkan varietals, Latakia (a fire-cured spice tobacco ofSyrian origin), Perique (uniquely grown in St. James Parish, Louisiana) which is also an oldmethod of fermentation, or blends of Virginia and Burley tobaccos of African, Indian, or SouthAmerican origins.