grill restaurant
Food and Beverage Service is the service of Food made in the Kitchen and Drinks prepared in the Bar to the Customers (Guest) at the Food & Beverage premises, which can be:

Restaurants, Bars, Hotels, Airlines, Cruise Ships, Trains, Companies, Schools, Colleges, Hospitals, Prisons, Takeaway, etc

Food and Beverage Department is responsible for maintaining the high quality of food  and service, food costing, managing restaurant, bar, etc.

The Food and Beverage Service is a process of preparing, presenting, and serving food and beverages to customers. Food can include a wide range of styles and cuisine types. These can be classified by Country.

Beverages include all alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. Alcoholic beverages include wines and all other types of alcoholic drinks such as Cocktails, Beer, Ciders, Spirits, and Liqueurs. In the foodservice industry, there are a number of different industrial sectors and these are categorized according to the type of customer demand being met. The food and beverage industry in hotels traces its roots to the traditional community feasts and the movement of people on pilgrimage thousands of years ago. Most people were on the move primarily for preaching religion and hunting.

Non-Alcoholic Beverage


Any portable drink except water is termed as beverages. Water is not considered as beverage because according to oxford dictionary water is a liquid without color, smell or taste that falls as rain, is in lake, river and sea and is used for drinking, washing etc.

Classification of Beverages

Room Service Trolley

Non-Alcoholic Beverages

The beverage which either contains less than 0.5 % ethyl alcohol or does not contains any amount of ethyl alcohol is termed non-alcoholic beverages.

Non-alcoholic beverages are classified into three types

  1. Stimulating Beverages – It increases the heartbeat and body pressure. Example Tea or coffee.
  2. Refreshing Beverages – It replenishes the fluid loss from the body. Example Aerated drinks.
  3. Nourishing Beverages – It provides nutrients to the body. Example Fruit juices shake etc.

Alcoholic Beverages

The Beverages which contain 0.5% to 75% of ethyl alcohol are termed Alcoholic beverages.


Tea was discovered by accident over 5,000 years ago, when leaves from a tea bush accidentally dropped into some boiling water and delicately flavoured the liquid. Tea was originally drunk for its medicinal benefits and it was not until the 1700s that it began to be consumed as the delicious beverage that we know today.

Tea is prepared from the leaf bud and top leaves of a tropical evergreen bush called camellia sinensis. It produces what is regarded as a healthy beverage, containing approximately only half the caffeine of coffee and at the same time it aids muscle relaxation and stimulates the central nervous system.

The leaf particle size is referred to as grades. These are Pekoe (pecko) – the delicate top leaves, Orange Pekoe – a rolled leaf with a slim appearance and Pekoe Dust – the smallest particle of leaf size.

Tea producing countries

Tea is grown in more than 25 countries around the world.

This is the oldest tea-growing country and is known for specialty blends such as Keemun, Lapsang Souchong, Oolongs and green tea.

Teas produced here are light and fragrant with bright colouring when made and are used mainly for blending purposes.

East Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe)
This area produces good quality teas, which are bright and colourful and used extensively for blending purposes. Kenya produces teas that are easily discernible and have a reddish
or coppery tint and a brisk flavour.

India is the largest producer of tea, producing about 30 percent of the world’s tea. Best known are the teas from Assam (strong and full-bodied), Darjeeling tea (delicate and
mellow) and also Nilgiri, which is second only to Assam and produces teas similar to those of Sri Lanka.

Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon)
Teas here are inclined to have a delicate, light lemon flavour. They are generally regarded as excellent afternoon teas and also lend themselves to being iced.


Manufacturing process

The basic tea manufacturing process is as under:

  1. Plucking: Here the leaves are picked from the tea plant.
  2. Withering: This process is used to remove moisture from the leaves either under the sun or in a breezy room.
  3. Rolling: Leaves are rolled into shape.
  4. Fermentation/oxidation: Leaves are left on their own in a climate-controlled room. The Colour becomes darker due to oxidation.
  5. Firing: This is done to stop fermentation at desired oxidation levels. Leaves are now dried for sale.
  6. Aging: Not always required but done to impart special flavours in some cases.
  7. Packing

Service of teas

Afternoon tea

Usually a blend of delicate Darjeeling tea and high-grown Ceylon tea to produce a refreshing and light tea. As the name of the blend suggests, this tea is suitable for afternoon tea but may also bet.


Rich full and malty flavoured tea, suitable for service at breakfast, usually with milk. Sugar would be offered separately.


Tea made from a special blend of tea that is more delicate in flavour and perfume than any other tea. Less dry tea is required than for making Indian or Ceylon tea. Traditionally China tea is rarely served with milk. It is made in the normal way and is best made in a china pot. China tea is normally drunk on its own but maybe improved, according to taste, by the addition of a slice of lemon. Slices of lemon would be offered on a side plate with a sweet fork. Sugar may be offered separately.


A delicate tea with a light grape flavour and known as the ‘Champagne of teas’. Usually served as an afternoon or evening tea with either lemon or a little milk if preferred. Sugar may be offered separately.

Earl Grey

Blend of Darjeeling and China tea, flavoured with oil of Bergamot. Usually served with lemon or milk. Sugar would be offered separately.

English Breakfast

Often a blend of Assam and Kenya teas to make a bright, flavorsome and refreshing tea. Usually served as a breakfast tea but may be offered at any time. Usually served with milk but can also be taken with lemon. Sugar is offered separately.

Iced tea

This is strong tea that is made, strained, and well chilled. The tea is then stored chilled until required. It is traditionally served in a glass, such as a tumbler. A slice of lemon may be placed in the glass and some additional lemon slices served separately as for Russian tea. Sugar may be offered.


Green (unoxidized) tea that is dried with Jasmine Blossom and produces a tea with a fragrant and scented flavour.


These are fruit flavoured teas and herbal infusions which are often used for medicinal purposes and are gaining in popularity with trends towards healthier eating and drinking. Often these do not contain caffeine. Examples

Herbal teas
• camomile
• peppermint
• rosehip
• mint

Fruit teas
• cherry
• lemon
• blackcurrant
• mandarin orange

Lemon tea

The tea is served in quarter-liter (half a pint) glasses, which stand in a silver holder with a handle and on a side plate with a teaspoon. A slice of lemon may be placed in the glass and a few slices of lemon served separately. Sugar would be served separately.


There is evidence to suggest that coffee trees were cultivated about 1,000 years ago in Yemen. The first commercial cultivation of coffee is thought to have been in the Yemen district of Arabia in the fifteenth century. By the middle of the sixteenth-century coffee, drinking had spread to Sudan, Egypt, Syria, and Turkey.

The trees that produce coffee are of the genus Coffea, which belongs to the Rubiaceae family. There are somewhere in the region of 50 different species, although only two of these are commercially significant. These are known as Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora, which is usually referred to as Robusta.

Note: Arabica accounts for some 75 percent of the world’s production.


Coffee producing countries

Coffee is a natural product grown in many countries of the tropical and sub-tropical belt in South and Central America, Africa, and Asia. It is grown at different altitudes in different basic climates and in different soils and is looked upon as an international drink consumed throughout the world. Brazil is the world’s largest grower of coffee, Columbia is second, the Ivory Coast third, and Indonesia fourth.

The different means of purchasing coffee are:

  • Bulk: (either as beans or in vacuum packs of pre-ground beans) allowing for the traditional methods of making and serving.
  • Coffee bags: these are heat-sealed and come in one-cup, two-cup, pot-for-one or bulk brew sizes up to several liters.
  • Instant: instant coffee granules, available in sizes from one cup to pot size.
  • Individual filters: vacuum-packed and containing one portion.
  • Pods: these are specially designed individual portions of pre-ground coffee that are used in proprietary coffee and tea makers. Each pod makes one portion of coffee and the pod is then disposed of.

The common degrees of roasting are:

  • Light or pale roastings: suitable for mild beans to preserve their delicate aroma
  • Medium roastings: give a stronger flavour and are often favoured for coffees with a well-defined character.
  • Full roastings: popular in many Latin countries, they have a bitter flavour.
  • High roasted coffee: accentuates the strong bitter aspects of coffee, although much of the original flavour is lost.
diffrenet coffee roadting

Coffee making methods

    • Instant – This form of coffee may be made very quickly, immediately before it is required by pouring freshly boiled water onto a measured quantity of coffee powder. Stir well and serve. Hot and cold milk, cream, and sugar may be added to taste. Instant coffee may be made in individual coffee or teacups or in large quantities.
    • Saucepan/Jug– This is an American method of making coffee more suitable for the home than a commercial establishment. A set measure of ground coffee is placed in a saucepan/ jug and the required quantity of freshly boiled water is poured over the ground coffee. It should then be allowed to stand for a few minutes to extract the full flavour, colour and strength from the ground coffee. Strain and serve Hot/Cold milk, cream, and sugar may be added to taste.
    • Plunger – Coffee which is prepared with the help of specially designed coffee equipment called plunger machine. The coffee beans are powdered and put inside a plunger mug. The hot water is added into plunger mug and closed with the lid which has a strainer. Then coffee is allowed to brew.
    • Filter – This method is popular in France and produces excellent coffee. The filter coffee pot consists of three sections
    • Espresso – The method has its origin in Italy. Espresso coffee is made in a special apparatus called an espresso machine that passes a mixture of stream and hot water which gives a frothy effect to the coffee when served. The method involves passing steam through finely-ground coffee and infusing under pressure served black the coffee is known as espresso. If hot milk is added in equal quantity the beverage is called a cappuccino.
    • Espresso Doppio/Doppio: Double shot of espresso.
    • Turkish – This coffee is made from darkly roasted mocha beans which are ground to a fine powder. It is made in a special coffee pot made of brass/copper with a long handle and is narrower at the top than the bottom.
    • Cold Coffee: Coffee is served with ice. It is prepared with cold milk.
    • Affogato: Vanilla Flavoured espresso.
    • Cappuccino: Espresso injected with frothy milk and dusted with cocoa powder.
    • Flat white: Double shot of espresso topped with frothed milk which has been stirred together with the flat milk from the bottom of the jug, to create
      a creamy rather than frothy texture.
    • Macchiato:So an Espresso Macchiato is mostly espresso, marked with a small amount of steamed milk and foam for those who love a rich, bold taste.
    • Latte Macchiato: Latte Macchiato is mostly steamed milk, marked with espresso for those who prefer a creamier drink.
    • Decaffeinated Coffee: This is coffee from which the stimulant caffeine has been removed. It is made from beans after the caffeine has been extracted. For this, the beans are soaked in very hot water for about five hours. This softens the beans opening their pores. The beans are then treated with a solvent that reacts with caffeine and is then evaporated away taking away 97% caffeine.
    • Liqueur Coffee – Coffee flavoured with liqueur is termed liqueur coffee.

Other forms of specialty, or liqueur, coffees include:

Café Royale or Café Parisienne: Brandy

 Jamaican coffee or Caribbean coffee: Rum

Monk’s coffee: Benedictine

Calypso coffee: Tia-Maria

Russian coffee: Vodka

Highland coffee: Scotch Whisky

Seville coffee: Cointreau

Swiss coffee: Kirsch



Both Cocoa and Chocolate are made from the beans or seeds of the cocoa tree, the botanical name of which is Theobroma Cacao. The translation of Theobroma is “food for the Gods” indicating the esteem in which these products were held.

Places of Growth: The cocoa tree is grown in countries near the equator mainly in South and Central America, East and West Indies, and West Africa.

Production: The fruit of the cocoa tree is called a cocoa pod. The cocoa pods are 7 to 12 inches long having thick leathery rinds containing 25-75 seeds arranged inside rows. The cocoa beans are encased in the flashy mucilaginous pulp of the cocoa pods.

The production of cocoa and chocolate is carried out in the following stages:

Depodding: The cocoa pods are gathered in heaps and cut upon with a sharp rounded knife. The cocoa beans are scooped out or removed from the mucilaginous pulp of the cocoa pod. The fresh bean from the cocoa pod has a strong bitter taste and must be fermented to develop its flavour and colour.

Fermentation: The cocoa beans are placed on fermenting heaps and fermented to remove the pulp from the outside of the bean and to decrease the strong bitter taste. Oxidation begins almost at once causing the beans to become brown which is due to the oxidation to tannins.

Drying: The beans are then spread in the sun and dried to remove the moisture so that they are not spoilt during storage.

Note: The fermented dry beans resemble almonds, they are surrounded by a thin paper-like skin or shell‖.

Roasting: The beans are then roasted in revolving cylinders by currents of hot air, the roasting process further improves the colour and flavour, and aroma of the beans and dries the husks or shells so that they can be easily removed.

Shelling: The beans are then cracked to remove the shells; the beans are now turned into cocoa nibs which is the basis for cocoa and chocolate products.

Grinding the Cocoa Nibs: The cocoa nibs are ground to a thick brown semi-liquid paste called chocolate liquor or cocoa mass which contains 50-57% cocoa butter, the natural fat of cocoa bean. This material solidifies on cooling to a hard brown block that is sold as bitter chocolate and is used to make sweet chocolate and milk chocolate. To make sweet chocolate sugar and flavourings are added to the bitter chocolate and to make milk chocolate, milk, sugar, and flavourings are added.

Pressing the Cocoa Mass: The cocoa is second benefited of chocolate liquor or cocoa mass. To make cocoa the cocoa mass is pumped into a powerful hydraulic press where some of the cocoa butter is removed.

Making the Cocoa: The pressed cocoa cakes remaining in the press are removed, then crushed, ground, and sifted to a fire powder making cocoa.

Milk-based beverages

  • Hot Chocolate – This beverage is prepared with milk and hot chocolate powder. Hot chocolate powder is prepared with cocoa powder.
  • Milk shake – It’s a shake which is prepared with milk and fruit pulp/ fruit syrups ( with or without ice-cream)
  • Malted Beverages – Branded malted beverages such as Horlicks, Bournvita, Boost, Complan, etc. These are prepared by mixing them with milk.


Squash may be served on its own diluted by water, soda water, or lemonade. Squashes are also used as mixers for spirits and in cocktails or used as the base for such drinks as fruit cups. Examples are Orange squash, Lemon squash, Grapefruit squash, etc. 



The juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables. 

The main types of juices held in stock in the dispense bar are:
Bottled or canned
◗ Orange juice
◗ Pineapple juice
◗ Grapefruit juice
◗ Tomato juice.
◗ Orange juice
◗ Watermelon juice
◗ Lemon juice.
Apart from being served chilled on their own, these fresh juices may also be used in cocktails and for mixing with spirits.


It is a thick concentration of sugar and water flavored with different fruits and flowers. Used in the preparation of different cocktails & Mocktail.

The main uses of these concentrated, sweet, fruit flavourings are as a base for cocktails, fruit cups, or mixed with soda water as a long drink.

The main ones used are:



Rose syrup

Rose Petals



Blue Curacao

Curaçao Orange


Black current


White sugar syrup





Aerated waters

These beverages are charged (or aerated) with carbonic gas. Artificial aerated waters are by far the most common. The flavourings found in different aerated waters are obtained from various essences.
Examples of these aerated waters are:
◗ Soda water: colourless and tasteless
◗ Tonic water: colourless and quinine flavoured
◗ Dry ginger: golden straw-colored with a ginger flavour
◗ Bitter lemon: pale, cloudy yellow-coloured with a sharp lemon flavour.
Other flavoured waters, which come under this heading, are:
◗ ‘Fizzy’ lemonades
◗ Orange
◗ Ginger beer
◗ Cola, etc.

Sparkling water – Sparkling water is the water that contains CO2. . It is also termed aerated water. They are charged or aerated with carbonic gas. The charging with carbonic gas imparts pleasant effervescent characteristics. The flavors which are found in these sparkling water are imparted from various essences.

Still water – Still water is the water that does not contains any amount of CO2. In hospitality terms, it is also called table water. This is water that contains very few natural minerals. Used for consumption during meals. This is the water that is consumed in Indian homes. It is also termed filter water or RO water (Reverse Osmosis). 

Natural spring waters/mineral waters – Natural spring waters are obtained from natural springs in the ground, the waters themselves being impregnated with the natural minerals found in the soil and sometimes naturally charged with an aerating gas. The value of these mineral waters, as they are sometimes termed, has long been recognized by the medical profession. Where natural spring waters are found, there is usually what is termed a spa, where the waters may be drunk or bathed in according to the cures they are supposed to effect. Many of the best-known mineral waters are bottled at the springs (bottled at source).

Examples of varieties of water:





Mineral Sparkling



Mineral Sparkling


San Pellegrino

Mineral Sparkling



Still & Sparkling




Mineral Sparkling



Still Mineral



Mineral  Still



Mineral Still



Mineral Still


Varieties of drinking water
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Ancillary Departments


  • It is the area which is located between the restaurant & kitchen. The prime use of pantry is to stores hollowware, flatware, glassware, etc.
  • This area is used for getting ready to serve. The staff gets ready with all the service equipment before getting into the restaurant.
  • The door planted is a twin swing door. One door is used for getting inside the restaurant with the food order. The other door is used for coming out of the restaurant. If anyone uses any wrong door, then that would lead to an accident.
  • Equipment needed in the pantry are:
  • Cupboard
  • Linen Box
  • Plate warmer
  • Bain Marie
  • The range for making Tea / Coffee
  • Water filter with cooler
  • Boiler
  • Refrigerator
  • Sink for washing service equipment
  • Sink for hand wash

Food Pick up Area/ Hot Plate

The hotplate or pass is the meeting point between the service staff and the food preparation staff. Active cooperation and a good relationship between the members of staff of these two areas help to ensure that the customer receives an efficient and quick service of the meal.

The hotplate itself should be stocked with all the crockery necessary for the service of a
meal. This may include some or all of the following items:

  • Soup plates
  •  Fishplates
  •  Joint plates
  • Dessert plates
  • Consommé cups
  • Platters
  • Soup cups.
  • This area is also known as Hot Plate Area. The hot plate may be regarded as the meeting point between the food service staff (F&B) and the food preparation staff (kitchen).
  • This is a place where all the crockery required for service will be kept warm.
  • Normally an ‘ABOYEUR’ (a barker) is in-charge and controls the hotplate over the service periods.
  • This is the place where the chef keeps the prepared food with garnish on the hot plate and announces food is for pickup and then the service staff picks up the food for serving to the guest who has ordered food.

Linen Room

There are many qualities of linen in present-day use, from the finest Irish linen and cotton to synthetic materials such as nylon and viscose. The type of linen used will depend on the class of establishment, type of clientele and cost involved, and the style of menu and service to be offered. The main items of linen normally to be found are shown below.


  • 137 cm 3 137 cm (54 in 3 54 in) to fit a table 76 cm (2 ft 6 in) square or a round table 1 m (3 ft) in diameter.
  • 183 cm 3 183 cm (72 in 3 72 in) to fit a table 1 m (3 ft) square.
  • 183 cm 3 244 cm (72 in 3 96 in) to fit rectangular-shaped tables.
  • 183 cm 3 137 cm (72 in 3 54 in) to fit rectangular-shaped tables.

Slip cloths

  • 1 m 3 1 m (3 ft 3 3 ft) used to cover a slightly soiled tablecloth.

Napkins (serviettes)

  • 46–50 cm (18–20 in) square if linen.
  • 36–42 cm (14–17 in) square of paper.

Buffet cloths

  • 2 m 3 4 m (6 ft 3 12 ft) – this is the minimum size; longer clothes will be used for longer tables.

Waiter’s cloths or service cloths

  • Servers use these as protection against heat and to help to keep uniforms clean.

Tea and glass cloths

  • These are used for drying items after washing; tea cloths should be used for crockery and glass cloths for glassware. The best are made of linen or cotton and are lint-free.

Linen storage is necessary for the F&B Department. Ideally, this is an outlet of the House Keeping Department.

All linen required by the food & beverage service department such as Serviettes, Table cloths, Slip clothes, etc are stored in the F&B department as it is very difficult for the service staff to run to the housekeeping department each time to get fresh linen and smooth operation is hampered.

Linen is exchanged every day by the waiter in the Linen room (housekeeping department) on a ‘one for one basis’ which means one dirty linen is exchanged for one clean linen. These are entered in the Linen register and if there is any discrepancy it is also entered in the register.

Kitchen Stewarding

  • The department is responsible for the supply and maintaining all F&B equipment (cutlery, crockery, and glassware) and kitchen utensils for its smooth functioning.
  • In the Kitchen Stewarding department, the wash-up area occupies the maximum area and is fitted with different equipment. 

There are four main methods of dishwashing for foodservice operations and a summary of  these:

Method Description
Manual Soiled ware washed by hand or brush machine.

Automatic Conveyor
Soiled ware loaded in racks, mounted on a conveyor by operators for automatic transportation through a dishwashing machine.

Flight conveyor

Soiled ware loaded within pegs mounted on a conveyor by operators for
automatic transportation through a dishwashing machine.

Deferred wash

Soiled ware is collected together, stripped, sorted, and stacked by operators for transportation through a dishwashing machine at a later stage.Manual

The dirty crockery is placed into a tank of hot water containing a soap detergent. After washing, the plates are placed into wire racks and dipped into a second sterilizing tank containing clean hot water at a temperature of approximately 75°C (179°F). The racks are left for two minutes and then lifted out and the crockery is left to drain. If sterilized in the water at this temperature the crockery will dry by itself without the use of drying-up cloths. This is more hygienic. After drying, the crockery is stacked into piles of the correct size and placed on shelves until required for further use.Automatic

Many larger establishments have dishwashing machines. These are necessary because of the
high usage of crockery. The instructions for use of a washing-up machine are generally
supplied by the manufacturer, together with details of detergent to be used, and in what
quantity. These directions should be strictly adhered to.
Debris should be removed from the crockery before it is placed into the wire racks. The racks are then passed through the machine, the crockery being washed, rinsed, and then sterilized in turn. Having passed through the machine the crockery is left to drain for two to three minutes and is then stacked and placed on shelves until required for further use. As
with the tank method, the plates do not require drying with tea cloths.

plate cutlaries
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Food & Beverage Outlet

Food & Beverage Outlet

Food & Beverage service outlets are considered to be the second most revenue generating operational area in hotel industry.

Every hotel has different type of food & Beverage service outlets. This chapter would deal with different types of F&B outlets and its characteristics.

Specialty Restaurant

  • It serves specialty dishes which adds to its image, the restaurant is known for the dishes and the cuisine which it prepares.
  • Specialty restaurants are generally open for lunch & Dinner Only
  • These restaurants specialize in either any particular food (Fish, pasta, etc.) or any particular type of cuisine ( Indian, Italian or ethnic cuisine)
  • Uniform of the service staff are according to the region of cuisine

The Music, Fixtures, crockery used in the restaurant depicts the region from which the cuisine is getting served.

The Seat Turnover is low as compared to the other styles of restaurants as these restaurants are expensive and people come here for spending quality time. The menu is quite elaborate thus it takes time to serve the complete meal.

    • Average revenue is quite more as compared to other types of restaurants serving meals.
fast food

Coffee Shop

  • This type of restaurant is open for 24 hours operation. They are located at five-star hotels.
  • The service & ambiance of coffee restaurants is informal as guests come here for a quick meal, and are occupied mainly by the resident guest of the hotels for their Breakfast, Lunch & Dinner.

We can experience simple cover & cutlery getting used at a coffee shop as the seat turnover of the coffee shop are quite high.

The style of service adopted is American Service (Pre Plated service) as this style of service consumes less time.

    • Seat Turnover is High is quite high at the coffee shop. As this restaurant is being opted by the resident guest. Thus the seat turnover at these restaurants is quite high.
    • Coffee shops are generally located at the ground level of Hotel.
    • They may or may not serve alcohol depending upon the organizational policy.
WelcomCafe Kovai

Room Service / In Room Dining

  • Serving food and beverage to the resident guests of a hotel in his room is termed as Room service / In-Room Dining.
  • This is meant for only those guests who are staying with the hotel.
  • It is the only outlet in the hotel that operates from the back of the house.
  • It opens for 24 hrs.
  • It serves all the important meals of the day along with snacks and various alcoholic & non-alcoholic beverages.

Room services are generally very busy in the morning for the breakfast service.

Here all the order is taken on the house phone by room service order taker and there is no direct interaction between guests and service personnel like another restaurant.

  • It is very important for a hotel to have a room service facility to be a star category hotel.
  • It is very much required for the older guests, celebrities, and those who don’t like restaurant crowds and public gatherings.
  • Service here is different from the restaurants because here, after serving the food in the rooms, waiters leave the guest’s room after checking any further requirements and time of the clearance. So, personal attention is not there throughout the meal.
  • Guests ‘complaints are a very big challenge in this service and taken very seriously because of so much revenue involved.
  • Service takes more time than normal as everything which is required by the guest in terms of cutlery, crockery and service gear need to be carried along with food at one go.
  • Service is done through room service trays and trolleys generally depending upon the size of the food order. The trolley is required to carry hot food, as it has a food warmer attached to the trolley which helps in maintaining the temperature of the food, as it takes time to reach the guest room.
  • All types of drinks are served here 24 hrs from the dispense bar or service bar.
  • The menu is priced a little higher than of coffee shops or restaurants.

Grill room / Rotisserie

  • It is a restaurant that specializes in grills and roasts of different meats, fish and poultry.
  • It has a glass partition that separates the kitchen from the seating area so that guests can see the grill preparation of their choice.
  • Here atmosphere is casual and service is preplated.
  • Some of the grills rooms have American seating and equipped with log tables and benches.
  • The crockery and cutlery here is fine as these restaurant are little expensive as compared to other restaurants.
  • It provides interaction between guest and chef so there is less chance of guest complaints.
  • Portion control is another benefit here. Grill Room restaurant
grill restaurant


The bar is a licensed premise which sells all kinds of alcoholic beverages. It is found in hotels, resorts, clubs, and casinos. They can also be operated as an independent unit.

Types of Bar

The bar is broadly classified into two categories

  • On-Premises Bar – The bar has a license to sell and serve alcoholic beverages within its premises. It means that the customers can be served within the premises. Like wine bar, Cocktail bar, Night clubs, etc. Liquor is not sold by the bottle, they are served by Peg.
  • Off-Premises Bar – This is the bar that has the license to sell alcoholic beverages to customers by the bottle. The customers are not authorized to sit and enjoy the drink at the premises. Like your local Off Shops.

Various types of On-Premises Bar

Public or front bars – The least expensive and basic type of hotel (or pub) bar is usually called the public bar or front bar.

Lounge or saloon bars – It is the area meant for relaxing, located near reception, which serves alcoholic beverages to the guests seated at the lounge. These bars are more comfortably furnished (and more expensive) than the public bar.

Foyer bars – Superior residential hotels often serve drinks in the foyer. There is usually table service of drinks available even if there is no bar as such in the hotel’s foyer.

Cocktail bars – Cocktail bars, found most commonly in international hotels, are the most luxuriously furnished and lavishly equipped. As the name implies, cocktail bars specialize in mixed drinks and cocktails, and therefore bartenders working in them need special cocktail-mixing skills. They sometimes open only in the evening and they usually offer tray service as well as bar service.

Club Bars – Club bars, found in some taverns and hotels, are suitable for use by clubs or special interest groups and are sometimes reserved for their meetings. Do not confuse a hotel club bar’ with the bars in registered clubs which are a different matter altogether. A big club often has several bars, for example, a members’ bar (with or without poker machines), or a ‘sportsman’s bar’ with pool tables.

Nightclub bars – Nightclub bars are found in nightclubs. They serve cocktails and mixed drinks as well as a range of beers, both local and imported. Often they offer both tray and bar service. These bars have live music performances. 

Dispense bars – dispense bar is a back bar, located at the back area of any hotel or restaurant which is not visible to the guest. It caters to the demand by other food and beverages outlets that do not have their own bar or beverages inventory. It is a bar which is used for the preparation of the drinks for staff who then delivers them to customers elsewhere, for example, a table in a restaurant. 

Wine bars – Wine bars offer a wide range of wines, some of which are available by the glass. Usually, a limited range of beers and spirits will be available also. Often a wine bar will be combined with a smart casual restaurant. Wine bar staff must, of course, be well informed about wine.

Minibars – Minibars are found in hotel bedrooms where a range of miniature bottles of spirits, half bottles of wine, a few beers, mixers, nuts, etc. are available for the guests’ convenience. Items taken for the minibar must be added to the guests’ accounts to be paid for when they check out.

Banquet bar – This is a temporary setup in the banquet halls to serve alcoholic drinks during a specific function. The type and quality of drinks to be served are generally pre-determined at the time of booking the function. The drinks may either be bought by those who wish to drink or paid by the host for all the drinks consumed by his/her guests during the function. The banquet bar collects the required stock either from the main bar or the cellar. Sometimes, the guest would bring their own liquor bottles in which case ‘corkage’ charges are levied.

bar, pub, cafe


  • A cafeteria is a facility providing food and beverages served to the employees or resident students of any organization or educational institutes.
  • The style of service adopted is generally self-service in few cases assisted service is also provided. Food is displayed on the counter and the guest helps himself in picking up the food as per his liking as he moves along the counter and finally pays the bill at the end of the counter.
  • In some organizations/Institutes payment of the bill is done through coupon also. The very informal atmosphere and ambiance exists in this outlet
  • The dining menu is usually small with fewer food options depending upon the organization / Institute needs. Generally, it follows cyclic meal plans and prices are kept nominal as it is a privilege or a facility that is being provided to the staff/students.
  • The style of service adopted at the cafeteria is always self or assisted, replated
Vox Google cafeteria workers

Fast Food Outlets /Quick Service Restaurant

  • Serves food & Beverages in which the production & service can be done fast. The dishes on the menu are such which does not require much time fin its preparation and service. That is the reason why these outlets are called quick-service restaurants.
  • These outlets have a large turnover of customers. As customers do not have to wait for long for food nor the outlets need much time to serve food to the customers.
  • The Décor & Design are casual. As customers do not stay long at the outlet to relish the décor and design of the outlet.
  • The style of service adopted is self-service. Making it quick for the customers.
  • Customers coming to QSR can either eat the food at the outlet sitting area or the food can be taken away by themselves and eat at their convenience.
  • QSR are generally standalone or chain organizations. Like Dominos, Pizza Hut, Samosa Junction, WOW Momo, etc are chain QSR and any fast food joint of your locality would be a standalone restaurant.
fast food


    • Banquets outlet generally caters to a huge gathering of people who assemble in the banquet hall for events like reception, marriage party, birthday, conference, seminar, etc.
    • The service is generally from a buffet when a lot of guests have to be served within a short span of time. Other forms of services can also be provided if the budget is not the constraint for the customer.
    • Sometimes formal lunch, dinner, etc also takes place in banquet halls. Formal meals mean the food is served either replated or silver service depending upon the requirement and budget of the host.
    • It is one of the highest revenue-producing F and B outlets in any commercial hotel. As in short time span a huge number of guests can be catered.
    • Sometimes banquet halls can independently exist where an outside contractor does the catering part.
    • A pub generally independently exists, which serves only beer. It is attached to the brewery.
    • The atmosphere in a pub is generally very informal most pubs have a very informal seating arrangement and generally designed to suit the likings and requirements of the youth.
    • They also have specific hours of operation and the law like a bar governs operations
    • Books of inventory and accounts are maintained as per the government regulation and are supposed to produce them before the concerned authority as and when required.
    • Self or assisted service is adopted by the organization
banquet, holiday, restaurant


    • It’s an outlet which is principally meant for dancing to loud recorded or live music with the facility of food and beverage service.
    • It has a dance floor for the customers to enjoy the music with dance.
    • Hi-Technology Light & Sound system is installed.
    • Alcoholic & Non Alcoholic beverages are served depending upon the organization’s policy.
    • The food offered is mainly Finger food which does not require cutleries.
    • It may or may not charge entry fees to restrict entry. So that every passerby does not step into the restaurant.
Discotheque hospitality study

Night Club

      • It usually operates late in the evening to dawn. Its USP is live entertainment with the band.
      • It has a dance floor for the guests to dance and enjoy music. It Serves alcoholic & nonalcoholic beverages depending upon the organization’s policy.
      • The service style is formal service. The attire for the guests is Formal.
      • The outlets are independent and usually located in suburban areas.
      • The Menu prepared for nightclubs is an exotic menu containing exotic dishes.
night club hospitality study

Vending Machine

      • Vending Machine which is also known as automatic retailing or electronic cafeteria. It involves a machine providing the customer with a product (Food & Beverage) in exchange for some payment, coins and credit cards, etc.
      • Vending offers the hospitality industry a means of extending food service hours to meet the convenience of the guests and to provide acceptable service where it would be economically impossible to provide full manual food service.
      • Technological advantages are improving the variety and quality of products offered through vending. Since dining halls are rarely open 24 hours a day or available on all parts of campus, offices, hospitals, vending offers options at different ―access points‖ across campus as well as at all hours of the day and night.
      • The vending machines in the restaurant industry usually vend a variety of food products like packed confectionery, snacks, plated meals, etc.
      • These are independent units, which may be placed at airports, railway stations, offices, cafeteria, hotel lounges, poolside, etc. They dispense a metered quantity of beverage or a packed unit of food in exchange for a token or a currency. This makes service fast, hygienic, cheap, and standardized.
Vending Machine hospitality study
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Departmental Organisation & Staffing

Every Hotels and restaurants have different organization structured to be followed depending upon the size of organization, business turnover, availability of staff.

Hierarchy of different Outlets of food and beverage department.

source (Slideshare/RaviDandotiya)
source (Slideshare/RaviDandotiya)
source (Slideshare/RaviDandotiya)
room service
source (Slideshare/RaviDandotiya)

Duties and Responsibilities of Food and Beverage Manager

  • Preparation of budget for the department along with consultation of managers of different outlets.
  • Formulating policies for the department
  • Preparing organization structure of the department
  • Planning menus for different outlets in consultation with the outlet managers and the chefs
  • Analyzing sales and marketing for the departments and the f & b outlets  Attends meeting with General Manager of the hotel.
  • Monitoring performance of staff on the various standards to be implemented in outlets.
  • Holds meeting on regular intervals with the outlet’s managers to ensure all activities of operations goes as per planning.
  • Works in consultation with the Human resources department for recruitment, training, development activities for the staff working under the food and beverage department.

Duties and responsibilities of Restaurant Manager

  • Ensures following of service standards by the staff at the restaurant.
  • Conducts service standards and procedures training for the staff working under the restaurant manager.
  • Review financial transactions.
  • Handling of complaints which arises within the restaurant premises.
  • Ensures there is no theft, pilferage, or revenue leakage by the staff during and after operations.
  • Sanctions leave of the subordinate staff.
  • Instruct the supervisors on various new policies, standards, plan of the /day, the event of the day, etc. so that there is a smooth operation during the day.
  • Conducts cost control methods at his/her restaurant.

Duties and Responsibilities of Head Waiter/ Senior Captain

  • Is the in charge of the restaurant in the absence of restaurant Manager
  • Takes guest reservations and handles details of private functions
  • Welcome guests and escorts them to the table with the help of the host/hostess.
  • Closely supervise restaurant service.
  • Resolves guest complaints
  • Checks with chefs on non-availability of dishes at regular intervals and update it to his subordinates.
  • Is responsible for getting all closing duties done along with the reset of tables.

Duties and responsibilities of a Captain/ Station waiter / Chef de Rang

  • Responsible for service of one station ( usually 4 to 6 tablets in a section)
  • Presents menu card to the guest and takes the order.
  • Send steward to fetch food from the kitchen.
  • Maintains records of each guest’s orders, so that the food orders are not mixed up.
  • Places condiments and accompaniments as per the dishes which the guest has ordered.
  • Presents the check to the guest and ensures its settlement.

Duties and responsibilities of a steward/ waiter / Commis de rang

  • Sets the assigned table and ensures the service area is well-staged.
  • Completes the mise en scene and mise en place of the restaurant before the operations start.
  • Carries out the actual service of food and beverage to guests as per standard operating procedures.
  • Clears the soiled plates from the guest tables.
  • Stocks the sideboard all different condiments which is required regularly while guest service.
  • Performs other tasks as directed by seniors.

Attributes of a waiter

  • Personal Hygiene & Grooming – The food and beverage service department staff needs to very hygienic as they are the food handlers. If any staff is not maintaining the hygiene standards, it may lead to guest complaints and bring a bad name to the organization. Staff should bath daily, trim their nail, no nail paints, hairs should be short and well maintain, beard and mustache should be well shaved if kept then well-trimmed and maintained. Brush regularly and other things which help in maintaining the standards of the restaurant. They should also be well-groomed, in clean and tidy uniforms, polished and comfortable shoes, good body odor, etc. Grooming plays a very important role in the hospitality industry.
  • Punctuality – The food and beverage staff should be punctual on their duty timings. If any staff is late, then another staff is asked to do overtime, which leads to poor efficiency of the staff. Even the guest service is hampered if staff comes late on duty.
  • Honesty- Honesty is one of the major attitudes when every human being needs to have. Thus it’s important in each and every industry including the hospitality industry too. If the staff is not honest, that leads to malpractices within the organization. Ultimately guest is the sufferer and which gradually leads to a bad name for the organization along with financial losses.
  • Attitude towards guests – Every restaurant provides service to guests, but providing wow service to guests leaves an impact on guests’ minds, which is the way to satisfied guest service to the guest. Thus the staff working at a restaurant should have an attitude to provide service to guests. Only those staff can provide a wow service to guests who are having a positive attitude towards serving to guests.
  • Sense of urgency – A waiter needs to have an intelligence of knowing the sense of urgency. Service to guests involves multiple tasks and duties to be performed. Thus the waiter should have an idea, as to which last is of priority. Thus he/she should perform the task which needs to be performed first.
  • Product Knowledge – A food and beverage personnel needs to behave knowledge of the products which he is selling/serving to guests. If the server does not have product knowledge, then it would be tough for him/her to explain the dish to the guest and upsell the dish. Thus the steward should know about each and every ingredient which is used in its preparation, the method of cooking adopted, information on the presentation and plating of the dishes. If any historical and religious significance associated with the dish, then knowledge of this information really works great while the product up for sale.
  • Local Knowledge – Most of the restaurants have dinners that are visitors to the city. Thus many a time guest tries to enquire about the local tourist attractions, local transport facilities, they ask for a recommendation on things which we suggest them to visit or try at the city. Thus it is very important for a waiter to have local information knowledge.
  • Memory – Restaurant operations are very quick and involve lots of information to be passed and shared. Thus a good memory is required by restaurant staff. Multiple guests come to the restaurant to dine and they have multiple dishes on order at different time intervals, thus if staff is not having a good memory he is confused and serves wrong food orders to guest, which would lead to guest dissatisfaction.
  • Team Spirit – Multiple staff works together in a restaurant, all having different mind-set, thus it is important to have a good team spirit to maintain a harmonious relationship with each and every staff.
  • Communication Skill – Good communication skill is required in each and every industry, but it’s of prime importance at the hospitality industry. In the restaurant business, we are supposed to communicate with guest every minute, we are in front of the house, who gets an opportunity to interact with the guest. Thus good communication skill is a very important skill which is present in any waiter.

Inter Departmental Relationship with food and beverage service department


Food Production

  • Guest food order is shared with chefs for food preparations.
  • Cooked food is picked up from the kitchen.
  • If any guest special requests, then the information is shared with the chefs.
  • Garde Manger – cold dishes like salads, cold meats, etc.
  • Pantry – Sandwiches, Fruits, Juices, etc.
  • Hot Kitchen – Hot food on the menu are prepared
  • Bakery & Confectionery – Cakes, Pastries, ice creams, etc.

Kitchen stewarding

  •  Supplies, cutleries, crockeries, glassware sect are required for service at restaurants.
  • Responsible for washing soiled service wares.
  • Maintains inventory records of all service equipment.

Front Office

  •  All bills of resident’s guest are given to the front office department for charging the guest.
  • Communication relating to the status of guest residing can be obtained from FO.

House Keeping

  • Responsible for cleanliness, maintenance, and aesthetic standard of the F & B Outlets.
  • Deals with service staff uniforms, restaurant linens, and flower arrangements required at outlets.


  • F & B outlets pick up their requirement like condiments, liquor bottles, stationery, etc. from the store.
  • Everything which is required by F & B Outlets can be indented from the store at the hotel.
  • Staff recruitment and transfer.
  • Staff training as per the SOP of the organization.
  • Maintaining staff salaries and wages.
  • Addressing indiscipline issues.

Food and

Beverage Control

  • It regulates the revenue and expenditure of the department.
  • It analyses sales Mix, Beverage cost, Food Cost, etc.
  • Conducts audits.
  •  Responsible for designing and implementing sales/promotional activities for the F & B department.



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Introduction to Hotel Industry

Hospitality in India traces its roots for thousands of years in form of traditional community feasts and movement of people for religious purposes and hunting.

Later people started moving for the purpose of business and trade. Gradually it started taking a proper shape.

India is full of religious shrines of different faiths. Some of which are frequently traveled by people of all faith.

As per Hindu mythology from Vedic text and literature. There have been many references of travel and accommodation facilities for the travel of pilgrims and traders by the king.

Atithi Devo Bhava “the Slogan of India Tourism, Government of India also speaks about our rich heritage and culture in context to guests. In Indian Culture Guest is treated as God.

Below is the evolution of hospitality facilities broadly categories in the following period

  • Ancient and Medieval Era
  • Colonial Era
  • Modern Era

Ancient and Medieval Era



Dharamshala & Chatrams

  • Protect the lives of travelers from robbers and wild animals.
  • Offered for free of cost.

Sarai & Musafirkhanas

  •  Build by Mughals to provide accommodation to travelers

Colonial Era



Inns and western-style hotels

Sarai was converted by Britishers as Inns and western-style hotels during their rule


Operated by people of foreign origin to cater to the needs of the European colonizers.


     Portuguese, Georges, Paddy Goose’s, and Racquet Court, which opened in Bombay between 1837 and 1840

Hope Hall Family Hotel

Western tradition Hotel

Sardar Griha

First Indian Style Hotel opened in 1900 in Mumbai


Indian Style Hotel opened in the year 1918

Modern Era



Taj Hotels


Oberoi Hotel


Park Hotels


ITC Hotels


  • EIH Ltd – East India Hotels Ltd
  • IHCL – Indian Hotels Company  Ltd
  • ITC ltd – Imperial Tobacco Company of India Ltd
  • Apeejay Surrendra Park Hotels
  • The Leela Palaces Hotels Resorts
  • ITDC – Indian Tourism Development Corporation

International Hotel Brands

  • Wyndham Worldwide
  • Marriott International
  • InterContinental Hotels Group
  • Hilton Worldwide
  • Accor Hotels
  • Best Western Hotels
  • Carlson Rezidor Hotel Group
  • Hyatt Hotels Corporation

Indian Hotel Company Ltd (IHCL)

IHCL collage
The Indian Hotels Company Limited

Hotel Name

Taj Hotels

Parent Company


Year Started


Started by

Jamsetji Tata 


•      Taj 

•      Vivanta

•      Ginger

•      SeleQtions

•      The Gateway

Number of Hotels

200 PLUS

Countries of operation


Head Quarter

Mumbai, Maharashtra

Current President/CEO

Mr. Puneet Chhatwal

USP ( If any)

Tajness. You can feel with your eyes closed

Few Properties (Examples)

•        The Taj Mahal Palace Mumbai 

•        Taj Exotica Goa 

•        Taj Mahal Palace, Jaipur

•        Rambagh Palace, Jaipur

•        Taj 51 Buckingham Gate Suites and Residences, London


  • Started by Jamsetji.
  • The company got started in the year 1899 under the name of Indian Hotel Company Ltd.
  • The first property by IHCL was open in the year 1903 at Mumbai by the name of “The Taj Mahal Palace”. The first chain of Luxury Hotels in India

Source: (

EIH Ltd (Oberoi Hotels & Resort)

EIH Associated Hotels Limited

EIH Limited is a Public Limited Listed Company incorporated under the Indian Companies Act, 1913 and existing under the Companies Act, 1956 and the Companies Act, 2013. It has its Registered Office at 4, Mango Lane, Kolkata – 700 001, West Bengal and Corporate Office at 7, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi – 110 054.

Hotel Name

Oberoi Hotels & Resort

Parent Company

EIH ltd

Year Started

1934 ( First Property – The ClarkesHotel, Shimla)

Company Started- 1949

Started by

Rai Bahadur Mohan Singh Oberoi


Oberoi Hotels ( Luxury)

Trident Hotels ( 5star) Maidens Hotel

Number of Hotels

30 plus

Countries of operation


Head Quarter

Registered office – Kolkata, West Bengal

Corporate Office – New Delhi

Current President/CEO

Mr. P R S Oberoi

Tag Line

Heart. Felt

Few Properties (Examples)

The Oberoi, New Delhi

The Oberoi, Mumbai

The Oberoi Grand, Kolkata

The Oberoi Zahra river Cruise, Nile River

The Oberoi, Vrinda River Cruise, Kerala


  • Rai Bahadur Mohan Singh Oberoi was born on 15th august 1898 at Rawalpindi, now in Pakistan.
  • He got a job as a clerk at a hotel called Cecil Hotel, Shimla which is at present known as The Oberoi Cecil, Shimla in the year 1922.
  • Clarkes Hotel, Shimla was the first hotel which was purchased by Mr. Rai Bahadur Mohan Singh Oberoi.
  • Cecil, Shimla was purchased later.
  • Formerly known as East India Hotels, the name was changed to EIH on November 1, 1996.
  • In January 1997, the company forayed into the overseas market by opening a luxury resort –– The Oberoi Lombok –– in Indonesia. Later in November 2003, the company started Motor Vessel Vrinda, a luxury cruiser in Kerala.

        Source: (EIH ltd, 2020)

ITDC (Indian Tourism Development Corporation)

India Tourism Development Corporation

Hotel Name

Ashok Group of Hotels

Parent Company


Year Started

October 1966

Started by

Government of India


Ashok Group of Hotels

Ashok International Trade

Ashok Travel & Tours

Ashok Consultancy

Ashok Institute of Hospitality & Tourism


Ashok Events

Ashok Catering

Number of Hotels


Countries of operation


Head Quarter

New Delhi

Current President/CEO

G Kamala Vardhana Rao

USP ( If any)

A government of India Undertaking 

Few Properties (Examples)

•      The Ashok, New Delhi

•      Hotel Samrat, New Delhi

•      Kalinga Hotel, Bhubaneswar

•      Pondicherry Ashok


ITDC came into existence in October 1966 and has been the prime mover in the progressive development, promotion, and expansion of tourism in the country. Broadly, the main objectives of the Corporation are:

  • To construct, take over and manage existing hotels and market hotels, Beach Resorts, Traveller’s Lodges/Restaurants;
  • To provide transport, entertainment, shopping, and conventional services;
  • To produce, distribute, tourist publicity material;
  • To render consultancy-cum-managerial services in India and abroad;
  • To carry on the business as Full-Fledged Money Changers (FFMC), restricted money changers, etc;
  • To provide innovating, dependable, and value for money solutions to the needs of tourism development and engineering industry including providing consultancy and project implementation.

The Corporation is running hotels, restaurants at various places for tourists, besides providing transport facilities. In addition, the Corporation is engaged in the production, distribution, and sale of tourist publicity literature and providing entertainment and duty-free shopping facilities to the tourists. The Corporation has diversified into new avenues/innovative services like Full-Fledged Money Changer (FFMC) services, engineering related consultancy services, etc. The Ashok Institute of Hospitality & Tourism Management of the Corporation imparts training and education in the field of tourism and hospitality.

Presently, ITDC has a network of four Ashok Group of Hotels, one Joint Venture Hotels, 1 Restaurant, 12 Transport Units, and 13 Duty-Free Shops at Seaports and one Sound & Light Shows.

Besides, ITDC is also managing catering services at Western Court, Vigyan Bhawan, and Hyderabad House.

Source: (ITDC, 2020)

Apeejay Surrendra Park Hotels (The Park Hotels)

the park
Apeejay Surrendra Park Hotels

Hotel Name

The Park Hotels

Parent Company

Apeejay Surrendra Group

Year Started


Started by

Late Surrendra Paul


•      Zone by The Park

•      The Park Hotels

•      The Park Collection

Number of Hotels


Countries of operation


Head Quarter


Current President/CEO

Priya Paul

Tag Line

“ Anything but ordinary”

Few Properties (Examples)

•      The Park, New Delhi

•      The Park Kolkata

•      The Park Bangalore

Apeejay is one of India’s oldest and largest business conglomerates. The Group’s businesses are spread over Tea (Plantations & FMCG brands); Shipping; Hospitality; Real Estate (Commercial & Business Centres); Retail brands (Bookstores & Tea Rooms); Marine Cluster; Logistics Parks and Knowledge Parks.

Source:  (Apeejay Group, 2020)

The Leela Palaces Hotels & Resorts (The Leela)

hotel photo
The Leela Palaces Hotels & Resorts

The Leela story begins with its founder Late Capt. CP Krishnan Nair who at the age of 65 years when most people begin to think of retiring he started to build The Leela Palaces, Hotels, and Resorts which today form one of the biggest and most celebrated indigenous group of hotels in India. and a deep hunger that fuelled his ambitions.

The Leela Mumbai opens in 1986

When actively scouting for land in Mumbai to construct his first hotel, he and his wife stumbled upon a vast tract of 11 acres situated close to the international airport. There was no other commercial establishment around it, except for a taxi stand that catered to travelers arriving at the airport.

The Mahatma Mandir Convention and Exhibition Centre by The Leela

Mahatma Mandir Convention and Exhibition Centre by The Leela, Gandhinagar is located in close proximity to the famous Dandi Kutir and well-connected to UNESCO’s World Heritage City of Ahmedabad.

Hotel Name

The Leela

Parent Company

The Leela Group

Year Started


Started by

CP Krishnan Nair


•      The Leela Palaces

•      The Leela

•      The Leela Ambience

Number of Hotels


Countries of operation


Head Quarter



Anuraag Bhatnagar

Tag Line


Few Properties (Examples)

The Leela Palace, Bengaluru

The Leela Palace, Chennai The Leela, Mumbai


Source:  (Leela Hotels, 2020)

Types of Food and Beverages Operation

Primary catering Operation – The organizations under this category primary business is concerned with the provision of providing food and beverages to customers/guests. Their main business is related to the production and service of food and beverages. Example Restaurants, Take away, Bar, etc.

Secondary Catering Operation – The organization in which the provision for food and beverages service is not the primary activity, but it’s a secondary business to facilitate and provide comfort to its, staff and guests. An example is Transport Catering, Institutional Catering, Industrial catering, etc.

Classification based on Profit Motive

Catering organizations are classified on the basis of the Profit motive of the organization.

Commercial catering Operation

  • Residential Catering
  • Non-Residential Catering

Welfare Catering Operation

Commercial Catering Operation is those operations whose objective is to make a profit by selling food and beverages and providing services. Examples of commercial catering operations are as follows: Restaurants, Bar, Food and Beverage operations of Hotels, Standalone Restaurants, Pubs, Coffee shop, Transport catering, etc.

Commercial Catering is further classifying into two types

  • Residential catering – Food and beverage services provided at Hotels, Resorts, Inns, etc. This organization basically provides accommodation facilities to the guest along with food and beverages services.
  • Non Residential catering – Food and Beverages service provided at Standalone Restaurants, Pubs, Bar, Fast Food outlets, and so on. These organizations just prove guests with food and beverages services, no accommodation facilities are available.

Welfare catering operations are those catering operations which provide food and beverage service at no profit and no loss basis to people. These types of catering operations are primarily run by government organizations, religious trust, and management, and private companies as a part of their corporate social responsibilities and staff welfare. Examples are Institutional catering, Military catering/garrison Catering, Catering at Prison, Hospital Catering, etc.

Captive market/customers

The customers do not have a choice where to eat and have to avail services provided by a particular catering outlet. For example, residential school children, college students staying in hostels, hospital patients, people staying in old age homes, prisoners and industrial workers

Non-captive market/customers

The customers have a choice where to eat. The type of restaurant chosen may be a fine dining restaurant of a deluxe hotel, stand-alone restaurant, coffee shop, fast food outlet, specialty restaurant, or a popular restaurant depending on the following:

  • Reason for dining- Birthday party, Valentine’s Day, Wedding anniversary, or Business meeting
  • Time available to eat- Some customers have more time to spend in a restaurant while others have very little time, which influences their decision on the selection of the type of eatery, Executive class clients need executive lunch during lunch hours as they have less time to eat.

Semi-captive market/customers

The customers have a limited choice of where to eat. In such a market, the customers have a choice before selecting the food and beverages. Once the choice is made, the customers have no choice but to be content with what is on offer. The examples include the following:

  • Passengers traveling by train may take food prepared in the pantry car; from food outlets at railway stations or wait till the destination is reached.
  • Those who travel by car on the highway have a limited choice of taking food from any of the outlets located on the highway. Those who wish to travel by air have a choice of selecting the airlines and have a choice between vegetarian and non-vegetarian meals. Once these choices are made, they have to take what is offered.

Railway Catering

Catering services provided on trains and railway stations are termed railway catering.

In India, the organization responsible for railway catering is IRCTC, which is an autonomous body under the Ministry of Railways.

railway catering hotel manament study eshopitalitystudy

IRCTC is the body that is responsible for the execution of catering services at railways. But apart from catering services IRCTC is also responsible for ticket booking facilities, water treatment, and packing and tourism promotion.

Railway catering is basically divided into two parts. One segment deals with providing food and beverages services to the people who have boarded trains traveling to its destination. By proving Tea/Coffee, snacks, breakfast, lunch, Dinner on their seat or at pantry buffet.

Another segment of railway catering deals with the static catering business, it means the food and beverages service facilities provided at railway platforms and railway stations in a form of Food plazas, fast food units, refreshment rooms, Jan Ahaar Kendra, cell kitchen, and base kitchen to provide packed meals.

Source 🙁IRCTC, 2020)

Airline catering

Airline catering is the catering services which is provided to onboard services passengers on airlines. Like other modes of catering services, there is no provision to cook food onboard flight. Thus, inflight catering foods are cooked at the base kitchen at the airport or any hotel within which the airline has a tie-up and then these cooked foods are packed properly to get served to the passengers during their flight.

The first airline meals were served by Handley Page Transport, an airline company founded in 1919, to serve the London–Paris route in October of that year. Passengers could choose from a selection of sandwiches and fruits.

The menu planning for the airline catering differs from country to country, as it has the local influence of both the source from where the flight takes off and the destination for which it is scheduled.

The leading flight catering agencies in India are as follows:

Taj Sats Air Catering – It started in the year 1976, Taj SATS is the market leader in Airline catering and serves over 65,000 meals daily to over 40 domestic and international airlines. It is owned by IHCL.

It caters to various clients like

  • Air Inda
  • Go Air
  • Spice Jet
  • Vistara
  • Indigo and many more can be checked for more details. 

Source: (TajSATS, 2020)


Catering Private Limited is an airline food catering company, established in 2002. Skygourmet cater to leading domestic and international airlines along with institutional segment.

Gate group is a market leader in its industry and partner with over 250 airline customers with a portfolio of comprehensive above-the-wing offerings: Catering and Hospitality Solutions, Aircraft Provisioning and Logistics as well as in-flight Solutions. They operate in 35 countries on five continents.

Operating locations in India:

Mumbai, New Delhi, Hyderabad, Goa, Pune, Ahmedabad

Source: (skyGourmet, 2020)

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