Grouping hotels based on various criteria is known as classification.
Hotel classification serves the following purpose:
- Lends uniformity in services and sets general standards of a hotel
- Provide an idea regarding the range and type of hotels available within a geographical location
- Acts as a measure of control over hotels with respect to the quality of services offered in each category.
- Helps tourist select a hotel that meets their requirement.
CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF
- Location and clientele
- Ownership basis
- Degree of service offered
ACCORDING TO SIZE
- SMALL SIZED HOTEL: less than 100 rooms
- MEDIUM-SIZED HOTEL: between 100 to 299 rooms
- LARGE SIZED HOTEL: between 300 to 599 rooms
- VER LARGE HOTEL: between 600 to 999 rooms
- MEGA: more than 1000 rooms
ACCORDING TO LOCATION AND CLIENTELE
- DOWNTOWN OR COMMERCIAL HOTEL
Location: the heart of the city / commercial area or busy business area.
Clientele: mostly businessman.
Facility: modern facilities like 24 hr coffee shop, room service, business center, travel desk.
Avg. duration of stay: 3 to 7 days.
- TRANSIT HOTEL
Location: near the port of entry like bus stand, railway station, airport, seaport.
Clientele: mostly people who are traveling, layover passengers, tourists, misconnection passengers.
Facility: moderate to modern facilities.
Avg. duration of stay: few hours too few days.
- RESORT HOTEL
Location: places with natural beauty like hill stations, sea beaches, forests, etc.
Clientele: mostly holidaymakers and tourists.
Facility: moderate to modern.
Avg. duration of stay: a week too few months.
- MOTEL OR MOTOR HOTEL OR FREEWAY HOTEL
Location: on highways.
Clientele: motorist, a tourist traveling by road.
Facility: moderate to modern facilities.
Special features: parking space against each room, Refueling station, Garage facility, Swimming pool.
Avg. duration of stay: mostly overnight
- SUBURBAN HOTEL
Location: Outskirts of the city or suburb.
Clientele: who have to stay for a longer duration, away from the hustle and bustle of the city.
Facility: moderate, budgeted.
Avg. duration of stay: longer duration, months.
Location: lodging properties that float on the surface of the water.
ACCORDING TO STAR CLASSIFICATION/ STANDARD CLASSIFICATION
The Star denotes the standards of the hotel. Department of tourism, govt. of India is responsible for the star gradation. An autonomous body (a committee) is responsible for the star gradation of hotels known as the Hotel and Restaurant Approval Classification Committee (HRACC), formed by the Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India. After receiving the application form from the hotel HRACC visits the hotel, checks the standards, and grades the hotel. The Department of Tourism prescribes the facilities which are to be provided in various star category hotels. The term for Star Gradation is for two years. The six grades of the star are 5*Deluxe, 5*, 4*, 3*, 2*, and 1*. The categories of various star hotels have some criteria or facilities, which are called END.
E – Essentials (have to have)
N – Necessities (should have)
D – Desirables (may or may not have)
Following are the members of HRACC:
- Secretary Tourism, Govt. Of India
- Regional Director of Tourism, Govt. Of India
- One representative from the Federation of Hotels and Restaurants Association of India (FHRAI), who is generally the Secretary of the respective zone (of the four zones).
- One representative of the Travel Agents Association of India (TAAI), who is generally the Secretary of the concerned region.
- Director of Tourism of the state concerned
- The principal of the regional Hotel Management Institute.
(If any of the six members is absent on the day of the visit, they are permitted to send their own representatives)
HOTEL STAR RATING GUIDE
Typically small hotels , located near affordable attractions, with basic facilities, with a family atmosphere. Limited range and simple facilities and meals. Acceptable standards of maintenance, cleanliness, and comfort.
Economy hotel, small to medium size hotel, located near the moderately priced attraction. Guest can expect little more than a one-star, like a comfortable well-equipped room with an attached bath, professional staff.
Moderate hotel, spacious accommodation, well-equipped room, and decorated lobbies, located near business areas, moderate to high priced attractions, usually have a medium-size restaurant that serves breakfast through dinner. Facilities such as direct-dial phones, toiletries, Room service, and pool are often provided.
First-class hotel, large formal hotel, located near major attractions, above-average service levels, more than one restaurant, 24 hrs room service, laundry, valet parking, travel desk, wellness center, pool, top-quality room décor.
superior hotel, high level of accommodation and service, large property, hotel lobby and rooms with stylish furnishing and linen, all modern and high-end facilities and amenities, at least three restaurants, 24 hrs room service, concierge to assist you 24hrs.
FIVE STAR DELUXE
Highest level of accommodation and service, this hotel provides all 5-star facilities like ultimate decor and a high degree of personal service like butler service.
A recent addition to the hotel industry in the country, heritage hotels are properties set in small forts, palaces, or Havelis. In a heritage hotel, a visitor is offered rooms that have their own history, is served traditional cuisine, is entertained by folk artists, gets a glimpse into the heritage of the region. According to the ministry of tourism, the heritage hotels are further subdivided as follows:
Heritage – built between 1935 and 1950
Heritage classic – built between 1920 and 1935
Heritage grand – built prior to 1920
- PROPRIETARY OWNERSHIP / INDEPENDENT HOTEL: owners’ hotel
Proprietary ownership is the direct ownership of one or more properties by a person or company. The family owns small lodging properties are owned by major international hotel companies. No affiliations or contracts with other property, No tie-up with other hotels. The owner has independent control Profit goes to the owner. Quickly respond to market changes. Work with limited finances
- MANAGEMENT CONTRACTED HOTELS: management by others Properties owned by individuals or partners, operated by an external professional organization for a management fee.
Adv. – international recognitions, operating systems, training program, marketing, international expertise, profitable operations, advertisement, reservation system, staff.
- CHAIN HOTEL: a group of hotels that are owned or managed by one company is called a chain hotel.
Adv.: Large central organization providing central reservation system, management aids, financial strength, expertise, manpower, specialties, promotions
- FRANCHISE HOTELS/ AFFILIATED:
It is the authorization given by a company to another company or individual to sell its unique products and services and use its trademark according to the guidelines given by the former, for a specified time and at a specified place.
Franchise owner (franchisor) grant another hotel( franchisee) the right use its methods & system, technical services, marketing trademark, signs etc. for fees.
Adv.- Opening assistance- architectural, interior designs, Systems and procedure, Staff training, Financial, assistance, Advertising, and global marketing, Central reservation, Central purchase.
- REFERRAL CHAIN:
A referral chain is made up of independently owned and operated hotels and provides shared advertisement, joint reservation system, and standardized quality. Virtually there is no shared management or financial functions
- TIME SHARE / VACATION OWNERSHIP/ HOLIDAY OWNERSHIP:
Each room is owned by several people for different time periods. Each owner gets a stay of a specific period for a number of years.
A one-time purchase is made by paying the purchase price & payment a yearly maintenance fee.
Generally located at dream sites like beaches, hills, waterfall, etc.
Adv.- long-term accommodation, comfort homes, economical, good location, international exchange possible.
- CONDOMINIUM: Joint ownership of a complex.
Type of accommodation where the owner of a room or an apartment in a complex, of several such accommodations, furnishes it and informs the management of the times when he will be using it. He permits to rent out the apartments at other times and the rent goes to the owner. The owner pays the monthly maintenance fee.
DEGREE OF SERVICE OFFERED
- UPMARKET/ LUXURY/ WORLD CLASS SERVICEHOTELS
Targeting the affluent segment of society, hotels in the up-market category offer world-class products with personalized service of the highest standards. The emphasis is on excellence and class. This hotel provides upscale restaurants and lounges, exquisite décor, concierge service, abundant amenities.
- MID MARKET/ MIDSEGMENT SERVICE HOTELS
These hotels offer modest services without the frill and personalized attention of luxury hotels, and appeal to the largest segment of travelers. they offer services such as room service, round-the-clock coffee shop, pick up drop, multi-cuisine restaurant, and bar.
- BUDGET OR ECONOMY HOTELS OR LIMITED SERVICE
Focus on meeting the most basic needs of guests by providing clean, comfortable, and inexpensive rooms. Hotels have clean and comfortable guest rooms, a coffee shop, a multi cuisine restaurant, in-room telephone and channeled music and movies, a swimming pool, health club.
CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF CLIENTELE:
- BUSINESS OR COMMERCIAL HOTEL: cater to the business traveller, generally situated in the city Centre.
- TRANSIENT HOTEL: cater to the needs of people who are on the move and need a stopover en route their journey, situated in close proximity of ports of entry.
- RESIDENTIAL HOTEL: cater to the guest who stays for a long duration.
- CASINO HOTEL: casino hotels provide gambling facilities.
- CONFERENCE HOTEL: hotel cater and organize a conference
- CONVENTION HOTEL: who organize conventions and cater to the guest who comes to attend the convention.
- SANATORIA: a hotel which has a health club and spa, and caters to the people who came to these spas for treatment.
CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF DURATION OF GUEST STAY
- COMMERCIAL HOTEL: duration of stay is short, usually 1-7 days
- TRANSIENT HOTEL: duration of stay from few hours to 1 day
- SEMI RESIDENTIAL HOTEL: duration of stay range from few weeks to some months
- RESIDENTIAL / APARTMENT HOTEL: duration of stay range from months to few years
- EXTENDED STAY HOTEL: duration of stay few days to weeks.
CITY CENTER HOTEL:
By virtue of their location, meet the needs of the traveling public for business or leisure reasons. These hotels could be the luxury, business, economy, or residential.
Hotel located near the airport, clientele mainly consists of travelers arriving and departing from the airport. Facilities include 24 hrs coffee shop and room service.
Serves guests who want to gamble and have a casino. Not very popular in India. In addition to gaming, multi-cuisine restaurants, spa, dance club, etc are also available.
The hotel provides facilities and meets the needs of groups attending and holding conventions and conferences. Have a lot of banquet area, meeting rooms in and around the hotel complex. Facilities include 24 hrs room service, in-house laundry, travel desk, airport shuttles twin-bedded rooms.
The apartment building also used as a residential hotel. Purchase of hotel entitles full service of hotel, when not occupied, it is added in the hotel pool to earn revenue.
A small, expensive, informal atmosphere, gives personal service, all outlet has a different theme. All rooms have different themes and decorations.
AUBERGE, GASTHOF, HERBERGE:
Small units like an inn provide a complimentary bar, restaurant, and bedroom for travelers. Emphasis is given on eating and drinking facilities.
BOARDING HOUSE/ PENSION:
Accommodation usually with meals for a definite period of time commonly for a week or more. Also known as a guest house or pension.
The hotel provides accommodation with other facilities like recreation, sports facilities, individual kitchen, green zone, library, nursery, television room, landscaping.
Indian concept, maharajas palaces are converted into hotels, gives old heritage, architecture, modern facilities in traditional style, and traditional way of service.
Found at spas and health resorts. Rooms equipped with sauna, Jacuzzi. Meals are personalized diet regimes of the guest. The hotel has a dietician, doctors, and medical arrangements.
OTHER TYPES OF ACCOMMODATION / SUPPLEMENTARY ACCOMMODATION
Supplementary Accommodation can be described as premises which offer accommodation but not the extra services of a hotel. It plays a very important role in the total available tourist accommodation in the country. It caters to both international and domestic tourist traffic. The main distinguishing features are:
- The standard of comfort is moderate to that of a hotel.
- They sell accommodation at a much lower price.
- They have an informal atmosphere.
Usually located on the trekking routes. Prove parking space, common toilets, tents, campfire, and other basic services.
Have dormitory-style accommodation, common toilets, dining areas, simple food, fixed menu, and gym and sports area
Guest pays and stays with the owner for a longer duration, food, and accommodation provided.
Also known as Dak Bungalows, Circuit houses, Forest lodges, and PWD houses. Set in British raj for different reasons. Have a local person as the caretaker who cooks, cleans, assist and provide security. Initially, Dak bungalows were used for postal and courier service, circuit house for higher-ranked officers, forest house for forestry officials, and PWD house for road and electricity department officials.
Hotels built on the water surface, do not move, docked at ports. Provide exclusive and exotic atmosphere.
Floating hotels takes passengers from one place to another. Provide food and accommodation.
Accommodation on wheels is known as Rotels. Different types of Rotels are caravans, palace on wheels, and new sleeper buses.
Traditional lodges in Europe for Christian pilgrims to Jerusalem. Provide meditation centers & prayer rooms, food, etc. in India we find DHARMSHALA.
Small place which provides basic boarding and lodging services.
A room with several beds toilets is at end of the corridor.
Small accommodation, affiliated to companies meant for the company people to go and stay.