A successful design depends not only on what the building looks like and the effect that it creates on the user but also on practical considerations. Since each hotel type targets different kinds of clientele, its planning requirement will vary by the location selected, size, image, space standards,, and other characteristics.
Note: The layout of the guest might differ from room to room and from hotel to hotel. Layout entirely depends on the availability of space.
Design considerations also vary by type. For example, resort hotels require larger rooms, closets, and drawer space than downtown hotels. Roadside motels may require larger restaurants than other hotels for peak periods, such as breakfast, but no room service. Casinos require a glittering design, while conference center decor needs to be understated.
Convention hotels require closeness to airports, while vacation villages and ski lodges do not. Airport hotels and motels need high visibility signages, while country inns, vacation villages seek seclusion. Super luxury hotels must be small to create an intimate atmosphere, while luxury hotels must be large enough to justify a large number of restaurants, lounges, and banquet rooms required by first-class or five star international standards.
During the architectural planning of the room structure, the designer should establish the following:
- The type of clientele – the market mix. And the room mix. This influences the hotel’s ability to let out 100% of its rooms and to generate maximum revenue. The transient business person needs single accommodation; convention markets need twin beds and tourist market rooms to sleep for two or more
- The type of furnishing can be determined by analyzing the guestroom functions – sleeping, relaxing, working, entertaining, and
- Flexibility to accommodate different types of clientele. For example, a studio room attached to a double room can be sold as a single unit or as two
- Durability – This is particularly important as guests are seldom as careful about furniture or furnishings as in their homes.
- Decor which pleases a large section of the
- To combine function and comfort in a design within realistic budgets; use fewer individual pieces of furniture.
- Space utilization: Since space is at a premium, scale furniture slightly smaller to give the perception of larger and more luxurious rooms. Queen size beds instead of king size. Lounge chairs designed to be used at the work surface eliminate the straight desk chair. Mirrors enlarge space visually. Wall-mounted bedside lamps permit a smaller bedside table. Convertible sofa or bed. Adequate luggage/ clothes space will reduce the clutter of clothes throughout the room. Armoire – combining drawer space with a television cabinet and possibly a pull-out writing ledger in a single unit eliminates the need for two or three separate
10. In the bathroom designs should expand the countertop mirror and lighting as much as possible and compartmentalize the tub/WC
- Security both of guests and staff. For example, the reception counter must be positioned in such a way that the front desk staff can keep an eye on all guests entering and leaving the hotel.
- Meeting fire and safety
- Energy conservation – Use of sensors to switch off electric supply automatically, when the guest leaves the
- The environment is friendly. For example recycling of water for horticulture and
The guest room must be designed around the needs of the guests. For this, one must keep the activities of the guests in mind whilst allotting space, furniture, fittings, lighting, and other components. Designing a guest room is rather complex since the designer has no single person to design but a variety of people who have different tastes, likes, and backgrounds.
The minimum space requirement for various types of rooms in the five-star category is as follows:
Single Bed Room: 180 sq. ft.
Double Bed Room: 200 sq. ft.
Twin Bed Room: 220 sq. ft.
Bathroom with bathtub: 48 sq. ft.
Bathroom with bathtub and shower: 80 sq. ft.
Beds: Beds usually consist of a headboard but no footboard. Headboard should be 12″ inches above the mattress height and 1″ thickness. Castors are provided so that the beds can be moved for cleaning; but should not move when the guest is in it! Mattress can be of spring, foam rubber, cotton. Pillows can be filled with foam rubber, kapok or feathers.
Average sizes of beds:
Single – 6’6″ length, 3′ width, 1’3″ height.
Double – 6’6″ length, 5′ width, 1’3″ height. Mattress may be 4″ to 6″ in height.
Bedside table/console: houses the telephone, channel music, controls for the room lighting, TV, and ventilation. It should have ample space to place guest’s personal items such as glasses, books etc. The top of the table should be in line with the top of the mattress. Width 15 to 24″. Height 24-30″.
Entrance: Doors are usually 76-90 cms (3 ft) wide, usually simple in design (for ease of maintenance). Room numbers are fixed to identify the rooms. Locks are designed for the security and privacy of the guest at the same time, they can be opened by the management in case of emergency. Door locks are usually self-locking when shut. A metal shield may be provided under the keyhole to prevent the key tag from scratching the door. Computerized card keys are much more secure. A safety chain and a peephole may be provided inside the door for additional security. A doorstop is necessary to prevent the wall from being marked. Sometimes a long mirror is fitted on the back of the door.
Vestibule: The main switch is fitted near the entrance. The wardrobe and the luggage rack are usually placed here.
Bedside lamps may be fitted onto the wall to save space. If placed on the table, it must be screwed onto the table to prevent accidents, thefts.
Dressing table/ Desk: Dimensions – 30″ height, 21″depth. Stool or chair – 18″ height. Dressing tables are provided with drawers. Drawers should preferably have recessed grooves to make hardware unnecessary; should slide out smoothly; laminated to avoid the use of lining papers. The table itself could be laminated for durability and ease of maintenance; must have rounded corners to prevent accidents. The dresser mirror should be positioned in such a way that the guest can view the mirror while sitting down. Adequate lighting must be provided to light up the face.
Luggage racks : Dimensions – length 30 -36″; depth 1’9″; height 18-24″. Luggage racks may be cantilevered or may stand on legs. It should be sturdy enough to take the weight of suitcases and people sitting on it. If made of wood, strips of rubber or brass studs can prevent the surface from getting marked. Drawers under the rack can add to the storage space.
Wardrobe: Dimensions – depth 2′ ( deep enough to accommodate the hanger) Height 6′ ( 3″ clearance must be given above the rod, to remove hangers). It should be high enough to hang long dresses without creasing them. In-resort hotels, larger wardrobes may be necessary. The door of the wardrobe can be of the sliding type to save space. It must preferably be slatted for adequate ventilation. A door may be avoided in motels. Light can be provided in the wardrobe which can be operated by a door switch. However, the light must not damage the clothes. Drawers may be provided; but avoidable since guests normally tend to forget things in there. Hangers can be of the theft-proof type.
Seating: One or two armchairs with a two-seater sofa and a coffee table are usually provided near the window. a floor standing lamp may also be provided
Television: is usually positioned in such a way that it can be viewed both from the bed and the seating area. It is normally placed on a swivel stand. Remote control is advisable. The TV can also double up as a VDU with a keyboard catering for electronic shopping, settlement of guest accounts from the room, guest information system, etc.
Windows: should as far as possible be of standard size as this avoids the need for many spare sets of curtains and sorting curtains of different lengths. The ease with which windows can be cleaned both from the inside, as well as the outside, should be given due consideration. Windows may be double glazed to provide sound and heat insulation.
Soft furnishing: like drapery and upholstery must be durable, easy to maintain, comfortable, enhance the appearance of the room, and help in acoustics. In all rooms, a full-length mirror may be fixed to some convenient place on the wall or even fixed to the inside of the door.
Accessories: Waste bins, ashtrays, wall pictures, foliage, sometimes even curios in suites.
Ceiling, wall, floor: Acoustical properties, safety, appearance, and insulation are the factors that are considered when choosing walls, floors, and ceilings. There are a wide variety of ceiling surfaces and wall coverings available in the market today. Paint is by far the most common. Vinyl wood paneling, wallpaper, tiles are some other options. Skirting boards, while essential to prevent wall damage, should not present a ledge which needs dusting; they may be slightly recessed or cove. Carpets are the most common floor covering and they are available in different varieties. Hotels close to sandy beaches should preferably avoid carpets as the sand brought in can pose a problem. Tiles, stones, vinyl are other options.
A central air conditioning system or heating system is normally provided and they should be regulated from the bedside also.
Fire detectors and alarms must be provided in rooms.
Designing for the Disabled:
- Easy access is very important; cars carrying disabled persons should be able to stop just outside the main entrance. Reserved parking should be provided for the disabled
- Doors should be wide enough for the wheelchairs to pass through, and open automatically or by pressing a conveniently located switch or by a gentle
- A section of the Reception counter should be dropped down so that a person on the wheelchair can easily check
- Where there is a change of floor levels, a ramp must be
- Hand rails should be designed to help warn the blind and those with poor vision of approaching corners and the start and end of stairs. Elevator floor switches must be easily accessible from a
- Signs should be easy to read with large lettering against a contrasting background. Wherever possible warning signals should be visible as well as audible, for example strobe light alarms for the deaf and a vibrator to alert them when they are Dining room tables should be high enough for the person to not have to be transferred from a wheelchair.
- Room door should have an additional peephole at the wheelchair
- Wardrobe Hanger rod should be flexible enough to be brought down; within easy reach from a
- The room and the bathroom must be spacious enough for a person to move around in a wheel
- The bathroom door must be wide enough and should be devoid of a threshold.
- A shower cubicle with a stool is preferable to a tub. Handrails and grab bars should be provided wherever necessary. `Drop-down’ arm supports can also be provided on approach side of the
- The vanitory unit may have to be adjusted to the height of the wheelchair.
- Fire exit plans and room service menu cards should also be provided in
- Special bed head unit with light switches, message signal, door release for automatic opening of door, flashing fire alarm signal and bed frame vibrator for the hard of
- Sharp corners and edges should be
Women traveling alone will appreciate rooms near lifts. Since they are more concerned with safety, a good locking system is a must. Added amenities like a good flexible mirror to view the back as well, adequate lighting for make- up, hair dryers etc. will be appreciate.