The chef is responsible for all kitchen operations, including ordering, supervision of all stations, and development of menu items. He or she also may be known as the chef de cuisine or executive chef. The sous chef is second in command, answers to the chef, may be responsible for scheduling, fills in for the chef, and assists the station chefs (or line cooks) as necessary. Small operations may not have a sous chef
One of the definitions of a business organization is an arrangement of people in job to accomplish the goals of the operation. Similarly, the organizational structure of the Kitchen staff will reflect the needs of the operation, the job functions, and the various goals. Food Production organization vary according to the needs of the enterprise’s design.
The classical (continental) organization of a Kitchen varies widely, bust commonly in such an organization a Chef de Cuisine (Exec. Chef) is in charge and a Sous Chef (under Chef) supervises the kitchen and the heads of the various departments or section (Chef de Parties). Under these Chefs are Assistant Cooks (Demi Chefs), Commis and other workers.
THE BASIS OF KITCHEN ORGANIZATION
The purpose of kitchen organization is to assign or allocate tasks so they can be done efficiently and properly and so all workers know what their responsibilities are. The way a kitchen is organized depends on several factors.
- The menu.
The kinds of dishes to be produced obviously determine the jobs that need to be done. The menu is, in fact, the basis of the entire operation. Because of its importance, we devote a whole chapter to a study of the menu.
- The type of establishment.
The major types of foodservice establishments are as follows:
- Institutional kitchens
Hospitals, nursing homes, and other health-care institutions
- Catering and banquet services
- Fast-food restaurants
- Carry-out or take-out food facilities
- Full-service restaurants
- The size of the operation (the number of customers and the volume of food served).
- The physical facilities, including the equipment in use.
Depending on the above factors the classical kitchen brigade can be fabricated as follows:
CHEF DE CUISINE (HEAD CHEF)
The Chef de Cuisine in the large establishment is much more a departmental manager than a working craftsman. He is selected for his organizing and executive abilities than for his culinary skill. Though it is obvious that he should have such skill and a large appreciation of fine cookery. His principal function is to plan, organize and supervise the work of the kitchen.
He prepares the menus for the management in accordance with the costing and catering policies laid down. He has full responsibility for staff, selection and policy or major responsibility for staff, selection and dismissal in conjunction with the personnel department.
He will also be concerned with the planning and equipment of his kitchen. Thus, the executive responsibilities for his Kitchen. Thus, the executive responsibilities of the Chef de Cuisine can be considered under the principal head of.
- Food and food costs (through menu planning & ordering)
- Kitchen Staff
- Kitchen plant and equipment
Under his control all three activities must be coordinated to produce goods efficiently and economically. His status is normally second only to the manager and he will expect complete control of his department.
In addition to the crafts skill and technical knowledge acquired because of apprenticeship, technical training and experience, the Chefs de Cuisine must additionally acquire managerial qualities and administrative knowledge particularly regarding the organization of work, control of staff, the efficient use of machinery, costing, and food control. He must be aware of modern development in manufacturing and processing food for his kitchen. Present trends indicate that the Chef must increasingly concern himself not only with cookery but with the quality of the food and art of food presentation. In the widest sense. This calls for a degree of the merchandising skill and on occasion showmanship. Hygiene is of top importance in the kitchen and there is hardly a better beginning than with the Chef’s own person.
A Chef de Cuisine must have knowledge of French, Current Affaires, commodities, and tools of his trade.
Sous Chef or under chef is the principal assistant of the Chef de Cuisine. In large establishments, the Sous Chef will have no sectional or partial responsibility but will aid the chef in his general administration and in supervising the work of preparing food and in overseeing its service at the (Pick up counter). Where a considerable kitchen operation is involved there may be more than one Sous Chef.
The Sous Chef acts as a Chef de Cuisine in the absence of the Chef. When the Chef de Cuisine is engaged at work within his office, i.e., occupied in Menu Planning, checking records figures, or in similar administrative routines, the Sous Chef directly supervises the practical kitchen activities.
The Sous chef directly supervises the food pick-up during meal service times and can make ad-hoc staff changes during the working day to relieve pressure.
In large establishments it is possible for there to be as many as four to six Sous Chefs, particularly it is so when separate kitchens are set up for say Grillroom, Restaurant, Banquet Service, specialty cuisines, etc.
DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF EXECUTIVE SOUS CHEF
- Supervises kitchen shift operations and ensures compliance with all Food & Beverage policies, standards, and procedures.
- Assists Executive Chef with all kitchen operations.
- Performs all duties of kitchen managers and associates, as necessary.
- Recognizes superior quality products, presentations, and flavor.
- Maintains purchasing, receiving, and food storage standards.
- Ensures compliance with food handling and sanitation standards.
- Calculates accurate theoretical and weighted food costs.
- Estimates daily production needs on a weekly basis and communicates production needs to kitchen personnel daily.
- Coordinates banquet production with Banquet Chef.
- Supports procedures for food & beverage portion and waste controls.
- Assists in maintaining associate cafeteria operation and food quality standards.
- Follows proper handling and right temperature of all food products.
- Knows and implements Taj Palace Hotel Hygiene Standards.
- Helps the Executive Chef Research and test new food products in conjunction with company initiatives.
- Assists the Executive Chef with maintaining all standard recipes.
- Participates in training the Restaurant and Catering staff on menu items including ingredients, preparation methods, and unique tastes.
- Operates and maintains all department equipment and reports malfunctions.
- Assists with an effective kitchen equipment repair and maintenance program.
- Orders associate uniforms according to budget and ensure uniforms are properly inventoried and maintained.
- Purchases appropriate supplies and manage inventories according to budget
- Reviews staffing levels to ensure that guest service, operational needs, and financial objectives are met.
- Interacts with guests/customers, community, Company representatives, vendors, and local education systems as needed.
- Trains associates in safety procedures and supervises their ability to follow loss prevention policies to prevent accidents and control costs.
CHEF DE PARTIE
Partie is a French word meaning “part (of a whole) or a section.” A Partie system is one in which an operation’s space equipment and jobs are divided up into sections. The Partie system for chefs evolved in the Escoffier era from an analysis of the tasks needed for production and then a grouping of those tasks to maximize production speed and efficiency. The original system lasted up to the 1930s and was designed primarily for large restaurants, especially those in major hotels providing extensive a la carte and table d’hôte menus in the classic French tradition. As the task of the professional kitchen came to involve serving more customers in more and different ways, its organization inevitably became more complex. Highly elaborate dishes required highly specialized experts rather than general chefs who must handle all types of cookery at once.
Chef de partie is a working cook in charge of a clearly defined section of activities within the kitchen. The Chef de Partie particularly of the sauce and Grade Manager may have the status and duties of a Sous Chef in addition to sectional responsibilities.
All the Chef de Parties may be regarded as supervisors or foremen of their sections as well as skilled craftsmen.
JOB DESCRIPTION OF DEMI CHEF DE PARTI
- Cooking and presentation as per the standardized recipes
- Allocation of work
- Checking mis-en-place on quality and quantity
- Control wastage
- Maintain quality
- Innovate new dishes
- Maintain discipline and grooming of staff
- To Maintain Hygiene and sanitation
- Portion control
- Storage of food and provisions
- Raw material quality check
- Allot duties to commis
- Control over production and wastage.
- Assist in implementing TBEM processes
- Adhering to HACCP
- Enabling and adherence to the principles and work practices detailed under the HACCP System in the department viz., Food Safety, Hygiene and Cleanliness, Health, Storage, etc as applicable to the area of your workplace.
CHEF GARDE MANGER
The Chef Grade Manger oversees the larder. The larder is not only a place where food is steamed but also a place where the raw materials of cookery are prepared and dressed.
In larger establishments, larder work may be broken into sections and in one or two instances, it is possible that the sub-sections may have the independence of the Chef Garde Manger, i.e., Boucherie might be directly controlled by the Chef De Cuisine or Sous Chef.
This is rarely true in smaller establishments, the sub-sections within the Grade Manger will both indicate the wide range of this Chef de Parties duties and explain why he enjoys a status in the Kitchen brigade comparable to that of the Chef Saucier.
The Chef Grade Manger is normally accommodated adjoining the main kitchen but will have its own cooking facilities. According to the size of the establishment, its sub-section too will be separate to a greater or smaller extent. This also incorporates Hors d’oeuvres section and a salad room, sometimes a fruit room where such items as melons, grapefruit, fruit salad, etc. are prepared. There is a great deal of work organization and careful distribution of work to be carried out. Chef Grade Manger caters to such dishes as those commonly found on a cold table and comprises not only of cold dishes and salads. Sandwiches are his responsibility except for the sale of the hot or toasted sandwiches such as club sandwiches (Chef Rotisseur). Mayonnaise, vinaigrette sauce, and other dressings and sauces for cold food are made by Chef Grade Manger. Various sections looked after by Chef Grade Manger are as follows:
JOB DESCRIPTION OF CHEF GARDE MANGER
- Performs all duties of Culinary and related kitchen area associates to train new associates and step in and assist during high demand times.
- Supervises daily shift operations and oversees production and preparation of culinary items.
- Opens and closes kitchen shifts and ensures completion of assigned duties.
- Maintains food handling and sanitation standards.
- Works with Restaurant and Banquet departments to coordinate service and timing of events and meals.
- Assists with developing menus and promotions.
- Operates all department equipment as necessary and reports malfunctions.
- Purchases appropriate supplies and manage food and supply inventories according to budget.
- Supervises staffing levels to ensure that guest service, operational needs, and financial objectives are met.
- Understands and implements Marriott’s 30 Point Safety Standards.
- Develops railroad-cleaning schedules for associates; ensures associates follow cleaning schedules and keep their work areas clean and sanitary.
- Ensures all associates have proper supplies, equipment, and uniforms.
- Communicates areas in need of attention to staff and follows up to ensure follow-through.
- Helps train associates in safety procedures and supervises their ability to execute departmental and hotel emergency procedures.
- Participates as needed in the investigation of associate accidents.
- Understands and complies with loss prevention policies and procedures.
BOUCHERIE (Butcher Shop)
Boucherie in hotel differs in many important regards from that of retail trade. It includes the dissecting of quarters of beef and carcasses of lamb etc. It will also include the dressing of meat either for joints such as contra filet or small cuts like noisette, cotelettes or tournedos etc.
CHACUTIER (Pork Butcher and Sauage maker)
Charcutier involves Pork butcher, the preparation of Pork products and sausage, etc. He is also responsible for the rendering and clarifying of dripping. Again, the extent to which the Charcutier work is separated from the staff of the Grade Manger depends on the volume of work.
Where there is an extremely large establishment, the Poulterer who is responsible for the plucking cleaning and dressing not only of the poultry, but game birds, hares and rabbits may be separated from the fish monger and the larder proper.
The hotel fish monger prepares fish not in the style of the tradesman, in retail trade for he must have the raw materials ready for the immediate attention of the appropriate Chef, either for the Chef Poissonnier or in some instances for cold dishes for Chef Grade Manger.
A wide range of products of sea, river and lake will normally come to him for treatment which includes skinning, filleting and portioning. Fish, such as eel, oysters, lobsters and herbs will demand his attention as well as the ordinary range of river, sea and shellfish.
HORD D’OEUVRIER (Hors d’ ocuvre cook)
Where work justifies it, the preparation of Hors d’ oeuvre of all kinds is organized separately. The dishes for this section can be great and involve the regular preparation of commodities e.g. preparation of dressings, varieties of vegetables salads (Potato, Russian), varieties of meat and fish dishes found on the Hors d’ oeuvries is often entrusted not only to a Chef Horss d’ oeuvrier and assistant of Chef Grade Manger but to semi-skilled hands, often women workers trained only in assembling prepared material and in decorating dishes.
CHEF DE NUIT
Night duty cook is a chef whose main duties are to take over when the main kitchen staff leave.A separate Chef de Nuit may be retained in the Grade Manger but normally one person suffices. Night duty cook does not necessarily remain on duty throughout te night but only until such time, the late meals have ceased.
The duties of Chef de Nuit are sometimes carried out by a Sous Chef. The Sous Chef doing this is present for the service of dinner but not lunch and is responsible for all the work when the normal brigade has gone off duty. This system is used in 75% of places where late service is given. Sous Chef must make sure that he has all the necessary facilities and that the correct mis-en-place is left by Chef de Partie before they go off duty.
CHEF POTAGER (Soup Cook)
The Chef’s importance within kitchen is also supported by the fact that the repertory of soups including consommé, cremes and veloutés, purees, broth’s bisques and many specialty and nation favouring essences and garnished in hundreds of ways, besides all basic stocks are prepared by him.
Chef potager can be supplied by other parties with some of the garnishes required. For example, he receives material not only from the Grade Manger but for consommé celestine, receive pancakes from the Chef Entremetier. He receives stocks from the Chef poisoner for fish and other ordinary tools, particularly producing vegetables of wide variety of shapes and sizes. Like all cooks, a cultivated palate is an importance requirement for adjustment.
CHEF SAUCIER (Sauce Cook)
He prepares all fundamental sauces i.e., Bechamel, tomato sauce, velouté. He prepares all light and heavy entrees for example vol-au-vent (light entrée). Heavy entrée (Steaks) i.e., meat, poultry and game dishes which are not roasted or grilled.
It is difficult to differentiate between the duties of Chef Saucier and that of Chef Rotisseur. The Saucier prepares the peolage stews braised, boiled, and saluted dishes which approximates a roasting process.
He is the senior Chef de Partie and normally takes over the responsibility of the Sous Chef when absent. He requires knowledge because his work covers an extensive variety of dishes and specialty sauces.
CHEF COMMUNAR (Staff/Cafeteria Cook)
The staff cook provides the meals for the employees who use the staff room for the wage-earning staff and includes uniformed and maintenance staff, chambermaids, waiters, lower grade clerical staff, etc. Catering of this nature should be influenced by nutritional factors.
The cooking and service of breakfast is commonly entrusted to a specialty cook whose range is limited o the needs of breakfast. He does not rank as a full Chef de Partie, but needs to be of good skill. He works alone with a Commis and parters. After the breakfast preparation he attaches himself to the roast section. Here he prepares mis-en-place and continues cooking roasts and grill for late service lunch when the Chef de Patie and staff go off.
The mis-en-place for breakfast including the boning and slicing of bacon and preparation for the various types of fish eaten at breakfast time, carried out in advance by a subordinate of Grade Manger and semi-skilled assistants in the patisserie. The breakfast cooks and helpers are left with the simple tasks of assembling and cooking breakfast dishes.
This is a very responsible section, Finest roast cooks are English as roasting has always been renowned in England as a specialization. Roasts are very popular. This partie is responsible for deep – frying of foods of all kinds, including fried potatoes and the Rotisseur may have an assistant le friturier (Frying cook) for the task.
Chef Rotisseur is responsible for savouries such as Welsh Rarebit and for Hot Sandwiches (Club Sandwich types). This corner is also occupied with the preparation of stock for gravies which accompany the roasts and other dishes.
Foods to be roasted cover a wide range of poultry, game, and meat include the baking or pies, the joints poultry and game to be cooked by the Rotisseur are given the basic preparatory treatment (plucking, preparation, etc.) for the oven in the larder by the butcher or poulterer. Sometimes commis from the roast corner may help the larder for clearing the trussing of the poultry of dissection trimming and trying of joints of butcher meat. The roast corner is in the main stove section and all the necessary cooking apparatus for roasting, for deep frying for finishing of savouries under the salamander are grouped together and make this section the hottest. Some dishes are identical basically, but different methods of handling are employed therefore they are sometimes done by Rotisseur and sometimes by the saucier.
In short, the duties of roast cook are:
- Responsible for roasting poultry and game feathered and furred.
- Responsible for all deep-fried dishes, Pommes Frites, Pont- Neuf, etc.
- Responsible for all deep-fried fish dishes.
- Mis-en-place e.g., if separate grilled Pommes pailles mut be prepared by Rotisseur. These are used as a garnish on certain grills.
- Savouries e.g., Oyster rolled in bacon grilled on a skewer, Welsh rarebit.
CHEF POISSONIER (Fish Cook)
The Chef Poissonier is responsible for the cooking, garnishing and sauce making for the fish courses with the exception of deep-fried fish, the grilled of fish possible by done by the grill cook.
Cleaning including scaling, skinning, fileting portioning, and bread crumbing are the responsibility of the Chefs Grade Manger. The subordinate engaged in egg and crumbing is called in French the Panadier.
This chef is responsible for the cooking, garnishing, sauce making and the dishing of fish. Fish featuring freshwater fish, sea water fish, shell like crab, crayfish, shrimps, lobster and mussels.
Oysters are ordinarily served either direct from fishmonger or a convenient cool place. If they are cooked, they are dished out direct from Chef Poissonier.
Methods of cooking fish include poaching, a’la menuiere, en poele and elaborate dressings are done by Chef Poissonier.
Veloute de poisson is a fundamental sauce produced only by Poissonier made froma roux and a fond de poisson. Poissonier is responsible for making stock and then veloute, the fish bones are supplied by the Grade Manger.
He stores the sauces properly which are made in advance as precautions against food poisonisng. The Reportoire of he fish dishes and their accompanying sauces requires great experience training and judgement from this Chef de Partie.
CHEF DE BANQUETS (Banquet Chef)
In large establishments separate arrangements may be provided if not for the complete cooking of banquet and function meals at least for their assembling and service. The Chef given responsibility for special service of banquet may be known as Chef de Banquets.
The Chef Patissier has a different status but certainly not less than the Chef Saucier and the Chef Garde Manger. The work of this department is normally separated from the main kitchen and is self-contained in the matter of cold stage, machinery, and equipment for making ices and with its own baking and cooking facilities.
Chef Patissier is responsible for all hot and cold sweets, lunches, dinners, and functions and for pastries served at teatime or other occasions. He is also responsible for the making of pastes like short and puffs pastry, frying batters, making noodles and Italian pasta for supply to other corners of the Kitchen.
Sorbets and water ice-like items are made in the pastry section. The service of ices and these sweets which are based upon ice cream are prepared and assembled in Patisserie. They include the sweet ‘omelet au surprise’ and ‘souffle surprise’, ‘peach melba’, ‘Poire Helene’, dipped fruits, etc.
The art of pastry includes work like colored sugars to make flower baskets and similar decorative center places, work with fondant and icing sugar, gum pastes, fashioning of praline into boxes, and decorative objects containing chocolates.
The work of the Patissier has always been highlighted by the beauty of the cold sweets, ices, and their accompaniments. Chef Patissier requires great skill, imagination, and experience. In bag establishments, semiskilled assistants will prepare fresh fruit salads for service not only at lunch and dinner but also at breakfast. The Chef Patissier is therefore like the Grade Manger, something like a Chef de Cuisine of a specialty kitchen and in addition to his own skills must coordinate and organize the work of a few subordinates.
BOULANGERS (Baker):- He is a baker working under Chef Patissier. He is responsible for all baked items bread rolls, loaves of bread, breakfast rolls like croissants, brioches, etc.
GLACIER: (He would be responsible for making various kinds of ices such as bombes, biscuits, glace and many varieties of ice cream. HE is one of the assistants of Chef Patissier.
Dependent on the Partie concerned the sectional Chef will be assisted by one or more trained cooks who have not yet reached full chef status. These assistants or commis should have completed their apprenticeship or training but will still be getting experience before taking full Partie responsibility. The first commis as the senior of the assistants is called, should be capable of taking charge, when the Chef de Partie is off, and as second in command takes a considerable responsibility under his chef.