Thorough knowledge of apparatus is important for fulfillment within the kitchen. Few foodservice operations rely upon nothing quite a variety and an oven, an assortment of pots and pans, and knives, and other hand tools. Modern technology continues to develop more and more specialized and technically advanced tools to scale back kitchen labor. Other items, especially hand tools, are simple and with no explanation but require much practice to develop good manual skills. This could sound sort of a harsh thanks to beginning a chapter, but the intent isn’t to intimidate you or scare you but to inspire a healthy respect for the importance of proper safety and operating procedures
POINTS TO BE KEPT IN MIND.
- Do not use any equipment unless you understand its operation.
- Do not touch or remove food from any reasonably equipment while it’s running, not even with a spoon or spatula.
- Use all guards and safety devices on equipment. Set slicing machines at zero (blade closed) when not in use.
- Unplug electric equipment before disassembling or cleaning.
- Make sure the switch is off before plugging in equipment.
- Wear properly fitting clothing and eat up apron strings to avoid getting them caught in machinery.
- Use equipment just for the aim intended.
- Stack pots and other equipment properly on pot racks so that they are stable and not going to fall.
The range remains the foremost important piece of cooking equipment within the kitchen, although many of its functions are condemned by other tools like steamers, steam kettles, tilting skillets, and ovens.
The oven and also the range top are the 2 workhorses of the standard kitchen, which is why they’re so often found within the same unit. Ovens are enclosed spaces within which food is heated, usually by hot air or, in some newer forms of ovens, by microwaves or infrared emission.
Conventional ovens operate just by heating air in an interior space. the foremost common ovens are a part of the range unit, although separate oven units or ovens as a part of a boiler unit are available. Stack ovens are units that incorporate individual shelves or decks arranged one above the opposite. Pans are placed directly on the oven deck instead of on wire shelves. Temperatures are adjustable for every deck.
Convection ovens contain fans that circulate the air and distribute the warmth rapidly throughout the inside. due to the forced air, foods cook more quickly at lower temperatures. Also, shelves may be placed closer together than in conventional ovens without blocking the warmth flow.
BROILERS AND SALAMANDERS
Broilers are sometimes called overhead broilers to avoid confusing them with grills.
Overhead broilers generate heat from above, and food items are placed on a grate beneath the warmth source. Broiling may be a favorite way of preparing steaks, chops, chicken, and plenty of other items. Some broilers are said to travel as high as 2,000°F (1,100°C) at the burner. Foods must be watched closely to avoid burning. Cooking temperature is adjusted\ by raising or lowering the grate that holds the food. Salamanders are small broilers used primarily for browning or glazing the tops of some items. they will even be used for broiling small quantities during off-peak hours. Salamanders are usually mounted above the range.
Grills are used for identical cooking operations as broilers, except the warmth source is below the grid that holds the food instead of above it. many of us like grilled foods thanks to their charcoal taste, which is formed by the smoke from meat fats that drip into the warmth source. Although smoke from meat fats creates the taste people escort grilled foods, actual wood-smoke flavors like hickory or mesquite are added to foods if those woods are burned within the grill under the food. so as to try and do this, you want to use a grill designed to burn such fuels.
Griddles are flat, smooth, heated surfaces on which food is cooked directly. Pancakes, French toast, hamburgers, and other meats, eggs, and potato items are the foods most often cooked on a griddle. Griddles are available as separate units or as a part of a variety tops. Clean griddle surfaces after every use in order that they will cook at peak efficiency. Condition griddles after each cleaning or before each use to make a non-stick surface and to stop rusting. Procedure: Spread a skinny film of oil over the surface and warmth to 400°F (200°C). Wipe clean and repeat until the griddle features a smooth, non-stick finish.
A deep fryer has just one use: to cook foods in hot fat. Yet due to the recognition of fried foods, this function is a crucial one.
The tilting skillet also referred to as the tilting brazier and tilting fry pan may be a versatile and efficient piece of kit. They are often used as a griddle, fry pan, brazier, stew pot, stockpot, steamer, and bain-marie or steam table. The tilting skillet may be a large, shallow, flat-bottomed pot. To look at it differently, it’s a griddle with 6-inch-high sides and a canopy. It has a tilting mechanism that permits liquids to be poured out of it. Power may be gas or electric. Add water, activate the skillet to heat it, and scrub thoroughly.
Vertical mixers are important and versatile tools for several sorts of food mixing and processing jobs, both within the bakeshop and within the kitchen.
The food cutter or food chopper familiarly referred to as the buffalo chopper, maybe a common piece of kit used for general food chopping. A variety of attachments (described within the next section) makes it a flexible tool.
A slicer may be a valuable machine because it slices foods more evenly and uniformly than are often done by hand. Thus it’s valuable for portion control and for reducing cutting loss.
Most modern slicers have blades set at an angle. Slices fall far away from these blades with less breaking and folding than from vertical blades. With manual machines, the operator must move the carriage back and forth to slice the food. Automatic machines move the carriage with an electrical motor.
The vertical cutter/mixer (VCM) is sort of a large, powerful, high-speed blender. It is wont to chop and blend large quantities of foods rapidly. It also can be used for puréeing (soups, for example) and for mixing liquids.
VCMs home in size from 15 to 80 quarts (litters). Larger machines have automatic baffles.
HOT FOOD HOLDING EQUIPMENT
Several sorts of equipment are wont to keep food hot for service. This equipment is meant to carry foods above 135°F (57°C) so as to stop the expansion of bacteria which will cause disease. Because food continues to cook at these temperatures, it should be held for as short a time as possible
- Steam tables are standard holding equipment for serving lines. Standard-size counter pans or hotel pans are used as inserts to hold the foods. Flat or domed covers could also be wont to cover the foods. Check water levels in steam tables periodically to form sure they don’t go dry
- A bain-marie is a hot-water bath. Containers of foods have assailed a rack during a shallow container of water, which is heated by electricity, gas, or steam. The bain-marie is employed more within the production area, while the steam table is employed within the topographic point.
- Overhead infrared lamps are utilized in service areas to stay plated food warm before it’s picked up by the maintenance staff. They are also used for keeping large roasts warm. Foods dry out quickly under holding lamps. This is an obstacle for nearly all foods except french-fried potatoes and other deep-fried foods, which lose their crispness if they’re kept moist.
COLD FOOD STORAGE EQUIPMENT
The quality of the food you serve depends to an excellent degree on refrigeration equipment. By keeping foods cold, usually below 41°F (5°C), the refrigerator (known within the trade because the cooler or the box) guards against spoilage and bacterial growth.
Freezers are used to hold foods for longer times or to store foods purchased in frozen form. There are numerous sizes, models, and styles of refrigeration equipment that it might be futile to undertake to explain all of them here. To enable refrigerators and freezers to figure at top efficiency, observe the subsequent rules:
1. Place items far enough apart and far away from the walls of refrigerators so cold air can circulate. Freezers, on the opposite hand, work most efficiently once they are full.
2. Keep the door closed the maximum amount possible. When storing or removing an item, roll in the hay quickly and shut the door.
3. Keep stored foods well wrapped or covered to prevent drying and transfer of odors. Meats are an exception to this rule.
4. Keep refrigerators spotlessly clean.