Methods Of Cooking

The transference of warmth is of great importance to the culinarian. it’s this movement of warmth from one surface, product, etc., to a different that’s a determining consider the standard of any product produced. to know a way to gain positive effects from the transfer, you would like an understanding of what heat is.

Heat

Simply put, heat may be a sort of energy. When a substance gets hot and absorbs energy, the molecules have more energy than when cold. The molecules then vibrate and bounce off of 1 another and expand in volume.

farmers market griddle, eggs, griddle

Methods Of Transfering Heat

The process of cooking requires the transfer of heat energy throughout the food by a mixture of conduction, convection, and radiation.

  • Conduction

Heat is transferred through solids by conduction. This takes place within the heating of

  1. Solid food
  2. Cooking equipment Solid materials like metals that permit heat to spread easily through them are termed, good conductors.
  • Convection 

Heat is transferred through liquids and air by convection.

 This takes place within the heating of

  1. The cooking medium
  2. The air inside ovens.
  • Radiation

Heat will be transferred by radiation. Radiation involves the transfer of warmth by electromagnetic waves like infra-red waves and microwaves. The waves pass from their source and are absorbed into the food. 

Cooking Methods

Dry Heat Methods

  • Grilling
  • Roasting
  • Spit roasting
  • Baking
  • Deep frying
  • Shallow frying
  • Barbecuing
  • Microwave

Moist -heat cooking method

  • Boiling
  • Blanching
  • Parboiling
  • Poaching
  • Steaming
  • Pressure cooking
  • En Papillote
  • Sous vide

Combination cooking method

  • Braising
  • Stewing
  • Pot roasting

ROASTING

The term roasting is given to 3 different techniques of cooking. altogether cases the term refers to a dry method of cooking involving either the addition of fat/oil or the employment of foods with high-fat content.

The three techniques are:

  1. Spit-roasting
  2. Pot-Roasting
  3. Oven Roasting

Spit Roasting:

This is the standard use of the term roasting and is only applicable to cooking meats. It could be more accurately described as slow grilling that involves cooking by radiated heat, on a spit, over an awfully fierce glowing fire. The meat is prevented from drying out by the constant rotation of the spit which allows the meat to baste itself with hot fat which oozes from the surface.

Pot Roasting (Poêle):

Pot roasting uses cookware with a tight-fitting lid. it’s not a real roast because it uses moist heat. i.e., steam trapped under the lid of the closed utensil. The food is cooked with vegetables called Matignon and butter (the only type of fat suitable) or mirepoix. Just before it’s fully cooked the lid is removed to permit the steam to flee and therefore the dry heat to color the food. The juices and veg and accustomed make the accompanying sauce. Pot roasting is suitable for duck, poultry, game. Note: Matignon: An edible mirepoix that is often used in Poele’ed dish. Typically, Matignon includes two parts of carrot, one part celery, one part leeks. One part onion, one part mushroom, and one part ham and bacon.

fried, chicken, roast METHODS OF COOKING

Oven Roasting:

Food is cooked in an oven by dry heat at quite high temperatures. a little amount of fat or oil is employed to prevent the food from drying out. Heat transfer Radiation, Convection, Conduction.

 Advantages

  1. Minimal fire risk.
  2. Meat juices from the meat will be used for gravy which enhances the flavor.
  3. Gives a spread to the menu.

Disadvantages

  1. Constant attention is required.
  2. Losses of nutrients like amino acids.

Safety Rules

  1. the right degree of cooking of meats must be accurately measured to safeguard the patron from parasitic worms and pathogenic bacteria.
  2. Care should be taken when handling oven trays to prevent spillages of hot fat.
  3. Safe practices should be observed in operational procedures, clothing, and footwear.

Baking

This is a dry method of cooking in an oven. The texture, surface, volume of food are modified by steam. This is produced by the food because it cooks or is injected into the oven if required.

Heat transfer

The heat source within the oven radiates infrared heat energy and also heats the air within the oven cavity directly and also heats the air within the oven cavity directly by producing convection currents. The surface of the food will absorb heat from both sources and also from the new trays and racks by conduction.

Suitable foods and cooking procedures

The process of baking is sometimes related to flour products; egg and milk dishes; fruit; vegetables and fish. The baking of meat usually involves fat and is therefore classified as roasting illustrates the appliance of the three methods to different foods and shows the cooking procedures for most groups of baked foods.

Advantages:

  1. Flavour and texture are improved.
  2. type of dishes may be made
  3. Uniform and bulk cooking may be achieved e.g. bun and bread.

Disadvantages:

Special equipment and skill are required.

Safety Rules

  1. Care is required in moving heavily loaded trays, into and out of ovens to forestall burns and scalds from the new and steamy oven atmosphere.
  2. The food-handler should be sure when removing baked items from trays/bins/molds.
  3. Safe practice should be observed in operational procedures, clothing, and footwear.
steak, beef, meat METHODS OF COOKING

GRILLING AND BARBECUING:

Grilling is a fast, dry method of cooking that uses the intense heat radiated by an electrical element, gas flame, or glowing charcoal. 

BARBECUE:

When the process takes place. 

Out of doors, it is usually referred to as ‘Barbecuing’. The heat source in this situation is usually glowing charcoal, a gas flame, or an open wood fire, positioned below the food.

  1. Grilling over the heats: This is cooking on greased grill bars with the help of fat over direct heat only first-class cuts of meat are used to grill in this method.
  2. Grilling under the heat: In this method, food is put in a tray as a dish and kept under heat pans. 

Advantages

  1. Grilling is a quick, easy method of cooking.
  2. There is little loss of nutrients and less fat is used.
  3. Grilled food is tasty and easy to digest.

Disadvantages

  1. Grilled foods cannot be successfully reheated and are difficult to keep warm without drying and toughening. They need to be served straight away.
  2. Only tender cuts of meat, which are generally more expensive, can be used. However other foods such as vegetables, kebabs are suitable for grilling.

Safety Rules

  1. Do not leave food unattended whilst cooking. It will quickly overcook and burn.
  2. Keep floor areas free from spilled grease as this can lead to slippery and dangerous floors.
  3. Exercise great care when adjusting grill bars or salamander racks. They a heavy and contain
  4. hot food and oil.
  5. Exercise great care when adjusting grill bears or salamander racks. 
  6. Safe practice should be observed in operational procedures clothing and footwear.
fryer, kitchen, equipment

FRYING

Frying is a quick method of cooking food in hot oil or fat but requires care and attention to produce satisfactory results. Frying gives food a good flavor and color.

Methods of Frying

  1. Shallow Frying: This is a dry method of cooking. Foods to be shallowly fried are cooked in a small amount of fat or oil the level of fat can be anywhere from halfway up the side of food.

Heat Transfer

The food cooks by direct heat conduction from the metal surface. 

  1. Deep Frying: Deep frying involves the complete immersion of food in hot fat or oil. It is not in contact with any surface of the frying vessel.


Heat transfer conduction and convection.

  1. Sauteing: Sauteing is tossing the food in the pan during cooking so that it cooks and browns on all sides. The name comes from the French for ‘to jump’. So that it is browned all over.
  2. Stir-fry: A traditional method of Chinese cookery used for fast frying vegetables and thin strips of meat in a specially designed utensil termed a wok. The base of the wok is rounded with high sides so that only a small amount of food is in contact with the heat and therefore, stirring is the only action needed to control browning.
  3. Meunier’s: Literally this term means ‘in the style of a miller’s wife’. It describes a method of cooking that applies mainly to fish. Fish cooked in this way is seasoned, lightly floured (Presumably the connection with the miller) and shallow fried in butter or oil. The fish is sprinkled with lemon juice, garnished with a slice of lemon, and finished with beurre noisette and chopped parsley.

Advantages

  1. The taste is improved, along with the texture.
  2. Increases the calorific value.
  3. The fastest method of cooking.
  4. In shallow fat frying, the amount of foil consumption can be controlled.

Disadvantages

  1. Sometimes the food may become oily or soggy with too much absorption of oil.
  2. More attention is required while cooking and care should be taken to avoid accidents.
  3. The food becomes very expensive.
  4. Fried food takes a long time to digest.
  5. Repeated use of heated oils may produce harmful substances and reduce the smoking point.

Safety Rules

  1. All operators must be trained not only to use the equipment but also in fire drill procedures.
  2. The correct level of frying medium should be used.
  3. The fryer must not be overloaded as this may cause hot oil/fat overflow.
  4. Drain wet foods and then dry with absorbent paper. This prevents splatters of hot fat from reaching the skin of the food handler.
  5. Pans must be moved carefully on the stovetop to prevent splattering and burns.
METHODS OF COOKING butter, poached egg, ukraine

Moist Methods Of Cooking

Poaching

This is a moist method of cooking during which food is placed in liquid which is dropped at and maintained at, a temperature just below boiling point (650 to 900 C). The cooking liquid could also be water, milk, stock, wine, or court bouillon.

Heat Transfer: Conduction and Convection

Depth Liquid

  1. Shallow – Poaching: Most foods are poached by this method. A minimum amount of liquid is added and this can be later accustomed to make an accompanying sauce. Greased paper or a lid will be wont to trap moisture and forestall drying out.
  2. Deep – Poaching: When poaching some items, more liquid is employed than in shallow – poaching. within the case of fruits, this can be because they need to be completely covered to stop discoloration. In other cases with eggs, a depth of water is required to forestall food from sticking to the cooking dish (or) other pieces of food during cooking.

Method of Poaching

  1. Heat the liquid to the boiling point, then reduce the temperature that there’s no movement.
  2. Gently lower the food into the cooking liquid (The exception is when cooking whole large fish because it is placed within the cold liquid and drought up to temperature)
  3. Allow the food to stay within the liquid until cooked.
  4. Remove the food and reserve the liquid if it’s used for a sauce.

Advantages

  1. the appliance of warmth is gentle, so foods with delicate texture could also be cooked without ending.
  2. Poached foods are easily digested
  3. No fat must be added to cook the food advantage for those that want to scale back the number of fat in their diet.

Disadvantages

  1. Poaching isn’t particularly suitable for giant pieces of food
  2. There are some flavor and nutrient loss from the food the cooking liquid.
  3. there’s little development in color and flavor.

Safety Rules

    1. Equipment should be matched to the amount of food to forestall spillages.
    2. Care should be taken in handling dishes which a dropped at the temperature on the highest of the stove so transferred to the oven.

MICROWAVE OVENS

The basic microwave oven:

All microwave ovens consist of the same basic unit. This may incorporate some of the additional facilities. When the machine is turned on, the microwaves are produced by the magnetron. They travel along the waveguide and enter the oven, as shown here. The stirrer fan distributes them evenly throughout the metal cooking cavity. The specially designed safety door prevents any microwave leakage while the oven is in operation. The air vent allows any steam to escape during cooking.

How Microwave Ovens Work

The mechanics of a kitchen appliance are really very simple. The machine is plugged into the regular domestic electricity supply but converts the voltage emitted to electromagnetic waves by passing it through a magnetron thermionic tube.

  1. Reflection Microwaves are reflected by metal; they can’t labor under it. Microwaves bounce off the metal surfaces (walls, ceiling, and floor) of the oven cavity in an exceedingly regular pattern.
  2. Transmission Microwaves are transmitted by other materials, like glass, ceramics, paper, and a few plastics. Microwaves can go through these substances without heating them up.
  3. Absorption Microwaves are absorbed by the moisture molecules in foods. The microwaves can only penetrate to about 5 cm (2 in) but the food then heats through by conduction.

Advantages

  1. They cook many foods in about 1/4th of the time necessary on a gas jet. there’s no wastage of energy.
  2. It saves time in heating frozen foods. Thawing is drained minutes or seconds
  3. Only the food is heated during cooking. The oven or the utensil doesn’t get heated except under prolonged heating periods.
  4. Flavour and texture don’t change when reheated in a very kitchen appliance.
  5. Loss of nutrients is minimized.
  6. After cooking during a microwave washing dishes is far easier as food doesn’t persist with the edges of the vessels.
  7. Food gets cooked uniformly.
  8. Preserves the natural color of vegetables and fruits.

Disadvantages

  1. thanks to a brief period of cooking, food doesn’t become brown unless the microwave contains a browning unit.
  2. it’s impossible to form Chapati or Tandoori Roti’s in it. It cannot cook soft or hard-boiled eggs. Deep frying necessary for Puri’s, Jalebis, Pakora, Vadas can not be exhausted.
  3. The short cooking time might not provide a chance of blending flavors as in conventional methods.
  4. The operator should use caution in operating the microwave since any exposure to the microwave causes physiological abnormalities.
  5. If the food is larger than 80 mm the central portion is out of range of the microwave radiation will only heat by the normally slow process of conduction. it’ll be relatively uncooked while the outside access to the microwave is cooked in minutes or seconds.
pan, water, kitchen METHODS OF COOKING

Boiling

This is a moist method of cooking within which foods are immersed in a very liquid that’s either at or dropped at boiling point. This liquid is also water stock, milk, or court bouillon.

Heat Transfer

Heat is conducted through the equipment surfaces to the liquid in grips with them. The liquid transfers this heat to the food by convection currents. Heat is absorbed by the surface of the food and passes through it by conduction and therefore the food cooks. 

Techniques related to boiling

  1. Simmering This is a mild heat treatment that causes small bubbles to rise slowly from the liquid. The food remains whole, with a better texture and more and flavor. The water doesn’t evaporate so quickly and fewer vigilance is required to keep up the proper level of the liquid.
  2. Parboiling Parboiling is that the boiling of food until it’s only partially cooked. The food is placed in boiling water for a short time from 1 to 5 minutes, or until the skin becomes soft. The cooking process is then completed using another method.Potatoes for instance is also parboiled to cut back roasting time and to assist brown them and provides a crisper texture.
  3. Blanching Blanching does involve placing food in boiling water. Food is plunged into boiling water for 1 to 2 minutes looking on the dimensions of the food and so removed. it’s then immediately refreshed in cold water.

MICROWAVE OVENS

The basic microwave oven:

All microwave ovens consist of the same basic unit. This may incorporate some of the additional facilities. When the machine is turned on, the microwaves are produced by the magnetron. They travel along the waveguide and enter the oven, as shown here. The stirrer fan distributes them evenly throughout the metal cooking cavity. The specially designed safety door prevents any microwave leakage while the oven is in operation. The air vent allows any steam to escape during cooking.

How Microwave Ovens Work

The mechanics of a kitchen appliance are really very simple. The machine is plugged into the regular domestic electricity supply but converts the voltage emitted to electromagnetic waves by passing it through a magnetron thermionic tube.

  1. Reflection Microwaves are reflected by metal; they can’t labor under it. Microwaves bounce off the metal surfaces (walls, ceiling, and floor) of the oven cavity in an exceedingly regular pattern.
  2. Transmission Microwaves are transmitted by other materials, like glass, ceramics, paper, and a few plastics. Microwaves can go through these substances without heating them up.
  3. Absorption Microwaves are absorbed by the moisture molecules in foods. The microwaves can only penetrate to about 5 cm (2 in) but the food then heats through by conduction.

Advantages

  1. They cook many foods in about 1/4th of the time necessary on a gas jet. there’s no wastage of energy.
  2. It saves time in heating frozen foods. Thawing is drained minutes or seconds
  3. Only the food is heated during cooking. The oven or the utensil doesn’t get heated except under prolonged heating periods.
  4. Flavour and texture don’t change when reheated in a very kitchen appliance.
  5. Loss of nutrients is minimized.
  6. After cooking during a microwave washing dishes is far easier as food doesn’t persist with the edges of the vessels.
  7. Food gets cooked uniformly.
  8. Preserves the natural color of vegetables and fruits.

Disadvantages

  1. thanks to a brief period of cooking, food doesn’t become brown unless the microwave contains a browning unit.
  2. it’s impossible to form Chapati or Tandoori Roti’s in it. It cannot cook soft or hard-boiled eggs. Deep frying necessary for Puri’s, Jalebis, Pakora, Vadas can not be exhausted.
  3. The short cooking time might not provide a chance of blending flavors as in conventional methods.
  4. The operator should use caution in operating the microwave since any exposure to the microwave causes physiological abnormalities.
  5. If the food is larger than 80 mm the central portion is out of range of the microwave radiation will only heat by the normally slow process of conduction. it’ll be relatively uncooked while the outside access to the microwave is cooked in minutes or seconds.

Moist Methods Of Cooking

Poaching

This is a moist method of cooking during which food is placed in liquid which is dropped at and maintained at, a temperature just below boiling point (650 to 900 C). The cooking liquid could also be water, milk, stock, wine, or court bouillon.

Heat Transfer: Conduction and Convection

Depth Liquid

  1. Shallow – Poaching: Most foods are poached by this method. A minimum amount of liquid is added and this can be later accustomed to make an accompanying sauce. Greased paper or a lid will be wont to trap moisture and forestall drying out.
  2. Deep – Poaching: When poaching some items, more liquid is employed than in shallow – poaching. within the case of fruits, this can be because they need to be completely covered to stop discoloration. In other cases with eggs, a depth of water is required to forestall food from sticking to the cooking dish (or) other pieces of food during cooking.

Method of Poaching

  1. Heat the liquid to the boiling point, then reduce the temperature that there’s no movement.
  2. Gently lower the food into the cooking liquid (The exception is when cooking whole large fish because it is placed within the cold liquid and drought up to temperature)
  3. Allow the food to stay within the liquid until cooked.
  4. Remove the food and reserve the liquid if it’s used for a sauce.

Advantages

  1. the appliance of warmth is gentle, so foods with delicate texture could also be cooked without ending.
  2. Poached foods are easily digested
  3. No fat must be added to cook the food advantage for those that want to scale back the number of fat in their diet.

Disadvantages

  1. Poaching isn’t particularly suitable for giant pieces of food
  2. There are some flavor and nutrient loss from the food the cooking liquid.
  3. there’s little development in color and flavor.

Safety Rules

  1. Equipment should be matched to the amount of food to forestall spillages.
  2. Care should be taken in handling dishes which a dropped at the temperature on the highest of the stove so transferred to the oven.

In addition to the preparation techniques for steaming, there’s an optional commencement. Sear thicker meat cuts earlier to confirm that they’ll be adequately cooked during the relatively short cooking times related to his technique as wells to produce additional color and flavor.

Vegetables will be included to produce moisture for steam. They also add color, flavor, and texture. Cut the vegetables into a fine julienne or dice. Sweat or blanch the vegetables, if necessary, to confirm that they’re going to cook within the same amount of your time because of the main item.

Prepare herbs and spices in step with type. Some herbs are also left in springs; others are digging a chiffonade or minced. Have a prepared sauce, reduced cream, wine, or citrus juices readily available if your recipe concerns them.

Assemble all equipment necessary for cooking and serving;

Parchment paper
Sizzler platters or baking sheets
Serving pieces

Method

  • Assemble the packages
  • The method for cutting the parchment and making the individual packages. Cut the parchment into a heart shape large enough to permit the food and any additional ingredients to suit comfortably without overcrowding. The paper must have enough “give” to expand during cooking. Oil or butter the paper on either side to stop it from burning.
  • Place a bed of aromatics, vegetables, or sauce on one 1/2 the center and top it with the most item.
  • Fold the empty 1/2 the guts over the most item and fold and crimp the sides of the paper to make a decent seal.
  • Place the bag on a preheated sizzler platter and put it in a very highly regarded oven.
  • The hot oven temperature might have to be carefully monitored since delicate foods like fish fillets will be overcooked quickly at a warmth. A thicker cut could also be best if cooked slowly at a moderate temperature and “puffed” in an exceedingly extremely popular oven.
  • Foods prepared en papillote should be cooked until they’re just done. this can be difficult to measure without experience since you can’t apply the senses of sight and touch in determining doneness. If the item has been moving the right size or if it’s been partially cooked before being placed en papillote, it should be done when the bag is extremely puffy and also the paper is brown.

METHODS OF COOKING japanese, stew, my database

COMBINATION METHODS OF COOKING

BRAISING

Description of the method

This is a moist method of cooking employing a tightly lidded cooking dish. The commodity is typically placed on a bed of root vegetables and herbs with an appropriate quantity of liquid or sauce.

Braising represents a mixture of the subsequent processes

Stewing – Less liquid involved
Pot-roasting – Water, not fat, the most ingredient in cooking liquid.
Steaming – vapor trapped under the lid.

Heat Transfer: Conduction and convection

Method of Braising

  • Braised dishes are classed as either white or brown. Brown braising involves the coloring of meat in hot fat (searing) before cooking.
  • For brown braising Espagnole is diluted with an equal quantity of stock and used on the cooking liquor (e.g. braised beef)
  • White braising involves white stock and Natural Ingredients.

Marinating:

Some meats are soaked in flavored alcohol or acid to tenderize and improve flavor and color, before cooking.

Glazing:

Some meat dishes are glazed towards the tip of the cooking period. The lid is come into being the braising pot and also the cooking liquor is spooned over the commodity at regular internals. The procedure called “MASKING”. The water present within the liquid evaporates from the surface of the food forsaking a gelatinous satiny glaze.


Advantages

  • Tougher, Cheaper cuts of meat could also be used.
  • Less amount of fat is employed within the cooking.
  • There is little loss of nutrients.

Disadvantages

  • Cooking time is long and slow.
  • Overcooking will produce discoloration and disintegration of the merchandise.
    Safety.
  • Hot liquids and utensils will be the explanation for serious burns.
  • Equipment should be matched to the number of food to stop spillage.
  • Care should be taken when removing the lid of braising pans to avoid scalds from escaping steam.
  • Safety practice should be observed in operational procedures, clothing, and footwear.

STEWING

This is a protracted, slow, moist method of cooking during which small pieces of food are simmered in an exceedingly minimum amount of liquid. The liquid which can be water, stock, or prepared sauce, is often served with the food. The stew is cooked in an exceedingly dish with a tightly fitted lid, either on top of the stove or inside the oven.

Heat Transfer: Heat is conducted through the cookware and to the surfaces of the food in grips with it. it’s carried to any or all areas of the cooking liquid by convection currents, heat reaching the surface of the food then passes through it by conduction the food then cooks.

Types of Stew

Blanquette:

A stew cooked in stocks from which the sauce is created.


Fricassee:

A stew during which the meat, poultry, or firm is cooked within the sauce.

Navarin:

Refers to the rich dark lamb stew.

Ragout:

Stew brown stew.

Bouillabaisse: 

A significant fish are a shellfish with saffron. a standard especially of France

Advantages

  • Stewing is economical as cheaper cuts of meat is also used.
  • There is little loss of nutrients or moisture as any juices that get away the meat or vegetable become a part of the sauce.

Disadvantages

  • Stews must be cooked for an extended period to confirm tenderness and full flavor.
  • Some stews lack ‘bite’ and contrast in texture.
    Safety Rules

Equipment should be matched to the number of food and liquid to forestall spillages.
It is important to avoid scalds from steam when removing lids to test the consistency.
Safe practice should be observed in operational procedures, clothing, and footwear.

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