Any portable drink except water is termed as beverages. Water is not considered as beverage because according to oxford dictionary water is a liquid without color, smell or taste that falls as rain, is in lake, river and sea and is used for drinking, washing etc.
Classification of Beverages
The beverage which either contains less than 0.5 % ethyl alcohol or does not contains any amount of ethyl alcohol is termed non-alcoholic beverages.
Non-alcoholic beverages are classified into three types
- Stimulating Beverages – It increases the heartbeat and body pressure. Example Tea or coffee.
- Refreshing Beverages – It replenishes the fluid loss from the body. Example Aerated drinks.
- Nourishing Beverages – It provides nutrients to the body. Example Fruit juices shake etc.
The Beverages which contain 0.5% to 75% of ethyl alcohol are termed Alcoholic beverages.
Tea was discovered by accident over 5,000 years ago, when leaves from a tea bush accidentally dropped into some boiling water and delicately flavoured the liquid. Tea was originally drunk for its medicinal benefits and it was not until the 1700s that it began to be consumed as the delicious beverage that we know today.
Tea is prepared from the leaf bud and top leaves of a tropical evergreen bush called camellia sinensis. It produces what is regarded as a healthy beverage, containing approximately only half the caffeine of coffee and at the same time it aids muscle relaxation and stimulates the central nervous system.
The leaf particle size is referred to as grades. These are Pekoe (pecko) – the delicate top leaves, Orange Pekoe – a rolled leaf with a slim appearance and Pekoe Dust – the smallest particle of leaf size.
Tea producing countries
Tea is grown in more than 25 countries around the world.
This is the oldest tea-growing country and is known for specialty blends such as Keemun, Lapsang Souchong, Oolongs and green tea.
Teas produced here are light and fragrant with bright colouring when made and are used mainly for blending purposes.
East Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe)
This area produces good quality teas, which are bright and colourful and used extensively for blending purposes. Kenya produces teas that are easily discernible and have a reddish
or coppery tint and a brisk flavour.
India is the largest producer of tea, producing about 30 percent of the world’s tea. Best known are the teas from Assam (strong and full-bodied), Darjeeling tea (delicate and
mellow) and also Nilgiri, which is second only to Assam and produces teas similar to those of Sri Lanka.
Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon)
Teas here are inclined to have a delicate, light lemon flavour. They are generally regarded as excellent afternoon teas and also lend themselves to being iced.
The basic tea manufacturing process is as under:
- Plucking: Here the leaves are picked from the tea plant.
- Withering: This process is used to remove moisture from the leaves either under the sun or in a breezy room.
- Rolling: Leaves are rolled into shape.
- Fermentation/oxidation: Leaves are left on their own in a climate-controlled room. The Colour becomes darker due to oxidation.
- Firing: This is done to stop fermentation at desired oxidation levels. Leaves are now dried for sale.
- Aging: Not always required but done to impart special flavours in some cases.
Service of teas
Usually a blend of delicate Darjeeling tea and high-grown Ceylon tea to produce a refreshing and light tea. As the name of the blend suggests, this tea is suitable for afternoon tea but may also bet.
Rich full and malty flavoured tea, suitable for service at breakfast, usually with milk. Sugar would be offered separately.
Tea made from a special blend of tea that is more delicate in flavour and perfume than any other tea. Less dry tea is required than for making Indian or Ceylon tea. Traditionally China tea is rarely served with milk. It is made in the normal way and is best made in a china pot. China tea is normally drunk on its own but maybe improved, according to taste, by the addition of a slice of lemon. Slices of lemon would be offered on a side plate with a sweet fork. Sugar may be offered separately.
A delicate tea with a light grape flavour and known as the ‘Champagne of teas’. Usually served as an afternoon or evening tea with either lemon or a little milk if preferred. Sugar may be offered separately.
Blend of Darjeeling and China tea, flavoured with oil of Bergamot. Usually served with lemon or milk. Sugar would be offered separately.
Often a blend of Assam and Kenya teas to make a bright, flavorsome and refreshing tea. Usually served as a breakfast tea but may be offered at any time. Usually served with milk but can also be taken with lemon. Sugar is offered separately.
This is strong tea that is made, strained, and well chilled. The tea is then stored chilled until required. It is traditionally served in a glass, such as a tumbler. A slice of lemon may be placed in the glass and some additional lemon slices served separately as for Russian tea. Sugar may be offered.
Green (unoxidized) tea that is dried with Jasmine Blossom and produces a tea with a fragrant and scented flavour.
These are fruit flavoured teas and herbal infusions which are often used for medicinal purposes and are gaining in popularity with trends towards healthier eating and drinking. Often these do not contain caffeine. Examples
• mandarin orange
The tea is served in quarter-liter (half a pint) glasses, which stand in a silver holder with a handle and on a side plate with a teaspoon. A slice of lemon may be placed in the glass and a few slices of lemon served separately. Sugar would be served separately.
There is evidence to suggest that coffee trees were cultivated about 1,000 years ago in Yemen. The first commercial cultivation of coffee is thought to have been in the Yemen district of Arabia in the fifteenth century. By the middle of the sixteenth-century coffee, drinking had spread to Sudan, Egypt, Syria, and Turkey.
The trees that produce coffee are of the genus Coffea, which belongs to the Rubiaceae family. There are somewhere in the region of 50 different species, although only two of these are commercially significant. These are known as Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora, which is usually referred to as Robusta.
Note: Arabica accounts for some 75 percent of the world’s production.
Coffee producing countries
Coffee is a natural product grown in many countries of the tropical and sub-tropical belt in South and Central America, Africa, and Asia. It is grown at different altitudes in different basic climates and in different soils and is looked upon as an international drink consumed throughout the world. Brazil is the world’s largest grower of coffee, Columbia is second, the Ivory Coast third, and Indonesia fourth.
The different means of purchasing coffee are:
- Bulk: (either as beans or in vacuum packs of pre-ground beans) allowing for the traditional methods of making and serving.
- Coffee bags: these are heat-sealed and come in one-cup, two-cup, pot-for-one or bulk brew sizes up to several liters.
- Instant: instant coffee granules, available in sizes from one cup to pot size.
- Individual filters: vacuum-packed and containing one portion.
- Pods: these are specially designed individual portions of pre-ground coffee that are used in proprietary coffee and tea makers. Each pod makes one portion of coffee and the pod is then disposed of.
The common degrees of roasting are:
- Light or pale roastings: suitable for mild beans to preserve their delicate aroma
- Medium roastings: give a stronger flavour and are often favoured for coffees with a well-defined character.
- Full roastings: popular in many Latin countries, they have a bitter flavour.
- High roasted coffee: accentuates the strong bitter aspects of coffee, although much of the original flavour is lost.
Coffee making methods
- Instant – This form of coffee may be made very quickly, immediately before it is required by pouring freshly boiled water onto a measured quantity of coffee powder. Stir well and serve. Hot and cold milk, cream, and sugar may be added to taste. Instant coffee may be made in individual coffee or teacups or in large quantities.
- Saucepan/Jug– This is an American method of making coffee more suitable for the home than a commercial establishment. A set measure of ground coffee is placed in a saucepan/ jug and the required quantity of freshly boiled water is poured over the ground coffee. It should then be allowed to stand for a few minutes to extract the full flavour, colour and strength from the ground coffee. Strain and serve Hot/Cold milk, cream, and sugar may be added to taste.
- Plunger – Coffee which is prepared with the help of specially designed coffee equipment called plunger machine. The coffee beans are powdered and put inside a plunger mug. The hot water is added into plunger mug and closed with the lid which has a strainer. Then coffee is allowed to brew.
- Filter – This method is popular in France and produces excellent coffee. The filter coffee pot consists of three sections
- Espresso – The method has its origin in Italy. Espresso coffee is made in a special apparatus called an espresso machine that passes a mixture of stream and hot water which gives a frothy effect to the coffee when served. The method involves passing steam through finely-ground coffee and infusing under pressure served black the coffee is known as espresso. If hot milk is added in equal quantity the beverage is called a cappuccino.
- Espresso Doppio/Doppio: Double shot of espresso.
- Turkish – This coffee is made from darkly roasted mocha beans which are ground to a fine powder. It is made in a special coffee pot made of brass/copper with a long handle and is narrower at the top than the bottom.
- Cold Coffee: Coffee is served with ice. It is prepared with cold milk.
- Affogato: Vanilla Flavoured espresso.
- Cappuccino: Espresso injected with frothy milk and dusted with cocoa powder.
- Flat white: Double shot of espresso topped with frothed milk which has been stirred together with the flat milk from the bottom of the jug, to create
a creamy rather than frothy texture.
- Macchiato:So an Espresso Macchiato is mostly espresso, marked with a small amount of steamed milk and foam for those who love a rich, bold taste.
- Latte Macchiato: A Latte Macchiato is mostly steamed milk, marked with espresso for those who prefer a creamier drink.
- Decaffeinated Coffee: This is coffee from which the stimulant caffeine has been removed. It is made from beans after the caffeine has been extracted. For this, the beans are soaked in very hot water for about five hours. This softens the beans opening their pores. The beans are then treated with a solvent that reacts with caffeine and is then evaporated away taking away 97% caffeine.
- Liqueur Coffee – Coffee flavoured with liqueur is termed liqueur coffee.
Other forms of specialty, or liqueur, coffees include:
Café Royale or Café Parisienne: Brandy
Jamaican coffee or Caribbean coffee: Rum
Monk’s coffee: Benedictine
Calypso coffee: Tia-Maria
Russian coffee: Vodka
Highland coffee: Scotch Whisky
Seville coffee: Cointreau
Swiss coffee: Kirsch
Both Cocoa and Chocolate are made from the beans or seeds of the cocoa tree, the botanical name of which is Theobroma Cacao. The translation of Theobroma is “food for the Gods” indicating the esteem in which these products were held.
Places of Growth: The cocoa tree is grown in countries near the equator mainly in South and Central America, East and West Indies, and West Africa.
Production: The fruit of the cocoa tree is called a cocoa pod. The cocoa pods are 7 to 12 inches long having thick leathery rinds containing 25-75 seeds arranged inside rows. The cocoa beans are encased in the flashy mucilaginous pulp of the cocoa pods.
The production of cocoa and chocolate is carried out in the following stages:
Depodding: The cocoa pods are gathered in heaps and cut upon with a sharp rounded knife. The cocoa beans are scooped out or removed from the mucilaginous pulp of the cocoa pod. The fresh bean from the cocoa pod has a strong bitter taste and must be fermented to develop its flavour and colour.
Fermentation: The cocoa beans are placed on fermenting heaps and fermented to remove the pulp from the outside of the bean and to decrease the strong bitter taste. Oxidation begins almost at once causing the beans to become brown which is due to the oxidation to tannins.
Drying: The beans are then spread in the sun and dried to remove the moisture so that they are not spoilt during storage.
Note: The fermented dry beans resemble almonds, they are surrounded by a thin paper-like skin or shell‖.
Roasting: The beans are then roasted in revolving cylinders by currents of hot air, the roasting process further improves the colour and flavour, and aroma of the beans and dries the husks or shells so that they can be easily removed.
Shelling: The beans are then cracked to remove the shells; the beans are now turned into cocoa nibs which is the basis for cocoa and chocolate products.
Grinding the Cocoa Nibs: The cocoa nibs are ground to a thick brown semi-liquid paste called chocolate liquor or cocoa mass which contains 50-57% cocoa butter, the natural fat of cocoa bean. This material solidifies on cooling to a hard brown block that is sold as bitter chocolate and is used to make sweet chocolate and milk chocolate. To make sweet chocolate sugar and flavourings are added to the bitter chocolate and to make milk chocolate, milk, sugar, and flavourings are added.
Pressing the Cocoa Mass: The cocoa is second benefited of chocolate liquor or cocoa mass. To make cocoa the cocoa mass is pumped into a powerful hydraulic press where some of the cocoa butter is removed.
Making the Cocoa: The pressed cocoa cakes remaining in the press are removed, then crushed, ground, and sifted to a fire powder making cocoa.
- Hot Chocolate – This beverage is prepared with milk and hot chocolate powder. Hot chocolate powder is prepared with cocoa powder.
- Milk shake – It’s a shake which is prepared with milk and fruit pulp/ fruit syrups ( with or without ice-cream)
- Malted Beverages – Branded malted beverages such as Horlicks, Bournvita, Boost, Complan, etc. These are prepared by mixing them with milk.
Squash may be served on its own diluted by water, soda water, or lemonade. Squashes are also used as mixers for spirits and in cocktails or used as the base for such drinks as fruit cups. Examples are Orange squash, Lemon squash, Grapefruit squash, etc.
The juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables.
The main types of juices held in stock in the dispense bar are:
Bottled or canned
◗ Orange juice
◗ Pineapple juice
◗ Grapefruit juice
◗ Tomato juice.
◗ Orange juice
◗ Watermelon juice
◗ Lemon juice.
Apart from being served chilled on their own, these fresh juices may also be used in cocktails and for mixing with spirits.
It is a thick concentration of sugar and water flavored with different fruits and flowers. Used in the preparation of different cocktails & Mocktail.
The main uses of these concentrated, sweet, fruit flavourings are as a base for cocktails, fruit cups, or mixed with soda water as a long drink.
The main ones used are:
White sugar syrup
These beverages are charged (or aerated) with carbonic gas. Artificial aerated waters are by far the most common. The flavourings found in different aerated waters are obtained from various essences.
Examples of these aerated waters are:
◗ Soda water: colourless and tasteless
◗ Tonic water: colourless and quinine flavoured
◗ Dry ginger: golden straw-colored with a ginger flavour
◗ Bitter lemon: pale, cloudy yellow-coloured with a sharp lemon flavour.
Other flavoured waters, which come under this heading, are:
◗ ‘Fizzy’ lemonades
◗ Ginger beer
◗ Cola, etc.
Sparkling water – Sparkling water is the water that contains CO2. . It is also termed aerated water. They are charged or aerated with carbonic gas. The charging with carbonic gas imparts pleasant effervescent characteristics. The flavors which are found in these sparkling water are imparted from various essences.
Still water – Still water is the water that does not contains any amount of CO2. In hospitality terms, it is also called table water. This is water that contains very few natural minerals. Used for consumption during meals. This is the water that is consumed in Indian homes. It is also termed filter water or RO water (Reverse Osmosis).
Natural spring waters/mineral waters – Natural spring waters are obtained from natural springs in the ground, the waters themselves being impregnated with the natural minerals found in the soil and sometimes naturally charged with an aerating gas. The value of these mineral waters, as they are sometimes termed, has long been recognized by the medical profession. Where natural spring waters are found, there is usually what is termed a spa, where the waters may be drunk or bathed in according to the cures they are supposed to effect. Many of the best-known mineral waters are bottled at the springs (bottled at source).
Examples of varieties of water:
Still & Sparkling