Q.) Discuss the function of water in our body? What are the visible & invisible sources of water?
Ans.) An important nutrient .75 to 80 percent of our total body is water. it’s a structural & functional unit of our body. the whole humour is distributed among two major components.
Extracellular fluid – contain sodium
Intercellular fluid – contain potassium & these two ions have to be maintained all time.
Water is formed from hydrogen & oxygen the ratio is 2:1. We lose water daily through sweat, urine, feces, etc. The deficiency of water causes dehydration, so we’ve to take care of the water balance of our body.
- Water quenched our thirst and is that the most refreshing & cooling of all liquids.
- It could be a structural component of all cell
- Water may be a medium during which all reaction takes place
- It is an important component of all humor like blood, cerebrospinal fluid, bile, digestive,fluid, urine
- It acts as a lubricant & helps us to swallowed food or digest food.
- It acts as a solvent for the products of digestion & helps in transporting this product in numerous pare of body.
- It regulates the blood heat.
- It helps to throw the stuff from the body.
Sources visible & invisible water – Visible water that we are able to see are- plain water, fruit juices, tea, milk, coffee, etc
Invisible water – that’s inside the food s & metabolic water.
The fluid we take differently 2,200 ml/day
From metabolism 200 ml/day
(Ref-food & nutrition by Roday)
Q.) Classify vitamins supported their solubility. What are the sources of vitamin A & ergocalciferol in our body?
Ans.) The term vitamin comes from the words ‘vital amine’. This chemical is significant for keeps. Vitamins are called microelements. It’s required in a very little amount, but it’s vital for us. Vitamins are organic compounds like carbohydrates, protein, fat. Though it’s required in an exceedingly little amount contains a specific function like regulation, maintenance, growth & protection. Many of them can’t be synthesized by our body but & must be obtained from the diet.
Vitamins are grouped per their solubility in either fat or water.
Fat-soluble vitamins – the vitamin that easily soluble in fat. They required fat for absorption & is stored in our body. they’re Vitamin – A, D, E, K. Water-soluble Vitamins – the vitamin that easily soluble in water.
water-soluble vitamins –soluble they’re easily absorbed in our body but not stored, they’re excreted through urine. they’re vitamin B complex – B1 Thiamin/B2 Riboflavin/B12 Cyanocobalamin/ Niacin/Folic acid / vitamin C etc.
Vitamin A & vitamin D both are fat-soluble vitamins.
Vitamin A helps to take care of normal vision in dim light. It A found in a very group of compounds called retinol & retinoic acid. These are only found in animals. i.e., egg yolk, oily fish, fish liver oil, milk & milk product, butter, ghee are the rich source.
Plant food contains a yellow, orange, red-colored pigment called carotene. Carotene pigments are converted to fat-soluble vitamins within the body. it’s the proVitamin of axerophthol.
Sources of Vitamin in plant – all yellow, orange, red color fruits & vegetable, like carrot, mango, pumpkin, papaya, all green vegetable, etc are the rich source of vitamin A.
Vitamin D – it’s a vitamin. Two important kinds of vitamin D are D2 ( ergosterol ), D3 (7-dehydrocholesterol). Sunlight is that the main source of D. via sterol 3 is produced when 7 dehydrocholesterol within the skin is exposed to the UV ray within the sun. it’s also found in fish liver oil, fortified milk, vanaspati & also some sun-dried food like bari, dry fish, etc.
Q.) What is the role of thiamin in our body? What are the deficiency diseases of thiamin?
Ans.) Thiamin, B1, is an compound & also a vitamin.The chemical structure contains a pyramiding ring & a thiazole ring. it’s readily soluble in water & slightly soluble in alcohol. it’s absorbed through the duodenum& jejunum & circulates within the blood as free thiamine. There are different role of thiamin in our body –
- It works mainly as a co-enzyme.
- Thiamin exists in tissues mostly within the kind of thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), which is required within the breakdown of glucose to administer us energy.
- It helps to take care of a healthy system.
- It is required for a traditional appetite &digestion.
- The daily requirement of thiamin is 0.5mg/1,000kcal/day. An adult who needs 3,000 kcal would require 1.5mg of thiamin per day.
Deficiency of thiamin – The symptom of deficiency occurs because the tissue cells are unable to receive sufficient energy from glucose. Therefore, they can’t perform their normal function. The gastrointestinal, cardiovascular & nervous systems are especially affected.
The severe deficiency causes beriberi, this is often of two type –
- Dry beriberi – inflammation of the nerves, numbness of the leg, muscle weakness & cramps are the most symptoms.
- wet beriberi – Severe edema, enlargement of the guts, palpitation& increase within the rate of a heartbeat. It is also called ‘rice eaters’ disease because it’s seen in people whose chief diet consists of white rice.
Q.) What are the factors affecting menu planning? Plan a low-cost dinner menu for your hostel & discover its nutritive value.
Ans.) Menu planning could be a process of coming up with & scheduling the intake of meals for general or specific individual requirements.To plan a menu we’ve to follow certain factors –
- Meeting nutritional requirement: a decent menu won’t only provide adequate calories, fat,& protein but also minerals, vitamins essential for the physical wellbeing of every member. in an exceedingly proper diet, the ratio of energy distribution from carbohydrate, protein & fat would be 7:1:2respectively. The diet should contain from “basic Five Food Groups”.
- Meal pattern should fulfill the family needs: A family meal should cater to the requirements of the various members. A growing adolescent boy may require rich food to satisfy his appetite; whereas a young child might have a soft & ulcer diet. A nursing mother needs more green in their diet. Heavy workers required more calories than other members. The meal pattern varies with the age, occupation,& lifestyle of the relations.
- Meal planning should give maximum nutrients: Losses of nutrients during processing, cooking should be minimized. Sprouted grams, malted cereals fermented food enhance the nutritive value. Good quality protein should be distributed all told meals. The autoclave is wont to conserve nutrients.
- Meal pattern should save time & energy: Planning of meal should be drained such some way, that the recipes should be simple & notorious. Labor & time-saving device should be used. Using convenience foods saves time & energy.
- Economic condition: Any meal that’s planned, it doesn’t satisfy the budget of the family, can not be put into practice. the value of meals may be reduced by bulk purchasing & using seasonal fruits & vegetables.
- Consideration for individual likings & disliking: The meal planner mustn’t only meet RDA but also individual preferences, particularly vegetarian & nonvegetarian preferences. Food habits & dietary patterns should even be considered. Religion, traditions& customs of a private should even be considered while planning a menu.
- Planned menu should provide variety: If the meal is monotonous it can not be excepted. Variety may be introduced through color, texture & taste, by employing a different styles of cooking methods.
- Availability of foods: The menu should include locally available foods. The wide variation in dietary patterns throughout the planet depends largely upon the available food supply.
- Type of food service: The menu should be planned concerning the sort of foodservice, whether it’s a cafeteria, seated service, buffet, etc.
- Equipment & workspace: The menu should be planned keeping the available equipment & workspace in mind. Deepfreeze, refrigerators, grinders, dough kneaders, deep fat fryers, etc should be adequate.
- Leftover food: an efficient manager should consider how leftovers may be rotated to get maximum profit. Adequate cupboard space & hygienic standards should be ensured to attenuate the chance of contamination & spoilage of food.
- Meal frequency & pattern: The meal timings & the quantity of meals consumed in a very day, whether meals are packed or served at a table, also influenced the choice of food items on the menu. The age, activity level, state, work schedule, & economic factors must be known before planning meals for institutional catering.
To plan a low-cost dinner menu of a hostel few things we’ve to stay in mind,
- we must provide them the food selected from the organic phenomenon,
- that will provide the energy,
- bodybuilding & maintenance,
- regulation of body processes & protection against infection.
To plan a balanced meal we’ve got to follow few steps –
1)Collect information regarding the customer concerning
- Activity level
- Socio-economic background
- Food habits
2) Check the RDAs for energy & protein
3) Prepare a food plan, i.e., list the quantity of servings from each food groups to fulfill the RDA
4) Decide the amount of meal
5) Distribute serving for every meal
6) Select food & plan the menu
7) Menu for each day
8) Cross-check to make sure that every one food groups are included within the required amount.
Plan a low-cost dinner menu of a hostel
- Age: 18+
- Gender : Male/ Female
- Activity: Moderate
- Religion: Mixed
- Background: Urban, middle-income families
- Food Habits: Cosmopolitan
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA according to ICMR)
Calories: Male – 2,640 / Female – 2060
Protein : Male – 78gm / Female – 63gm
Low cost dinner food plan for – Adult male (moderate)
For dinner / for 1 student
Menu – Soya nugget & potato curry
Green salad (Cucumber , tomato, onion)
Rice (cooked ) ½ cup weight 100 gm (if it is 1cup then wt – 200gm)
Sweet 1 piece
ICMR CHART, ALL VALUES ARE PER 100 gm OF EDIBLE PORTION
(Ref – Nutritive value of Indianfood, 2007)
Q.) what’s RDA?
Ans.) Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is defining because the nutrients present within the diet satisfies the daily requirement of all individuals in an exceeding population. RDA of a person depends on many factors like age, gender, physical work, physiological stress.
AGE – An adult required more calories than a baby thanks to the massive size of the body & increased activity. A growing child required more calories & protein per kg of weight.
Gender – female requires fewer calories than male as BMR is lower & size of the body is smaller.
Physical work – Sedentary workers required fewer calories & water-soluble vitamins than hard-working people.
Physiological stress – During special conditions the nutrients requirement are increased.
All Source from : National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition )