Sauces

A good sauce is that which makes excellent food still better. To make it, or as it is often a work of art, let us say, create it, calls for precision and knowledge gained from experience exercised with patience and disciplined attention.  A keen sense of smell, a delicate sense of taste, a light, strong hand for the blending all must contribute to the perfect sauce.

WHAT IS A SAuce?

Sauces are liquid or semi-liquid mixtures that are added to meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, and desserts to give moisture or richness, to garnish, or to otherwise enhance the appearance and in some cases the nutritional value, but more importantly to better the flavor.  The principal purpose of a sauce then is to add or enhance the flavor of food.

CLASSIFICATION OF SAUCE

Sauces may be classified in several ways.  Here is one system.

  1. By serving temperature warm or cold
  2. By flavor: blandness or piquancy
  3. By acidity
  4. By sweetness
  5. By color
  6. By base: neutral or meat.

In general, Sauce can be classified under two major heads as follows:

Proprietary Sauces hospitality study

Proprietary Sauces

Of the owner, or Held in private ownership, or Manufacture and sale of which is restricted by patent.

Proprietary Sauces Denotes:

Sauces that are not made in the kitchen but can be purchased from the market.

They are imported or procured locally.

They have a unique taste that cannot be reproduced by anybody.

It has a secret recipe, guarded by patents.

They are multipurpose in their use.

The examples are Tomato Ketchup, HP Sauce, Tabasco Sauce, Worcestershire sauce, English Mustard sauce, French Mustard sauce, Chili sauce, etc.

Preparatory Sauce

Very much made in the kitchen by following standard recipes and traditional guidelines. Depending upon the style of making they are classified as follows:

Preparatory Sauce hospitality satudy

Long ago Grimaude de la Royere, philosopher and gastronome, wrote, “The sauce is to culinary art what grammar is to language”.  Let us coin a phrase today and say – “What poetry is to prose, the sauce is to food”.

The function of the Sauce in Culinary work

  • Sometimes sauces are used to add a contrast in taste to another food. Apple sauce with fresh roast pork serves the same purpose. Broadly speaking any condiment or mixture of food, which serves to contrast with or compliment another food, can be termed a sauce.  In this broad sense, a peanut butter and jelly mixture would be a sauce to a piece of bread if they were served together.
  • Some sauces are used to add sharpness or tanginess to a portion of bland food. A remoulade sauce served with shrimp is an example of a piquant sauce.
  • Sauces may add to the appearance of food, sometimes as a coating that is poured or brushed over the food to give a pleasing appearance to an otherwise uninteresting item. the chaud-froid sauce made with cream or mayonnaise and gelatin is used to coat various food items.
  • Sauces such as barbeque sauce are used to modify the original flavor of food, blending the sauce flavor with the flavor of the food.
  • Some sauces are used to disguise or mask the original flavor of the food. As the French use the word `mask’ in regard to sauces, masking a food with jelly or sauce is to completely cover it physically hiding its appearance. Masking does not change the true flavor of the food.
  • Sauces should never be used to change the flavor of food material, only to enhance or to compliment the flavor of the food.
  • Salad dressings such as French dressing and mayonnaise could also in this sense be considered sauces. However, sauces are usually considered those mixtures served with meats, entrees, desserts, and other major foods as a compliment or contrast to their flavor.

General faults in sauce production

  1. Lumpiness: This may be caused by the following ……
    • Roux is too dry when liquid is added.
    • Adding liquid too quickly and not stirring continuously.
    • Incorrect temperature of roux and liquid. One should be hot and the other should be cold.
    • Formation of the skin when the sauce comes in contact with air and becomes dry. This can be prevented by putting a film of melted butter on the surface of the sauce or by using a greased paper.
    • By allowing the sauce to congeal on the sides of the cooking vessel which later could be stirred into the sauce.
  2. Poor gloss: This is caused by insufficient cooking of the sauce or using a sauce that has not been passed, tammied, or liquidized. High gloss is achieved by preparing the sauce correctly and aided by the addition of butter just prior to service, called ‘mounting with butter’ or ‘monster au beurre’
  3. Incorrect consistency: This is the result of incorrect formula balance. Over and undercooking is ultimately lead to an incorrect consistency.
  4. Greasiness: Too much fat in roux or failure to skim off surface grease as it rises. The use of greasy stock may cause this fault.
  5. Poor colour: Incorrect cooking of the roux in the early stage, using dirty cooking vessels or utensils may cause poor colour.
  6. Raw starch flavour: This causes due to the insufficient cooking of starch. Starch needs to reach a boiling point and simmer for a further period to avoid a raw starch flavour.
  7. Bitterness: This is caused by over-browning or burning of the roux.

White Sauce: Bechamel Sauce.

White sauce or Bechamel sauce is more versatile for its neutral base. It is used to bind soufflés, croquettes, soups, egg dishes and gratins and to coat many foods. The texture should be smooth and rich and the consistency of double cream. The taste should be milky with no hint of raw flavour.

A plain Bechamel Sauce is made with flour .butter and milk in ratio of 1:1:20.Its flavoured with a clove studded onion(cloute /pique) which is infused in milk before making the sauce. Sometimes a amount of finely chopped onion, which is sweated in butter added to milk before adding the roux.

For thickening soup or sauce use only 15 grams. Of butter, 15 grams of flour with 225ml of milk and for a very thick Bechamel sauce, use only 25 grams of butter, 25 grams of flour with 225 ml of milk.

Thickening milk with a white  roux  and  simmering  it with  aromatics makes  this white sauce. It should be creamy, smooth, and lustrous. 

Recipe

Butter     30 GM

Flour      30 GM

Milk       300 ml

Onion     1 studded with cloves.

 Method:

  • Boil the milk.
  • Melt the butter in a heavy-bottomed pan and the flour and cook do not allow it to color.
  • Whisk in the warm milk and bring to the boil whisking constantly to avoid lumps.
  • And the onion.
  • Reduce the heat and let it simmer for 10 mins, whisking constantly and scraping the base and sides to prevent the sides from sticking

Note: when cooking a large amount its advisable to cover and cook in a moderate oven.

(300 degree f)  for  30  –  40  minutes,  stirring  from  time  to  time.  Nutmeg is often,

classically added as a flavoring). If the sauce is not to be used immediately, DOT it with butter. This butter will melt over the surface and will prevent the sauce from skin formation. Alternatively, directly press the cling film against the surface to prevent the skin formation.

DERIVATIVES OF BÉCHAMEL SAUCE

  • Cream sauce: Chopped onions are reduced with white wine and then cream is reduced in the same pan. Now some béchamel sauce is added & whisked in. More cream is added till correct consistency is obtained and the sauce is then strained.
  • Sauce Mornay: Grated Cheddar cheese is added to the cream sauce and it is strained.
  • Sauce Fine herbs: To the cream sauce, some chopped tarragon, parsley, and chervil are added. In place of chervil, we often use thyme.
  • Chilly mornay: Some bell peppers are lightly sautéed in olive oil,  &  paprika powder is added to it.  Mornay sauce is poured over this till the flavor is obtained & it is then strained out.   
  • Sauce Nantua: To the cream sauce, add very fine crayfish butter and small cooked crayfish tails.

BLOND SAUCE: VELOUTE SAUCE

A Velouté sauce is often made from the liquid used in cooking the main ingredient, such as that used in poaching fish and chicken or for veal, as in a Blanquette. The additional liquid is added to the blond roux at the beginning to make a very thin sauce. Simmering for 15 minutes to 1 hour thickens the sauce and intensifies the flavour. The long slow process of cooking gives it a velvety texture and consistency, hence the name Velouté or Velvety. Stir the sauce frequently to prevent scorching and skim from time to time.

Recipe

White Stock (Veal, chicken, fish) – 350 ml.

Butter –  40 grams.

Refined flour – 40 grams.

Double Cream / Cream Fraiche – 20 ml.

Lime juice – ½ tsp.

Seasonings – to taste.

Method:

  1. In a small saucepan, over medium heat, bring the stock to boil.
  2. Melt butter in a pan, add flour, and cook gently off and on the flame the blond roux to a golden straw colour by stirring constantly. Remove the pan from the heat and cool slightly.
  3. Whisk in the stock slowly and return the pan to the heat. Bring to boil slowly and stir continuously till the right consistency is achieved.
  4. Simmer the sauce gently by stirring from time to time.
  5. Add seasonings and finish with egg yolk and cream liaison.

DERIVATIVES OF VELOUTE SAUCE

  • Sauce Allemande: Quite simply, this is a velouté thickened with egg yolks and flavored with mushroom liquor, lemon juice, pepper, and nutmeg. (This sauce is also known as sauce Parisienne).
  • Sauce Supreme: This is a  chicken velouté enriched with cream.  It should be very white in color and delicate in flavor. 
  • Sauce Ivoire: To one-liter sauce supreme,  add three-tbs. Melted light-colored meat glaze,  just sufficient to give the acquired ivory tint to the sauce. Suitable for serving with poultry.
  • Sauce Normande: To fish velouté-add mushroom liquor and cooking liquor from mussels and fish stock, all in equal proportions,  a few drops of lemon juice and thickening of egg yolks with cream. Reduce this to 1/3 of its volume.  Pass through a  fine strainer and finish with some more cream butter. This can be used for large numbers. of fish dishes.
  • Sauce Joinville: Prepare  Sauce  Normande and finish with equal parts of crayfish butter and shrimp butter instead of cream and butter.

Points to be remembered

Whenever the above sauces are served with chicken, veal, fish, or shellfishes, they are seasoned to taste with salt and pepper and adjusted for consistency to suit the requirements. Again the above sauces are used for a glazed dish, egg yolk or a sabayon should be added to the sauce just prior to glazing. One egg yolk has been added do not reboil, otherwise, the sauce will separate.

SABAYON

Mix the yolk of an egg with a few drops of water and whisk over a bain-marie to ribbon stage. Used to enrich sauce and assist when a glazed appearance is required.

BASIC BROWN SAUCE (SPANISH ORIGIN): ESPAGNOLE

The most famous brown sauce, Espagnole, is made with a rich brown stock and a gently cooked brown roux. Although the rich sauce is robust, yet fine and well flavoured. It is time-consuming and requires skills. A brown roux is tricky to make without scorching or separating. The sauce is intensified by adding fine original Spanish ham and tomato puree, which add to the glossy brown colour. Although it can be served by itself. It is also the base of many rich, dark French sauce as ‘Demi glaze’, Sauce Robert and sauce Madira.

Nowadays many chefs use the last-moment thickener like arrowroot or potato starch, which produces a lighter sauce.

HOW TO MAKE?

Mix 11/4kg of brown roux into 20 liters of brown stock, add mirepoix and tomato puree and then cook for 3-4 hours until it reduces by three. quarters, strain, and use.

WHAT IS DEMI-GLAZE?

Cook equal quantities of Espagnole and brown stock until reduced by half, finished with a little fortified wine, skim and strain.

DERIVATIVES OF BROWN SAUCE

  • Sauce Chasseur: Melt. butter in a small pan, add. chopped shallots and sliced mushrooms and sauté. Add white wine, reduced by ½, then add equal parts of tomato sauce and sauce demi-glaze. Add meat glaze, simmer gently and finish with chopped parsley (In some methods of preparing Sauce Chasseur some brandy is also added).
  • Sauce Bordelaise: Reduce red wine in a small pan. Finely chopped shallots, a  little pepper, bay leaf, and a  sprig of thyme to ¾.Add  Sauce  Espagnole and allow it to simmer gently, skimming as necessary. Pass through a fine strainer and finish with. Melted meat glaze, the juice of ¼  lemon and 50  gm.  Bone marrow cut into small slices or dices and poached. This sauce is especially suitable for serving with grilled red meats. (Originally this sauce was made with white wine but nowadays-red wine is always used)
  • Sauce Bourguignonne: Reduce red wine in a  pan with sliced shallots,  a  few parsley stalks,  a  bay leaf, a small sprig of thyme, and mushroom trimming ½. . Pass through a fine strainer (u may thicken by adding beurre manie.  Finish at the last moment with frozen butter and a  little cayenne. This sauce is especially suitable for serving with egg and dishes designated a’ la bourguignon.
  • Sauce Diable: Place white wine in a pan. Add chopped shallots and reduce by 2/3. Add sauce demi-glaze and allow to simmer slightly for a few minutes then season the sauce strongly with cayenne pepper. This sauce is especially suitable for serving with grilled chicken.

NOTE:  Vinegar may be used instead of wine and chopped fine herbs and maybe included in the reduction.

  •   Sauce Piquante: Place white wine and the same amt of vinegar in a pan with chopped shallot, reduce by ½., Add sauce Espagnole, bring to the boil and simmer gently, skimming as necessary for 10 min. Remove from the heat and finish with 2 tbsp. of chopped gherkins, tarragon, chervil, and parsley. This sauce is usually served with boiled, roasted, or grilled pork.
  • Sauce Poivrade: Heat oil in a pan, add a mirepoix comprising of. Carrots, onion,  little parsley stalks, a pinch of thyme, and a  crushed bay leaf and cook until lightly colored.  Moisten with vinegar, & marinade and reduce by  2/3.  Add.  sauce Espagnole and allow to simmer gently for 45 min.  A little before passing the sauce add crushed peppercorns and pass through a  sieve then add some of the marinades again.  Bring to the boil,  skim and carefully simmer for approx.  35 min.  So as to reduce the sauce to the required quantity. Pass and finish with. butter.
  • Sauce Madeira: Reduce sauce demi-glaze until slightly thickened.  Remove from the heat and add Madeira wine Pass through a fine strainer and do not reboil.
  • Sauce au Porto: This is prepared in the same way as Madeira replacing the Madeira wines with  Port wine.
  • Sauce Robert: Heat butter in a pan, add finely chopped onion, and cook without coloring. Moisten with white wine and reduce by 2/3. Add sauce demi-glaze and simmer gently for 10-min. Pass the sauce through a fine strainer and finish away from the heat with a pinch of sugar and some English mustard diluted with a little water. This sauce is usually served to accompany grilled pork.
  • Sauce Vin rouge: Heat butter, add the finely cut mirepoix and cook to a light brown color; moisten with good quality red wine and reduce by ½. Add some crushed garlic and Espagnole;  skim   &simmer carefully for 12-15 mins. Pass through a fine strainer and finish with butter, a little anchovy essence, and a little cayenne pepper. This sauce is especially suitable for serving with fish.
  • Sauce Matelote: Place red wine court  –  bouillon in a pan with mushroom trimmings.  Reduce by two-thirds and then add Espagnole. Simmer gently for a  few min and pass through a  fine strainer. Finish the sauce with of and lightly season with cayenne pepper.

EMULSIFIED SAUCE

An emulsion is a colloidal dispersion of tiny droplets of one liquid suspended in another to form a homogeneous mixture.

The emulsified sauce includes ingredients most often egg or egg yolk and a fat such as butter or oil which normally do not form a stable suspension of the mixture. By vigorous beating or shaking, the ingredients can be emulsified to form a smooth sauce in stable suspension. The most important emulsified sauce is Hollandaise, a warm sauce, and Mayonnaise a cold sauce. Bearnaise is made in the same way as Hollandaise but is flavoured with a reduction of vinegar, shallots, and tarragon which gives its characteristic sweet tangy flavour. The quality of all these sauces depends on using the best egg and butter or oil. The emulsified sauce is famous for being difficult because they separate or curdle so easily.

CLARIFYING BUTTER.

Clarified butter is a way of separating the milky fat solids ( whey)from the pure butter fat. Once clarified it can be served as a simple sauce, used for frying or to help to stabilize sauce like Hollandaise and Bearnaise.

Put the butter in a small pan and melt over low heat; do not allow the butter to boil.

Remove the pan from the heat and tilt the pan slightly Using a flat spoon .skim off any foam from the surface. Pour into a small bowl. leaving the milky solids behind. Cool,if recipe directs.

HOLLANDAISE SAUCE: HOT EMULSIFIED SAUCE

Hollandaise and its variations are opaque, but the sauce should have a  luster and

not appear oily. They should have a smooth texture. A grainy texture indicates overcooking of the egg yolks.  It should have light consistency and at times almost

appears frothy.

1 tablespoon of cold water, a few  milled peppercorns, Pinch of cayenne, Pinch of salt to season

2 egg yolks

5 ml Vinegar/lemon juice

120 ml of clarified butter.

How to make it?

  • Prepare a reduction with vinegar/lemon juice and peppercorns in a pan, reduce to half. Swill the pan with cold water and allow it to cool.
  • Place egg yolk and strained reduction into a mixing bowl and whisk to a ribbon stage over a bain-marie.
  • Gradually whisk in the melted butter until the reduction is formed.
  • Add salt, cayenne, and lime juice.

BEARNAISE SAUCE: NOT A MOTHER SAUCE

This sauce is made in much the same way as Hollandaise sauce, but a pungent reduction is made before adding the egg yolks and butter. The reduction should be reduced to about 1 tablespoon.

BÉARNAISE SAUCE  (This is not a mother sauce)

Wine vinegar                        120 ml               

White wine                           120 ml                     

Shallots,  finely chopped         6 med       

Tarragon finely chopped        1 tbs    

Parsley finely chopped           1 tbs         

Chervil finely chopped           3 tbs         

Crushed pepper                    1 tbs                    

Seasonings

Egg yolks                           6-8 nos.

Clarified butter                   500 gm

  • Make a reduction of all things n A till 2/3.
  • Separate egg yolks, add reduction and a little water and beat slightly to a froth.
  • Put on a double boiler and beat till it thickens, over alow heat.
  • Remove from heat and beat the clarified butter into it very gradually till it thickens.
  • Season. 

    Points to be remembered

Faults:

The scrambled appearance of sauce due to coagulation, shrinking and hardening of egg protein at around 550C (1580F), so care must be taken to :

  • Ensure that egg yolk does not become too hot when whisking to the ribbon stage over the double boiler.
  • Prevent the melted butter from overheating before adding to the egg yolk.
  • Prevent the sauce from overheating prior to service.

The curdled sauce may be the result of the following reasons :

  • Insufficient agitation during mixing too much mechanical agitation which breaks down the protective layer of emulsifying agent.
  • Adding melted butter too quickly to the egg mixture.
  • Using incorrect formula.
  • Using egg yolks which lack sufficient emulsifying agent e.g. stale egg yolks.

To overcome the above-mentioned points, care must be taken to :

  • Ensure that the melted butter is not added too quickly to the egg yolks.
  • Whisking briskly when adding the melted butter.
  • Prepare sauce just before the service.
  • Ensure fresh eggs are used.

 Rectifications:

  • Place a small amount of boiling water into a clean bowl. Gradually whisk the curdled mixture on to the water.
  • Place fresh egg yolks into a clean bowl. Gradually whisk in the curdled mixture on to the yolk, whisk gently over a bain-marie.

DERIVATIVES OF HOLLANDAISE SAUCE

  • Sauce Charon: Prepare a Sauce Béarnaise, omitting the final addition of tarragon and chervil and keeping it fairly thick,  add up a  quarter of its volume of tomato puree which has been well concentrated or reduced in order that the addition will not alter the consistency of the sauce.
  • Sauce Foyot: Prepare a  Sauce  Béarnaise,  keeping it fairly thick and finish with melted meat glaze added little at a time.
  • Sauce Maltaise: Prepare a Sauce Hollandaise and at the last moment add the juice of  2  oranges(reduced) and a good pinch of grated zest. Goes well with asparagus.
  • Sauce Palois: Prepare a Béarnaise but while doing this replace the principle flavoring of tarragon with the same quantity of mint in the reduction of white wine and vinegar and replace the chopped tarragon with chopped mint at the final stage.
  • Sauce Mousseline(Chantilly): Prepare Sauce Hollandaise and at the last moment carefully mix in.  stiffly whipped cream.

MAYONNAISE SAUCE : COLD EMULSIFICATION

This delicious sauce is used in salads, sandwiches, and as apart of other sauces.It can be varied by using different oils, herbs, and other flavourings. Mayonnaise can also be made in a blender, food processer, or with an electric mixer. Make sauce that all the ingredients are at room temperature. If making by hand, set the bowl on a towel to stop it from sliding around.

Remember, mayonnaise is made with raw egg yolk which can harbor ‘Salmonella’ bacteria. Pregnant women, children, and the elderly should avoid undercooked or raw eggs.

MAYONNAISE SAUCE

This is a cold, emulsified sauce, used extensively in the Garde Manger.  

Egg yolks                                       2 

Oil (Olive oil, vegetable oil Or half of each) 360 ml

Salt       

Pepper

Mustard (Dijon) 

Sugar       

White vinegar /Lemon juice 15 ml

  • Bring all the ingredients to room temp.
  • Combine the yolks and seasoning and beat a little.
  • Add the oil very slowly and keep beating till an emulsion is formed.
  • Add the vinegar/lime juice and check to season.

Points to remembered

Faults :

Unstable emulsion caused due to

  1. When the ingredients have been at too low a temperature, thus preventing the emulsifying agents from coating the oil successfully.
  2. By using stale egg yolks which consequently provide an insufficient agent.
  3. By inadequate whisking when adding oil to the egg yolks, thus preventing even distribution of oil into the egg.
  4. By adding the oil too quickly in the initial stages of preparations, thus prevent a thorough mixing of yolks and oil resulting in the sauce separations.
  5. By using incorrect formula balance.

How to correct a curdled Mayonnaise Sauce?

 Mix the unstable emulsion on to fresh egg yolk or on to a few drops of boiling water. Use a clean bowl and proceed as for making Mayonnaise.

DERIVATIVES OF MAYONNAISE SAUCE.

  • Sauce Tartare: To mayonnaise sauce add chopped gherkins, capers, shallots, parsley, chives.
  • Sauce Verte: Blanch rapidly for five minutes spinach and watercress & a mixture of parsley, tarragon, and chervil drain well. Refresh quickly and squeeze out all the water. Pound the leaves then squeeze them firmly in a clean cloth so as to obtain a thick herb juice. Add this to well-seasoned mayonnaise.
  • Sauce Mousquetaire: To mayonnaise add finely chopped shallots that have been cooked and completely reduced with white wine, some melted meat glaze, and chopped chives. Season the sauce with a touch of cayenne or milled pepper.
  • Sauce Remoulade: To mayonnaise add and mix in Mustard,  chopped gherkins,  chopped capers,  parsley tarragon and chervil, and some anchovy essence.
  • Sauce Casanova: Add chopped truffle and shallots, sieved hard-boiled egg to Mayonnaise.
  • Sauce Gribiche: Mix together cooked yolks of egg with mustard, salt, and pepper and gradually add oil and vinegar as for Mayonnaise. Garnish with chopped Capers, gherkins, and fine herbs along with the julienne of hard-boiled egg white.

HARD BUTTER SAUCE: BEURRE COMPOSE

This preparation is used to accompany a variety of grilled meat or fish dishes. Also, it adds interest and flavour to various products. They are easily prepared in advance and stored refrigerated in readiness for use.

Cream butter until soft, combine with flavorings and seasonings to taste. Roll in dampened greaseproof paper to a cylindrical shape, approximately 2 ½ cm wide. Store refrigerated but not frozen.

It may be utilized in the following way

  • Add to the sauce to enhance flavour, in the preparation of a culinary product e.g. snails in garlic butter.
  • place on hot food for service e.g. grilled steak, place in a sauce boat of iced water to keep the butter solid in a hot atmosphere.

EXAMPLES OF COMPOUND / HARD BUTTER SAUCE

  • Anchovy Butter: add anchovy essence /paste / pounded to butter.
  • Garlic Butter: chopped garlic, parsley, a pinch of pepper combined with butter.
  • Basil Butter: Add a fine puree of fresh basil leaves and a little lemon juice with the butter.
  • Colbert Butter: Butter creamed with parsley and tarragon and beef extract.
  • Maiter d’hotel Butter: Beurre Maître d’Hôtel, also referred to as Maître d’Hôtel butter, is a type of compound butter of French origin, prepared with butter, parsley, lemon juice, salt, and pepper. It is a savory butter that is used on meats such as steak, fish, vegetables, and other foods.
  • Ravigote Butter:  Pound blanched herbs and shallots, pass through a sieve, and add to soften butter.
  • Bercy Butter:  Reduce chopped shallots in wine, add butter, bone marrow, chopped parsley, and lemon juice.
  • Crayfish Butter: Pulverize crayfish debris, add butter and pass through a sieve.
  • Red wine Butter: reduce shallots in red wine and add to the butter with seasonings, lemon juice, and chopped parsley.
  • Nutty Butter: add finely chopped peanuts, the slices of butter may be dipped in chopped nuts.

HOT BUTTER SAUCE : BEURRE CHAUD

Hot butter sauces are often used with vegetables, fish, meat offals, and poultry dishes. They can be served to complete a dish or as an accompaniment e.g. Poisson Meuniere, beurre meuniere to complete; beurre fondue to accompany asparagus, etc.

EXAMPLES OF HOT BUTTER SAUCE

  • Beurre Noisette: Heat butter until brown and pour over the food on the dish, if desired a little lemon juice may be added. This butter is frequently used in conjunction with jus lie for shallow fried food.
  • Beurre Noire: Heat butter until it begins colour brown, add a few drops of vinegar, and pour over the food. Capers and chopped parsley may be added at the last moment.
  • Beurre Blanc: Cook chopped shallots in a little water, gradually adding the juice of the lemon as it evaporates. Whisk butter in small pieces at a time, keeping the pan in a bain-marie of water until the lemon sauce becomes white and frothy. Serve at once and do not allow to become too warm.
  • Beurre Rouge: Make as Beurre Blanc by using red wine.
  • Beurre Fondue: Heat butter until warm and just melted, add lemon juice, and served immediately.
  • Beurre Meuniere: As for Beurre Noisette garnish with chopped parsley.
  • Sauce au Beurre: Add flour to melted butter then boiling salted water to make a smooth sauce. Add a liaison of egg yolk, cream and lemon juice, allow to thicken, and finish with plenty of butter added in pieces at the last moment. Served with poached fish, asparagus etc.

OTHER SAUCES: NONDERIVATIVE SAUCES AND GRAVIES

Except the above-mentioned sauces, there are many sauces that are prepared independently. They are as follows

Jus lie – Thickened gravy.

Sauce Kari – Curry sauce.

Sauce Portugaise – Sauce Portuguese.

Sauce Brigade – Orange flavoured sauce.

Sauce Homard – Lobster sauce.

Sauce Bologonaise – Sauvory meat sauce.

Sauce Pommes – Apple sauce.

Sauce Pain – Bread sauce.

Sauce Menthe – Mint sauce.

Contemporary Sauces

The broad category of contemporary sauces includes beurre blanc, coulis, compound butter, and a variety of miscellaneous sauces, such as relishes, salsas, and compotes. The primary factors distinguishing contemporary sauces from the grand sauces are the following 

  • They usually take less time to prepare.
  • They are more likely to be specifically tailored to be given food or technique.
  • They have a lighter color, texture, and flavor than some of the grand sauces.
  • They are more likely to be thickened and finished using emulsions, modified starches, or reduction and less likely to contain roux.

Some of the popular contemporary sauces are:

  • Roasted Tomato Coulis.
  • Tomatillo Salsa Verde.
  • Red Pepper and corn relish.
  • Rosemary Oil.
  • Basil Oil.
  • Chimichurri sauce.
  • Red onion marmalade.

 

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