Throughout history, people have needed to travel for survival, trade, conquests, or curiosity. Very little is known about the prehistoric period between 40000 BC to 10000 BC as no written records exist. But after that period we have records in form of archaeological records, cave paintings, stories, epics, etc.

The growth of tourism can be studied under different periods.

  1. Ancient period or early civilization– Civilization developed around 10000 BC to 8000 BC in the Neolithic period when people began living together and developed settlements. Agriculture developed and trade began amongst various settlements. Travel on animals began and the military movement to acquire land and conquer tribes started. The journey was difficult and dangerous, by land and sea, the journey was slow and time-Consuming. Development during this period – the creation of path, and mode of transportation, growth of cities near main roads.
  2. Imperial or early empire period– tourism was established during the early empires of Egypt, Persia, Rome, China, and India .transport was made available, and Development of the road network, highways, roads, and paths started in this period. Development of accommodation (sarais and inns), check post, and chowkis started in this period. People used to travel with servants, kitchen utensils, tents, and animals.
  • SILK ROUTE– silk route was a major route for caravans carrying silk and other luxury items from china to India and the Middle East which began as early as 2000BC. The Kushan emperors opened and protected the silk roads. Movement of people from east to west to exchange silk, muslin, porcelain, tea, rice, and spices started. Indian ships left Indian ports bound for the Roman Empire. Navigation was done by stars. Rome sent back gold coins &wines. New ideas and customs were exchanged.
  1. Pilgrimage or Tirth yatra For religion, belief, release from war and sickness, earn god’s grace, Fair and rituals. Advantages- knowledge of geography, adventure, spiritual and social approval, cultural enhanced group and family tour.
  2. European renaissance – it was a great cultural movement that began in Italy in early 1300 AD and spread to England, France, Germany, Spain, and other countries in the late 1400s and ended about 1600 AD. During middle age, the church was a patron of arts. The renaissance or rebirth was a period of change and the revival of Greek and Roman culture. Painters and sculptors during this period tried to give their works a spiritual quality and unrealistic human figures which represented religious ideas.
  • Grand tour – in Western Europe, tours were conducted by wealthy social elite class for culture, Education and pleasure, literacy, health, science, and business. Impact of the grand tour- increase in the knowledge of art, intellectual, craft, and skills, social and economic status.
  1. Transition period or industrial era– the industrial revolution, which occurred in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, was a period when major changes occurred in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation. It started in Britain and then spread throughout the world. The first product of the industrial revolution to affect tourism was the development of the steam engine. Later change in technology, increase in income, rapid industrialization, and professionals in the market helped the tourism to grow fast. British era brought much development like railways, education, adventure and leisure travel, dak bungalows, and circuit houses.
  2. Modern period– development in railways, airlines, the formation of the ministry of tourism in the year 1990, Government policies like LTC, etc., development of central bodies like ITDC, SITA, TAAI, and IATO.


  • In 1964 Government of India set up three corporations
  • India Tourism and Hotel Corporation
  • India Tourism Corporation Ltd.
  • India Tourism and Transport corporation
  • In 1966 Government of India merged these corporations and formed a new corporation INDIA TOURISM DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION (ITDC)
  • Many hotels opened in India like Oberoi (1934), Welcome group (1975), Taj(1903), Sinclairs, Leela, Park Hotel, J.P. Hotels, and many more.

Tourism is the temporary movement of people to destination outside the place where they normally live and work and include the activities they indulge in at the destination as well as all facilities and service specially created to meet their needs. And the people who move away from their usual place of work and stay for more than 24hours and less than a year are known as tourists.

The tourism market is divided into two categories:

  1. Leisure tourist– recreation activities or enjoyment
  2. Business tourist – the main motive for travel is to make a profit or expanding their business

Tourism is of two types:

  1. Domestic tourism: residents of a country traveling within the borders of that country
  2. International tourism: traveling from one country to another
  • Inbound tourism – this refers to incoming tourist or tourist entering a country
  • Outbound tourism- this refers to outgoing tourist or tourist leaving their country of origin to travel to another country.


Visitor: any person visiting a country other than his usual place of residence for any other reason than following an occupation from within the country visited.

Excursionist: a day visitor who stays for less than 24 hours at a place. Excursionists do not stay overnight.

Tourist: a temporary visitor to a place. People who leave their usual place of residence and work to have a change from their usual routine for a short time, stay at the place overnight i.e. for at least 24 hours.

Traveler: a person who travels from one place to another, irrespective of the purpose of travel or duration of stay.

Transit visitor: a traveler who passes through a country without breaking a journey other than taking connecting transport.

Destination: the place where the tourist travel for leisure or business-related activities. There can be no tourism without a destination. For a destination to develop and sustain itself, the following five A’s are (classic five ‘A’s of tourism) are:

  1. Accessibility – refers to transport and transport infrastructure.
  2. Accommodation –refers to a place to stay
  3. Amenities- facilities available at the destination which help in meeting the needs of the tourist.
  4. Attraction- reason for travel( natural, human-made, cultural, social)
  5. Activities- things to do.
  6. Affordability- the cost of the tour


  • Traveler generating region
  • Transit region
  • Tourist destination region
  • Tourist
  • Tourism industry

All the above are influenced by the external environment.


  • Economic impact
    • Employment generator
    • Increase tax revenue
    • Foreign exchange earner
    • Rural development promoter
    • Improved infrastructure
    • Increase in gross domestic products
    • Multiplier effect
  • Environmental impact
    • Some tourist destinations like parks, wildlife, and bird sanctuaries help in maintaining the ecological balance
    • Historical sites are preserved and restored
    • Endangered species protected
    • Forest are protected
    • Create awareness about the environment
  • Sociocultural impact
    • Develops entrepreneurship
    • Provides jobs
    • Increase income
    • Improve the quality of life
    • Preserves heritage
    • Revive art and craft
    • Helps national and international integration develops facilities and infrastructure
    • Revives vernacular languages
  • Demonstration effect
    • Welcoming Attitude
    • Dressing and fashion
  • Cultural impact
    • Helps in the preservation of culture
    • Rejuvenation of art forms folk dance and music retain authenticity
  • Political impact


  • Economic impact
  • Leakage- it refers to the process through which tourism receipts are withdrawn or leave the destination’s country. this happens when money is spent on buying goods and services from another economy.
  • Environmental impact
  • Environmental pollution
  • Depletion of natural resources
  • Land erosion
  • Loss of natural resources
  • Traffic congestion
  • Garbage trails
  • Sociocultural impact
  • Rural-urban migration
  • Disruption of lifestyle
  • Narcotics and drug abuse
  • Decreased use of local language
  • Health issues like HIV, AIDS, flu, and virus
  • Prostitution
  • Alcoholism
  • Crime- pickpocketing, mugging, rape, murder
  • Money laundering
  • Disrespect to local customs
  • Demonstration effect
  • Local or host irritation
  • Hostility from locals
  • Cultural impact
  • Social norms and customs are effected
  • Cultural arrogance
  • Dilution of culture
  • Political impact
  • Leads to Terrorism


  • Transport- means the means of travel. It includes
    • Airways
    • Roadways
    • Railways
    • Waterways
    • Parking areas
    • Airports
    • Runways
    • Bus stands
  • Hotel- tourist needs a place to stay. We will discuss the same in chapter II
  • Food and beverage- tourist require catering services which include
    • Non-commercial outlets or welfare outlets- like institutes, etc.
    • Commercial outlets-
      • Residential- includes hotels, guest houses, resorts, etc.
      • Non-residential- include specialty or fine dining restaurants, fast food restaurants, coffee shops, bars and pubs, lounges, vending machines, dhabas, etc.
    • Entertainment or attractions:
      • Natural attraction- hills, beaches
      • Built attraction- resorts, amusement or theme parks
      • Business attraction- MICE
      • Relatives and friends-
      • Historic attraction- heritage building, monuments, palaces
      • Cultural and ethnic attraction- custom, traditions, fairs, festivals
      • Special events- commonwealth games, Olympic games
      • Medical attraction-spa, sanatorium
      • Religious attraction- pilgrim
      • Government attraction– white house, parliament
    • Retail and shopping- shopping malls, markets, hawkers, etc.
    • Travel agents and tour operators- travel agents act as intermediaries serving between the various services providers and travel consumers. Travel agencies perform a number of functions such as provide travel information, planning itineraries, liaising with vendors, costing, ticketing, reservation, documentation, settlement of the account, MICE, foreign exchange.

Tour operators are different from a travel agent. Tour operator assembles all the different components of travel and sells it as a package tour, to and from a destination, with complete ground arrangements.

  • Guides and escort- guides is a travel industry representative; a public relations representative for his city, region, and country- as well as an educator, an entertainer, and a public speaker. There are many types of guide location guide, monument guide, museum guide, etc.

Escort has to accompany the tourist right from the commencement till the end of the tour. An escort facilitates check-in facilities, customs clearance; accompanies the tour during sight-seeing, shopping, etc.

  • Tourism organization- organizations are formed when groups of people come together for a common purpose. Tourism organizations play an important role in marketing destinations and managing the tourism industry. There are many levels of organization international, national, state, and local levels. World Tourism Organisation is an international organization founded in the year 1975. Few  tourism organizations  are:
    • Airlines- IATA
    • Travel agencies- UFTAA, TAAI, ASTA
    • Tour operators- IATO
    • Hotels and restaurants- FHRAI
    • Transport- IRU, IUR
  • Shops and state emporium
  • Art and craft
  • Local transport
  • Banks
  • Insurance companies
  • Communication services- include public phones, mobiles, internet café, videoconferencing, television, radio, telex, fax
  • Performing artist
  • Publisher
  • Advertisers
  • Hawkers and coolies
  • Agents and brokers
  • Essential services- electricity, waste disposal, sewage, health facilities, security

TRAVEL MOTIVATORS: factors that create a desire in people to travel. Motivators are the internal psychological influences affecting individual choices.

  • Physical motivators-these are related to
    • Physical rest
    • Relaxation
    • Sports
    • health
  • Cultural motivators- these are related to
    • Culture
    • Lifestyle
    • folk art
    • music and dance
    • spiritual
  • Interpersonal-these are related to meeting
    • friends
    • Family
    • New people
  • Status and prestige motivators-
    • Personal esteem
    • Status symbol
    • Education
    • Pursuit of hobbies
    • Business and work


  • LEISURE OR HOLIDAY- change in climate and place, enjoy the scenery, de-stress, rest, and relax. Destination includes hill, beach, and island. Facilities include body massage, steam and sauna bath, yoga, facial, etc.


    • Adventure on a land-includes jungle safari, desert safari, motor racing, wall climbing, trekking, camping, rock climbing, mountain biking, skiing, heli-skiing,
    • Water adventure-includes diving, scuba diving, snorkeling, parasailing, water scooters, water skiing, windsurfing, white water rafting.
    • Aerial adventure-ballooning, parachuting, skydiving, paragliding, parasailing, gliding, hang gliding, bungee jumping
  • SPORTS-oldest form hunting and skiing. Cricket, white water rafting, football, windsurfing, yachting, river rafting, hover crafting, racing, tennis, soccer, golf
  • RELIGIOUS– is also known as pilgrimage or spiritual tourism.
  • HEALTH– people traveling to improve and rebuild their health and stamina. Include a visit to the spa( Sanus per Aquam)means good health through water, yoga, massage, body scrub, facial, reiki, pain relief.

Health tourism includes the following aspects:

  • Change in climate
  • Alternative therapy- like hot sulfur spring, ayurvedic treatment, mud therapy, naturopathy, the art of living, etc.
  • MEDICAL TOURISM– tourist visiting for medical treatment i.e. Hospitals, technology, doctors, nursing, paramedical staff
  • CULTURAL– lifestyle, dress, jewelry, dance, music, architecture and painting, customs, beliefs, fair, festivals, a religion practiced
  • VFR– interpersonal relationship.
  • BUSINESS AND MICE- the motive for travel is work such as attending meetings, conferences, conventions, trade fairs, selling products, meeting clients. 85% of air travel is business-related, 50% of hotel occupancy is business travel segment. Business traveler looks for the best facilities as expenses are paid by the company. Duration of stay is short, destination business based, a frequent and experienced traveler, more demanding.

MICE- MEETING, INCENTIVES, and CONVENTIONS AND EXHIBITION:  not the mainstream business travel but it is the subset of business travel. It includes small meetings, training courses, seminars, workshops. MICE traveler expects a high level of comfort, hassle-free movement and value for money.


  1. Accommodation
  2. Convention center
  • Transportation
  1. Convention and meeting planners
  2. Exhibition grounds and halls
  3. Food and beverage service
  • Trained human resource
  • Communication aids
  1. Internet accessibility
  2. Security services
  3. Sightseeing
  • entertainment

Areas that require special planning for MICE are:

  • venues- enough space for international delegations to hold meeting, conventions, and exhibition
  • transportation- both air and ground
  • accommodation- near meeting, conference, exhibition venues and should be equipped with fax, laptop, internet connection, telex, video conference facilities
  • other support services- catering, shopping, entertainment


Alternative tourists are different from regular tourists. Alternative tourism establishes a cordial rapport between visitors and the local hosts. These tourists normally avoid the services that are used by the tourists such as accommodation, transport, and other services. They prefer to use and share the services used by the local people. Their main motive is to experience and get an insight into their way of living. It is regarded as a key to sustainable development. While mass tourism can have a negative impact on a  destination, alternative tourism promotes a balanced growth form, more in line with local environmental and socio-cultural concerns.

  • SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM: special interest tourism can be defined as people traveling to a particular destination with the purpose of fulfilling a particular interest, which can be pursued only at that destination. Product ranges from historical, culinary, archaeological, and other interest such as golf, fishing, and underwater adventure e.g. Tal Mahal, Red Fort, Special interest tourism in India can include visiting Mughal architecture, gardens of India, textile centers of India, gourmet tours, tribal areas, safari, car racing, commonwealth games, world cup, etc.
  • ECOTOURISM: it is often defined as sustainable nature-based tourism. Ecotourism is usually used to describe tourism activities that are conducted in harmony with nature. This tourism fosters environmental principles with an emphasis on visiting and observing natural areas, it controls the impact of tourism on the environment.

“Ecotourism can be defined as purposeful travel to natural areas to understand the culture and natural history of the environment, taking care not to alter the integrity of the ecosystem, while producing economic opportunities that make the conservation of natural resources financially beneficial to the local citizens.”

Large movement of people (carrying capacity) and unplanned tourism destroy forests, consume firewood, create pollution, and destroy flora and fauna diversity.  It upset wildlife, the ecosystem, and the local people’s lifestyle. Ecotourism reduces all these ill-effects of tourism.

  • RURAL TOURISM: tourists nowadays are shifting their interest in travel to new destinations to explore and experience the destination and have first-hand knowledge of the local people, cuisine, and actual way of living. Of late rural tourism has gained importance in India through its ‘INCREDIBLE India’ promotional campaign.  In India states like Rajasthan, Gujarat, M.P., U.P., etc. have heritage hotels, forts, Havelis, and palaces which are converted into hotels and are giving the true taste of that state to the tourist.
  • ETHNIC TOURISM: ethnic tourism involves travel for the purpose of observing the cultural expression of lifestyle and customs of the indigenous and exotic people. This type of tourism focus directly on the local people. The tourist visits the local homes, observe and participate in their traditional rituals, ceremonies, dances, festivals, etc.
  • SENIOR CITIZEN TOURISM: This is a new emerging trend in tourism meant for senior citizens or old people. Tours packages are specially designed for elderly people. This type of tourism is common in the west.
  • WILDLIFE TOURISM: wildlife is a term used to refer to both the floral and faunal components of a natural environment. Enthusiast’s young and natural lovers, adventure seekers are exploring this new area of tourism. This is a comparatively new form of tourism, becoming popular in the last decade. Wildlife tourism is also considering important elements in wildlife protection. Luxury safaris, wildlife backpacking, zoos, aquaria, and safari parks all form part of the wildlife tourism industry.
  • SPACE TOURISM: space tourism is the term broadly applied to the concept of paying customers traveling beyond the earth’s atmosphere. New and not so popular type of tourism.


The generous and cordial provision of service to a guest is known as hospitality. The dictionary defines hospitality as the reception and entertainment of guests with liberality and goodwill. Hospitality organization provides accommodation, food and beverage, transportation, entertainment, and health care. The hospitality industry mainly consists of all those businesses and institutions that provide food and lodging – such as hotels, motels, lodges, inns, cruise ships, restaurants, and the institutions of public services. In a broad sense, any group engaged in tourism, entertainment, transportation, and lodging are covered under hospitality. The hospitality industry is part of the travel and tourism industry. The hospitality industry is now both profit-making as well as non-profit making. For example, commercial hotels are profit-making while canteens, cafeterias, and religious catering outlets are non-profit makings. The hospitality industry provides services that are need-oriented and the services vary with the needs. For example, the need of a business executive shall be a business hotel while the needs of a student are generally a youth hostel.

ORIGIN– Early travelers were either warriors or traders or people in search of knowledge and there were no hotels for them to stay when they were away from their homes. They had to pitch tents for their accommodation and carry their food for the entire duration of their journey. It was not always possible for everyone and so traders and people in search of knowledge had to place a high value on hospitality and sometimes traded their merchandise for lodging. Innkeeping can be said to be the first commercial enterprise and hospitality one of the first services for which money was exchanged. Inns of the Biblical times offered only a cot or a bench in the corner. Guests stayed in large communal rooms with no sanitation and privacy. The rates were, of course, reasonable. The company was rough. Travelers shared the same quarters with their horses and animals. These accommodations slowly and gradually improved.


A hotel is a public place that provides boarding and lodging to customers on payment. Common law states that “A hotel is a place where all who conduct themselves properly, and who being able to pay for their entertainment, are received if there be accommodation for them,” and who without any stipulated engagement as to the duration of their stay or as to the rate of compensation, are while there, supplied at a reasonable cost with their meals, lodging, and other services and attention as are necessarily incident to the use as a temporary home.

A hotel may be called an establishment where the primary business is to provide to the general public lodging facilities and which may also furnish one or more of the various services such as food, beverage, laundry, uniformed services, etc. As per the dictionary, the term ‘Hotel’ refers to a house of entertainment of travelers’

Inn: Public houses in early times in England were called inns. Normally the term inn was meant for the finer establishments catering to the nobilities and clergy. In France, these were called Hotelleries.

Tavern: The house frequented by common man was known as taverns. The important establishments in France were called Cabarets.

Hostel: Derived from the word host and was used very late. The head of the hostel was called Hostler in French, while in England he was called Inn-keeper.


The present-day modern concept of the hotel is not just a place to provide accommodation, food, and beverage, but is like a city within a city and offering to its guests every possible facility, accommodation, service, and convenience., such as rooms, restaurants, bars, cocktail lounges, banqueting facilities, convention, and conference facilities, telephone, radio and television, laundry, valets, cigars and cigarettes, book shops, banking, parking, florists, chemist, gymnasium, beauty parlor, travel agents business center, etc. Apart from these a vast shopping arcade providing various items like jewelry, men’s wear, ladies’ wear, toys, books newsstands, and magazines, etc. are also provided. In addition to these, personal services like babysitting, private detectives, planning of tour itineraries, railway/air booking, and accommodation, booking in other hotels may also be provided along with Clubs and night club, health club, foreign exchange, swimming pool, library, car rental, and chauffeurs, cinema and theatre ticketing, etc. All these facilities may occasionally be without additional charges to the guest but generally specifically charged.


A person who purchases the services of the hotel and pays for them. Hotel guests may be defined as “people who have, who are, or who will be availing the services of a hotel, for a particular period in order to satisfy their demand for accommodation, food, and beverage or entertainment, for which they are willing to pay”.

Initially, a guest comes to a hotel for its good name and reputation about service and food, the second time he comes to confirm his experiences and further keeps on coming for its comfortable and emphatic atmosphere and becomes a regular customer because by now he is pretty confident about the hotel.

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Source: The Decor Circle

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